Study MaterialsCBSE NotesCBSE Notes Class 8 Social Science Geography Chapter 4-Agriculture

CBSE Notes Class 8 Social Science Geography Chapter 4-Agriculture

Agriculture comes from Latin words that mean soil and cultivation. It involves growing crops, fruits, veggies, flowers, and raising animals. Half of the world’s population works in agriculture. In India, about two-thirds of people rely on farming. You can learn more about this in Chapter 4 of CBSE Class 8 Geography. We’ve got CBSE Notes for Chapter 4-Agriculture to help you prepare well for your exams.

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    CBSE Notes Class 8 Social Science Geography Chapter 4-Agriculture


    Changing plants into finished things involves three kinds of jobs: primary, secondary, and tertiary. Primary jobs are about getting natural stuff out of the earth, like farming, fishing, and gathering. Secondary jobs change these things into something else, like making steel, baking bread, or weaving cloth. Tertiary jobs help the primary and secondary jobs by offering services, such as transportation, trading, banking, insurance, and advertising.

    Farm System

    Think of farming like a big system. It needs important stuff like seeds, fertilizers, machines, and people to work. There are different jobs like plowing, planting seeds, watering, removing weeds, and gathering crops. What you get out of this system are things like crops, wool, milk, and eggs.

    Types of Farming

    There are two main types of farming: subsistence farming and commercial farming. The kind of farming depends on things like the land, what people need, how much help there is, and the technology available.

    Subsistence farming is split into two types: intensive subsistence and primitive subsistence farming.

    Subsistence farming Intensive subsistence agriculture Primitive subsistence agriculture
    The type of farming is practised to meet the needs of the farmer’s family. The farmer cultivates a small plot of land using simple tools and more labour. Climate with a large number of days with sunshine and fertile soils permit the growing of more than one crop annually on the same plot. Includes shifting cultivation and nomadic herding.Shifting Cultivation– a plot of land is cleared by felling the trees and burning them. The ashes are then mixed with the soil and crops are grown. After the soil loses its fertility, the land is abandoned, and the cultivator moves to a new plot. Shifting cultivation is also known as ‘slash and burn’ agriculture.

    Nomadic Herding-herdsmen move from place to place with their animals for fodder and water along defined routes. This type of movement arises in response to climatic constraints and terrain.

    Main CropOther Crops RiceWheat, maize, pulses and oilseeds Shifting Cultivation– maize, yam, potatoes and cassavaNomadic Herding-Sheep, camel, yak and goats are most commonly reared. They provide milk, meat, wool, hides and other products to the herders and their families.
    Areas Prevalent in the thickly populated areas of the monsoon regions of South, South-East and East Asia. Shifting Cultivation-practised in the thickly forested areas of the Amazon basin, tropical Africa, parts of Southeast Asia and Northeast India.Nomadic Herding– practised in the semi-arid and arid regions of Sahara, Central Asia and some parts of India, like Rajasthan and Jammu and Kashmir.

    Also Check: CBSE Board Exam Date Sheet 2024

    Commercial Farming: Large-scale farming for profit includes different types: growing grains for sale, mixing different crops and livestock, and cultivating specific crops like those found in plantations.

    Commercial Farming Commercial grain farming Mixed Farming Plantation Agriculture
    Crops are grown, and animals reared-sale in the market. The large area is cultivated, and a large amount of capital is used. Work done by machines. Crops are grown for commercial purposes.These areas are sparsely populated, with large farms spreading over hundreds of hectares. Severe winters restrict the growing season, and only a single crop can be grown. The land is used for growing food and fodder crops and rearing livestock A type of commercial farming where a single crop is grown. A large amount of labour and capital are required. The produce may be processed on the farm itself or in nearby factories. The development of a transport network is thus essential for such farming.
    Crops Wheat and maize Tea, coffee, sugarcane, cashew, rubber, banana or cotton
    Areas Temperate grasslands of North America, Europe and Asia Practised in Europe, eastern USA, Argentina, southeast Australia, New Zealand and South Africa Major plantations are found in the tropical regions of the world. Rubber in Malaysia, coffee in Brazil, tea in India and Sri Lanka

    Some Major Crops

    Rice: Rice, a primary food in warm regions, requires warmth, moisture, and rain to grow well. It thrives in clay-like soil that holds water. China is the top producer of rice, with India, Japan, Sri Lanka, and Egypt following. Places like West Bengal and Bangladesh, with good weather, can grow 2 to 3 rice crops annually.

    Wheat: Wheat is a crop that likes things just right: it needs the perfect amount of warmth and rain while it grows. When it’s time to harvest, lots of bright sunshine helps it thrive. It does best in soil that drains well, like loamy soil that has a good mix of sand, silt, and clay. You can find wheat being grown in many countries such as the USA, Canada, Argentina, Russia, Ukraine, Australia, and India. In India, it’s typically grown during the winter season.

    Maize: Maize needs medium heat, some rain, and plenty of sunlight. It likes soil that lets water pass through easily and is good for growing plants.- grown in North America, Brazil, China, Russia, Canada, India, and Mexico.

    Millets: Millets, like jowar, bajra, and ragi, are tough crops that grow in places with less good soil and not much rain. They can handle heat and need just enough rain. People grow them in India, Nigeria, China, and Niger.

    Cotton: Cotton needs lots of heat, some rain, at least 210 days without frost, and plenty of sunlight to grow well. It thrives in dark and alluvial soils. China, the USA, India, Pakistan, Brazil, and Egypt are the top countries producing cotton, which is a key material for making clothes.

    Jute: Jute, known as the ‘Golden Fibre,’ grows best in alluvial soil. It likes hot weather, heavy rain, and a humid climate, so it’s mainly grown in tropical regions. India and Bangladesh are the leading producers of jute.

    Coffee: Coffee needs warm and wet weather and soil that drains well. It grows well on hill slopes. Brazil is the top producer, followed by Colombia and India.

    Tea: Tea is grown on plantations. It needs a cool climate and lots of rainfall throughout the year for its tender leaves to grow. Good-quality tea grows on well-drained, slightly sloped, loamy soil. Kenya, India, China, and Sri Lanka produce the finest tea.

    CBSE Notes Class 8 Social Science Geography Chapter 4 FAQs

    What is agriculture class 8 geography notes?

    Agriculture class 8 geography notes cover lessons about farming, crops, and farming methods taught in the eighth-grade geography curriculum.

    What is a short note on agricultural development class 8?

    Agricultural development in class 8 refers to learning about how farming has changed and improved over time, including advancements in techniques, tools, and technology used in agriculture.

    What is plantation agriculture class 8 geography chapter 4?

    Plantation agriculture in class 8 geography chapter 4 talks about large-scale farming where a single crop is grown for commercial purposes, usually on vast estates or plantations.

    What is agriculture class 8 very short?

    Agriculture in class 8 is a study of farming methods, crops, and the process of cultivating the land taught in a simple and concise manner.

    What is the main aim of agriculture class 8?

    The main aim of agriculture in class 8 is to teach students about the various aspects of farming, including types of crops, farming techniques, and their importance in our lives.

    What are the factors affecting agriculture Class 8 notes?

    Factors affecting agriculture in Class 8 notes cover elements like climate, soil quality, water availability, technology, and human resources that impact farming and crop production.

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