Matter in our Surroundings – Different States

# Matter in our Surroundings – Different States

## Matter and Its Different States

: Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space. There are three different states of matter: solid, liquid, and gas.

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A solid is made up of particles that are close together and held together by forces. The particles in a solid are in a fixed position and cannot move around easily.

A liquid is made up of particles that are close together, but can move around each other. The particles in a liquid are not held together as tightly as in a solid, so they can move around.

A gas is made up of particles that are far apart and can move around easily. The particles in a gas are not held together and can move around freely.

## What is the Matter?

The matter is everything that occupies space and has mass. It includes atoms, molecules, and objects as large as planets and stars.

## Characteristics of Matter

Matter is made up of particles called atoms. Atoms are very small and they are held together by forces. The atoms in a piece of matter can be arranged in different ways. When the atoms are arranged in a regular pattern, the matter is called a crystal. When the atoms are not arranged in a regular pattern, the matter is called a liquid or a gas.

## Kinetic Theory of Matter

The kinetic theory of matter is a model that explains the properties of matter in terms of the motion of its atoms or molecules. According to the kinetic theory, the temperature of a substance is a measure of the average kinetic energy of its atoms or molecules. The higher the temperature, the higher the average kinetic energy.

The kinetic theory also explains the gas laws in terms of the motion of atoms or molecules. According to the kinetic theory, when a gas is compressed, the atoms or molecules are forced closer together. This increases the average kinetic energy of the atoms or molecules, and results in a rise in the temperature of the gas. When a gas is heated, the atoms or molecules are given more energy, and the temperature of the gas rises.

## Distinctiveness of Matter

There are many different types of matter in the universe. Each type of matter has its own unique set of physical and chemical properties.

Distinctiveness of Energy

There is only one type of energy in the universe. Energy can take many different forms, including light, heat, and electricity.

## Diffusion

The diffusion of a substance is the process by which it spreads out from its source. The substance can be a gas, liquid, or solid. The rate at which the diffusion occurs depends on the concentration of the substance, the size of the particles, and the distance between the particles.

## Factors that Affect the Rate of Diffusion

The rate of diffusion is determined by a number of factors, including the following:

1. Temperature: The higher the temperature, the faster the rate of diffusion.

2. Size of the particles: The smaller the particles, the faster the rate of diffusion.

3. Concentration of the particles: The higher the concentration of the particles, the faster the rate of diffusion.

4. Nature of the particles: The more soluble the particles are in the medium, the faster the rate of diffusion.

## States of Matter

The states of matter are solid, liquid, gas, and plasma.

## Solid

This is a good, solid piece of equipment.

## Liquid

1 cup (240 ml) vegetable broth

1/4 cup (60 ml) white vinegar

1 tablespoon (15 ml) honey

1 teaspoon (5 ml) Dijon mustard

1/2 teaspoon (2.5 ml) smoked paprika

1/4 teaspoon (1 ml) cayenne pepper

1/4 teaspoon (1 ml) freshly ground black pepper

1/4 teaspoon (1 ml) garlic powder

1/4 teaspoon (1 ml) onion powder

1/4 teaspoon (1 ml) dried thyme

1/4 teaspoon (1 ml) dried oregano

1/4 teaspoon (1 ml) dried basil

1/4 teaspoon (1 ml) dried parsley

1/4 teaspoon (1 ml) salt

Instructions

1. In a small bowl, whisk the broth, vinegar, honey, mustard, smoked paprika, cayenne pepper, black pepper, garlic powder, onion powder, thyme, oregano, basil, parsley, and salt.

2. Pour the mixture into a large resealable bag.

3. Add the chicken breasts and seal the bag.

4. Marinate the chicken in the refrigerator for at least 2 hours, or overnight.

5. Preheat a grill or grill pan over medium-high heat.

6. Grill the

## Gases

The gas laws are a series of equations that describe how gases behave.

The first gas law is Boyle’s law, which states that the pressure and volume of a gas are inversely proportional.

The second gas law is Charles’ law, which states that the volume of a gas is proportional to the absolute temperature.

The third gas law is Gay-Lussac’s law, which states that the pressure of a gas is proportional to the absolute temperature.

## Plasma

A plasma is an ionized gas. It is a good conductor of electricity and can be used to make lights.

## Bose-Einstein Condensate

A Bose-Einstein Condensate is a state of matter that is formed when a large number of bosons (particles that obey the Bose-Einstein statistics) are cooled to a very low temperature. In a Bose-Einstein Condensate, the bosons all occupy the same quantum state, and act as a single entity. This allows them to flow without friction, and to occupy a very small volume.

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