Study MaterialsCBSE NotesGeography Class 12 Important Questions Chapter 22 Geographical Perspective on Selected Issues and Problems

Geography Class 12 Important Questions Chapter 22 Geographical Perspective on Selected Issues and Problems

 

Geography Class 12 Important Questions Chapter 22 Geographical Perspective on Selected Issues and Problems

1 Mark Questions

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    Question 1.
    What is the criterion for the classification of pollution? (Delhi 2016)
    Answer:
    Types of pollution are classified on the basis of the medium through which pollutants are transported and diffused.

    Question 2.
    Mention any two sources of water pollutants created by humans (Delhi 2015)
    Answer:
    TVvo sources of water pollutants created by humans are:

    • Sewage disposal
    • Toxic effluents from industries.

    Question 3.
    Mention any two diseases caused by contaminated water. (All India 2014)
    Answer:
    The two diseases caused by contaminated water are:

    • Diarrhoea
    • Hepatitis

    Question 4.
    Mention any two sources of land pollution in India, (AH India 2013)
    Answer:
    Two sources of land pollution in India are as follows:

    • Increasing use of chemicals like fertilizers and pesticides in agriculture.
    • Increasing industrial activities.

    Question 5.
    Name any two natural sources of water pollution. (Delhi 2012)
    Answer:
    Landslides and decay and decomposition of plants and animals are natural sources of water pollution.

    Question 6.
    Name any two diseases that are caused by air pollution. (All India 2012)
    Answer:
    Lung cancer and asthma are two diseases caused by air pollution.

    Question 7.
    Mention the root cause of ‘acid rains’.
    OR
    Which source of pollution is responsible for acid rains. (Delhi 2011)
    Answer:
    Air pollution is responsible for acid rains. It is caused by a chemical reaction that begins when compound like sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are released into the air in the atmosphere. They mix and react with water molecules and oxygen to form acidic rain.

    Question 8.
    Name two metropolitan cities which are the main polluters of river Ganga before it reaches Varanasi. (Delhi 2011)
    Answer:
    Kanpur and Allahabad are the two metropolitan cities which are the main polluters of river Ganga before it reaches Varanasi.

    Question 9.
    Which city is the main polluter of river Yamuna? (Delhi 2010)
    Answer:
    The city which is the main polluter of river Yamuna in Delhi.

    Question 10.
    Which is the main source of environmental pollution in India? (All India 2010)
    Answer:
    Industries are the main source of environmental pollution in India.

    Question 11.
    Mention any two cultural activities responsible for water pollution in India. (Delhi 2009)
    Answer:
    The two cultural activities of human beings that make water polluted are:

    • Pilgrimage
    • Religious fairs

    Question 12.
    Which is the main source of water-borne diseases in India? Name anyone waterborne disease. (All India 2009)
    Answer:
    Water pollution is the main source of water-borne diseases in India. The main water-borne diseases are:

    1. Diarrhoea
    2. Intestinal Worms

    3 Mark Questions

    Question 13.
    Examine the success of Watershed management Programme implemented in Jhabua district of Madhya Pradesh. (HOTS; All India 2015)
    Answer:
    The success of Watershed Management programme in Jhabua district can be examined through the following points:

    1. Through watershed management programme the degradation of land in Jhabua district has controlled in a significant manner.
    2. This programme also helped to improve soil quality in the district.
    3. About 20% of the total area under Jhabua district has treated by the watershed programmes.
    4. They planted fodder grass on the pasture land and adopted social fencing of these lands for at least two years.

    Question 14.
    Define the term air pollution. Explain any two harmful effects of air pollution. Delhi 2015
    Answer:
    A larger proportion of contaminants like dust fumes, gas, fog, odour, smoke or vapour to air for a long duration is known as air pollution. It may be harmful to flora and fauna and to property.
    Harmful effects of air pollution are:

    • Air pollution is responsible for many diseases related to our respiratory, nervous and circulatory systems.
    • Air pollution is responsible for creating a smoky fog over cities which is known as urban smog. It has negative effects on human health.

    Question 15.
    How is environment pollution caused? Mention four types of pollution responsible for environmental degradation. (Delhi 2015)
    Answer:
    Pollution is the contamination of the environment by the introduction of contaminants that can cause damage to the environment and harm or discomfort to humans or other living species.

