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Andhra Pradesh, a state in India, can be found in the southeastern part of the country. It shares borders with Tamil Nadu to the south, Karnataka to the southwest and west, Telangana to the northwest and north, and Odisha to the northeast. Along its eastern side, you’ll find a 600-mile (970-km) coastline along the Bay of Bengal.
Before 2014, Telangana was part of Andhra Pradesh, but it became a separate state in that year. Both Andhra Pradesh and Telangana share Hyderabad as their capital, which is located in the west-central part of Telangana.
The state got its name from the Andhra people, who have lived in this area for a very long time and developed their own language, Telugu. Andhra Pradesh, in its current form, was established in 1956 in response to the Andhras’ request for a separate state.
While agriculture is a significant part of the state’s economy, there is also some mining and a notable industrial presence. The state covers an area of 106,204 square miles (275,068 square km).
Andhra Pradesh History
In around 1000 BCE, Sanskrit writings mentioned a people known as the “Andhras” living to the south of the central Indian mountains. However, historical evidence of the Andhras becomes clearer during the Mauryan dynasty’s rule, which spanned from the late 4th century to the early 2nd century BCE.
The great Mauryan emperor Ashoka (reigned around 265–238 BCE) dispatched Buddhist missions to the Andhras in the south. By the 1st century CE, the Satavahanas, one of the notable Andhra dynasties, came into power, ruling over a significant part of the Deccan plateau and establishing trade links with Rome.
They were not only patrons of various religions but also renowned builders. Their capital, Amaravati, featured Buddhist monuments that introduced a new architectural style. Some experts credit Andhra painters for contributing to the famous paintings in the Ajanta Caves.
During the subsequent centuries, the Andhras continued to thrive, and in the 11th century, the eastern Chalukya dynasty united most of the Andhra region.
Hinduism emerged as the dominant religion under the Chalukyas, and the translation of the Sanskrit epic Mahabharata into Telugu by the first Telugu poet, Nannaya, marked the beginning of Telugu as a literary medium. In the 12th and 13th centuries, the Kakatiyas of Warangal extended Andhra power both militarily and culturally, and their reign witnessed the peak of Andhra trade expansion towards Southeast Asia.
However, the rise of Islam in the north led to the fall of Warangal in 1323. The Vijayanagar kingdom, situated to the southwest of Warangal, played a crucial role in containing further Muslim expansion. It became celebrated for its military prowess, economic prosperity, good governance, and artistic achievements. During this period, Telugu literature flourished.
But the rise of various neighboring Muslim principalities ultimately led to the fall of Vijayanagar in 1565, placing the Muslims in control of the Andhra regions. European traders began to involve themselves in Indian politics during the 17th century. They acquired Andhra territories from the nizam of Hyderabad, with the British acquiring the coastal Andhra districts to the north of Madras (now Chennai).
Indian nationalism took root in the 19th century, and Andhra leaders played significant roles in the struggle against British rule. They demanded a separate province due to their historical and linguistic achievements. Despite administrative and linguistic divisions after India’s independence in 1947, Andhra’s demand for separate statehood was eventually granted in 1953.
This paved the way for the formation of linguistic states across India, and Andhra Pradesh came into existence on November 1, 1956, encompassing the Telugu-speaking districts of the former Madras state to the south. It was formed through the States Reorganization Act of 1956, which also merged Telangana with Andhra state.
To address economic and educational disparities between regions, regional committees for Telangana and Rayalaseema were established. However, discontent in Telangana grew, leading to demands for a separate state in the late 1960s.
Protests were initially suppressed, but by the 21st century, the demand for a separate Telangana state had gained momentum. After years of discussions, an agreement was reached, designating Hyderabad as the capital of both states for ten years before becoming the sole capital of Telangana.
Control of the Andhra Pradesh government has shifted between the Indian National Congress and the Telugu Desam Party, with the latter advocating reduced national government involvement in state affairs. The TDP has ruled Andhra Pradesh for much of the late 20th and early 21st centuries.
Andhra Pradesh Capital
Amaravati is the capital of Andhra Pradesh, India. This city, situated in the southeastern part of the country, serves as the administrative center for the state. It was established as the capital in recent years, with ongoing development and infrastructure projects to support its growth as a major urban center.
Andhra Pradesh Language
The primary language spoken in Andhra Pradesh is Telugu. Telugu is the official language of the state and is widely used for communication, administration, and cultural expression.
Andhra Pradesh CM
The Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh is “YS Jagan Mohan Reddy”. YS Jagan Mohan Reddy, whose full name is Yeduguri Sandinti Jaganmohan Reddy, is an Indian politician from the state of Andhra Pradesh.
He is a member of the Yuvajana Sramika Rythu Congress Party (YSRCP), a political party in Andhra Pradesh. The YSRCP was founded by YS Jagan Mohan Reddy himself.
Andhra Pradesh Land
- Geography and Soil
Andhra Pradesh has three main regions: the coastal plain to the east, the Eastern Ghats mountain ranges to the west, and a plateau in the southwest. The coastal plain, watered by rivers like the Godavari and Krishna, has fertile soil in the deltas. The Eastern Ghats have porous soils on their slopes. The plateau is rocky and slopes from the far southwest to the northeast, with red sandy soil and some black soil.
Andhra Pradesh has three seasons: scorching summers (March to June), a rainy season (July to September), and cooler winters (October to February). Summers are hot and humid, with maximum temperatures exceeding 95 °F (35 °C). Winters are milder, with January temperatures between 86 and 95 °F.
Annual rainfall varies, with coastal areas receiving about 40 to 47 inches per year, while the plateau gets less rain. The northeastern mountains can receive over 47 inches.
- Flora and Fauna
Mangroves and palm trees grow along the coast, while thorny vegetation covers the plateau. About one-fifth of the state is forested, mainly in the Eastern Ghats, with teak, rosewood, and bamboo. Andhra Pradesh has diverse plant life, including jasmine and rose.
Wildlife includes tigers, blackbucks, and various bird species, including flamingos. Sea turtles nest on the eastern coast.
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Andhra Pradesh Related FAQs
Where is Andhra Pradesh located?
Andhra Pradesh is located in the southeastern part of India. It shares its borders with Tamil Nadu to the south, Karnataka to the southwest and west, Telangana to the northwest and north, and Odisha to the northeast. Along its eastern side, it has a 600-mile (970-km) coastline along the Bay of Bengal.
When did Telangana become a separate state from Andhra Pradesh?
Telangana became a separate state from Andhra Pradesh in 2014. Before this, both Andhra Pradesh and Telangana shared Hyderabad as their capital, which is located in the west-central part of Telangana.
How did Andhra Pradesh get its name?
Andhra Pradesh got its name from the Andhra people, who have lived in the region for a long time and developed their own language, Telugu. The state was established in its current form in 1956 in response to the Andhras' request for a separate state.
Who is the Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh?
The Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh is YS Jagan Mohan Reddy. He is a member of the Yuvajana Sramika Rythu Congress Party (YSRCP), a political party in Andhra Pradesh, which he himself founded.
What are the main geographical features of Andhra Pradesh?
Andhra Pradesh has three main geographical regions: the coastal plain to the east, the Eastern Ghats mountain ranges to the west, and a plateau in the southwest. The coastal plain is fertile and watered by rivers like the Godavari and Krishna. The Eastern Ghats have porous soils, and the plateau has rocky terrain with red sandy soil in the southwest and black soil. The state also has a 600-mile coastline along the Bay of Bengal.