    It is the addition of another form of any substance or form of energy to the environment at a faster rate than that the environment can accommodate it by dispersion, breakdown recycling or shortage in some harmless form.

    The four types of pollution which are responsible for environmental degradation are as follows:

    • Water pollution
    • Air pollution
    • Land pollution
    • Noise pollution

    Question 16.
    How do industries pollute India’s water bodies? Explain with examples. (Delhi 2015)
    Answer:
    Wastewater, poisonous gases, chemical residuals, numerous heavy metals, dust, smoke, etc from industries contribute to water pollution. During the last fifty years, the number of industries in India has grown rapidly. But water pollution is concentrated within a few sub-sections, mainly in the form of toxic wastes and organic pollutants.

    Most of these defaulting industries are leather, pulp and paper, textiles, chemicals, sugar mills, distilleries and thermal power stations. Not all industries have treatment facilities for industrial effluents. As small scale industries cannot afford enormous investments in pollution control equipment as their profit margin is very slender.

    Question 17.
    What is noise pollution? Explain any four sources of noise. (All India 2015)
    OR
    Describe three main sources of noise pollution in India. (All India 2010)
    OR
    How has noise pollution become hazardous in many big cities of India? Explain with examples. (Delhi 2009)
    Answer:
    Noise pollution refers to a noise that causes a condition which is unbearable and uncomfortable for human beings. After technological innovations, it has become a serious problem, especially in urban areas.

    The noise can be from various sources such as:

    1. Factories, mechanised construction and demolition works, aircraft, automobiles loudspeaker, siren, etc.
    2. The noise produced by traffic is a major source of noise pollution. It creates a huge inconvenience to the people. Intensity and nature of noise made by traffic are dependent on various factors such as type of vehicle, (aircraft, train, etc) condition of road and condition of the vehicle (in case of automobiles).
    3. In sea traffic, noise pollution is limited to the harbour because of the loading and unloading activities of containers.
    4. Noise pollution from industries is also a serious problem, but its intensity varies because of some factors such as types of industry, types of machines and tools, etc.

    Question 18.
    Explain any three consequences of air pollution. (All Indio 2015)
    OR
    Explain any three effects of air pollution on human life. (All indin 2011)
    OR
    Explain any three ill effects of air pollution ‘on human health in India. (Delhi 2010)
    Answer:
    The main consequences of air pollution are as follows:

    1. Air pollution is responsible for many diseases that cause harm to our respiratory, nervous and circulatory systems.
    2. Air pollution is responsible for creating a smoky fog over cities which is known as urban smog. It also has negative effects on human health.
    3. Air pollution is also responsible for acid rains. The first rain after summers in urban area always shows acidic nature of rainwater i.e. it shows a lower pH level than the subsequent rain.
    4. Air pollution may be harmful to flora and fauna and to property.

    Question 19.
    Why is the urban waste disposal a serious problem in India? Explain any three reasons. (Delhi 2014)
    OR
    Analyse three problems arising as a result of urban waste disposal. (HOTS; Delhi 2013)
    OR
    Explain any three problems caused by urban waste disposal in India. (Delhi 2012)
    OR
    Explain any three major problems associated with urban waste disposal in India, (AH indin 2011)
    OR
    Explain with examples any three major problems associated with urban waste disposal in India. (All India 2008)
    Answer:
    Mismanagement and environmental problem related to solid waste have now become a major problem, in India, most of the solid wastes are not collected properly.

    Impacts of improper management of solid wastes are.

    1. Solid wastes are a threat to human health and can cause various diseases. It creates the foul smell and it harbours flies and rodents that can cause typhoid, diphtheria, diarrhoea, malaria, cholera and other diseases.
    2. Solid waste can create inconvenience rapidly if they are not properly handled, wind and rainwater can splitted it and cause discomfort to people.
    3. Industrial solid waste can cause water pollution by dumping it into water bodies. Drains carrying untreated sewage also result in various health problems.

    Question 20.
    Describe any three major problems of slums in India. All India, (Delhi 2010)
    OR
    Analyse any three major problems of a slum dweller in India. (Delhi 2013)
    OR
    Explain any three problems faced by slum dwellers in India. (All India 2012)
    OR
    How do slums develop in India? Explain any four miserable conditions of the residents of slums areas. (HOTS; All India 2010)
    Answer:
    Slums are environmentally incompatible and degraded areas of the cities. These are occupied by the migrants who were forced to migrate from rural areas to urban areas for employment and livelihood.

    But because of high rent and high costs of land, they could not afford proper housing and start to live in these areas.

    Four problems faced by the residents of slums are as follows:

    1. Slums are the least choice residential areas that have broken down houses, bad hygienic conditions, poor ventilation and does not have basic facilities like drinking water, light and toilet, etc.
    2. They face various health-related problems such as malnutrition, illness and prone to various diseases. They are not able to send their children school to provide them with education, because of a low level of income.
    3. Dwellers are vulnerable to drug abuse, alcoholism, crime, vandalism, escapism, apathy and social exclusion because of poverty.

    Question 21.
    How is the degradation of cultivable land one of the serious problems in India? Explain in any three points. (Delhi 2010)
    Answer:
    Degradation of cultivable land is one of the serious problems in India because:

    1. The limited availability and deterioration of quality of land, both are responsible to exert pressure on agricultural land.
    2. Soil erosion, water logging, salinisation and alkalinisation of land lead to land degradation which declines productivity of the land.
    3. Natural and man-made processes, both degrade the quality of the land.

    Question 22.
    State any two major sources of air pollution in India. How is air pollution harmful to human health? Explain. (HOTS; Delhi 2008)
    Answer:
    The main sources of air pollution are a release of various gases such as oxides of sulphur and nitrogens, hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, lead and asbestos by combustion of fossil fuels/mining and industries.
    For the effects of air pollution,

    The main consequences of air pollution are as follows:

    1. Air pollution is responsible for many diseases that cause harm to our respiratory, nervous and circulatory systems.
    2. Air pollution is responsible for creating a smoky fog over cities which is known as urban smog. It also has negative effects on human health.
    3. Air pollution is also responsible for acid rains. The first rain after summers in urban area always shows acidic nature of rainwater i.e. it shows a lower pH level than the subsequent rain.
    4. Air pollution may be harmful to flora and fauna and to property.

    Question 23.
    “ Indiscriminate use of water by increasing population and industrial expansion has led to degradation of the water quality considerably in India”. Explain the values that can help in maintaining the quality of water. (HOTS; All India 2017)
    Answer:
    Following values will help in maintaining the quality of water:
    Creating Awareness Creating awareness towards our environment is very important. The government should try to make people aware of the importance of water.

    Participation of Community By creating awareness and making community participate in saving water will help in maintaining the quality of water. Use of New Techniques It will also maintain the quality of water.

    Value Based Questions

    Question 24.
    “The urban waste should be properly treated as a resource for various needs of mankind.” Explain the values that can help in changing urban waste into resources. (Delhi 2016)
    Answer:
    The values that can help in changing urban waste into resources are as follows:
    Creating Awareness Creating awareness towards our environment is very important. The government should try to make people aware of health hazard through piles of garbage that may be around their locality.

    When these wastes carelessly handle, they spread by wind and splattered through rainwater, thus cause many diseases. Participation of Community By creating awareness, the government wants people to come forward and give their helping hand to manage and dispose of urban waste properly. Use New Techniques There is a need to use improved quality control and process monitoring for garbage management.

    For e.g. scraps can be immediately re-incorporated at the beginning of the manufacturing line so that they do not become a waste product.

    Question 25.
    “Overcrowding, congestion, increasing population, improper infrastructure and facilities to support this population, lack of sanitation, foul air, etc are some features of urban areas”. Which human value can solve these problems?
    Answer:
    Following values can solve these problems:

    1. Sustainable development
    2. Environment protection
    3. Harmony

    Question 26.
    “Dwellers are vulnerable to drug abuse alcoholism, crime, vandalism escapism, apathy and social exclusion because of poverty”. Which value lead to this situation?
    Answer:
    Values which lead to this situation are:

    1. Unawamess
    2. Social pressure
    3. Lack of literacy

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