BlogCBSECBSE Class 8 English Grammar Adjective

CBSE Class 8 English Grammar Adjective

CBSE Class 8 English Grammar Adjective

(a) Read the following sentences :
1. Apoorva is an intelligent boy. (What kind of boy ?)
2. I don’t like that house. (Which house ?)
3. I have five books. (How many books ?)
4. There is little time left. (How much time ?)
In sentence 1, ‘intelligent’ shows what kind of boy Apoorva is.
In sentence 2, ‘that’ points out which house is meant.
In sentence 3, ‘five’ shows how many books I have.
In sentence 4, ‘little’ shows how much time is left.
Definition. A word used with a noun to describe it (kind, place, number, quantity) is called an adjective.
The word ‘adjective’ means ‘added to’.

(b) Look at the following sentences :

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    1. The boy is hardworking.
    2. The hardworking boy stood first.

    In both these sentences, hardworking describes the boy. Hence it is adjective in both the sentences.
    In the first sentence ‘hardworking is used along with the verb ‘is’ and is a part of the predicate. It is therefore said to be used predicatively.
    In the second sentence, ‘hardworking’ is used along with the noun ‘boy’ i.e.. as an attribute of the boy. It is therefore said to be used attributively.

    Kinds of Adjective
    (c) Adjectives are of three kinds :

    1. Adjective of Quality
    2. Adjective of Quantity
    3. Adjective of Number (also known as Numeral Adjective).

    (d) Adjective of Quality :
    It shows the quality of a person or thing.
    Kolkata is a big city.
    Dr. Singh is an honest man.
    The foolish man died of his folly.
    This book is of English language.
    Adjectives of Quality answers the question: of what kind?

    (e) Adjective of Quantity :
    It shows the quantity of the noun it describes.
    He has some sense.
    Ram had much patience.
    He has little intelligence.
    He has enough money.
    He has no wisdom.
    Adjective of Quantity answers the question: How much?

    (f) Adjective of Number :
    It gives the number of persons or things.
    There are Jive rooms in this house.
    Few people can remain hungry.
    There are no books in this room.
    All men must die.
    Most of these mangoes are ripe.
    Adjective of Number answers the question: How many?

    Exercise 1

    There are ten words given in the box and there are ten sentences. Place these words in those sentences (one each). The words should be used as adjectives.
    CBSE Class 8 English Grammar Adjective Exercise 1
    1. There are …….. boys in the field.
    2. I like a ……. pen.
    3. It’s a …….. tree.
    4. The ship sustained ………. damage.
    5. It is the book ……….. you gave me.
    6. He is a man of ……….. words.
    7. This is a ……….. wire.
    8. She has ……….. hair.
    9. I have read ……….. book.
    10. She is ……. Mohini nor Sheela.
    Answers :
    1. several
    2. fine
    3. tall
    4. heavy
    5. that
    6. few
    7. live
    8. long
    9. every
    10. neither

    Comparison of Adjectives
    Degrees of Adjectives

    (a) Read these sentences :

    1. My dress is good.
    2. Your dress is better than mine.
    3. Ram’s dress is the best of all.

    In sentence 1, the adjective ‘good’ merely tells us that my dress has the quality of goodness without telling how much of this quality it has.
    In sentence 2, the adjective ‘better’ tells us that ‘your dress’ compared to ‘mine has more of that quality of goodness.
    In sentence 3, the adjective ‘best’ tells us that Ram’s dress has the greatest amount of that quality of goodness.
    Thus it is clear that an Adjective undergoes a change of form to show comparison. The Adjective ‘good’ is said to be in Positive Degree.
    The Adjective ‘better’ is said to be in Comparative Degree.
    The Adjective ‘best’ is said to be in Superlative Degree.
    Note. ‘Superlative Degree’ generally has the definite article ‘the’ before it. However, the Superlative with most is sometimes used without any idea of comparison. In that sense the speaker wants to indicate the possession of a quality in a very high degree. In such case ‘the’ is not used. It is most unfortunate.
    He made a most eloquent speech.
    His style is most original.
    This usage is called ‘Superlative of Eminence’ or the ‘Absolute Superlative’.

    Formation of Comparative and Superlative

    (a) Most adjectives of one syllable and some of more than one, form the com para-
    five by adding ‘er’ and the superlative by adding est to the positive.

    Positive Comparative Superlative
    deep deeper deepest
    High higher highest
    Hard harder hardest
    Kind kinder kindest
    Poor poorer poorest

    (b) When the Positive ends in ‘e’ only ‘r’ and ‘st’ are added.

    Positive Comparative Superlative
    Able abler ablest
    Brave braver bravest
    Fine finer finest
    Large Larger Largest
    Noble nobler noblest

    (c) When the Positive ends in ‘y’, preceded by a consonant, ‘y’ is changed into ‘t’ before adding ‘er’ or ‘est’.

    Positive Comparative Superlative
    Dirty dirtier dirtiest
    Early earlier earliest
    Easy easier easiest
    Happy happier happiest
    Heavy heavier heaviest

    (d) When the positive is a word of one syllable and ends in a single consonant preceded by a short vowel this consonant is doubled before adding er and est.

    Positive Comparative Superlative
    Big bigger biggest
    Fat fatter fattest
    Hot hotter hottest
    Red redder reddest
    Sad sadder saddest

    (e) Adjectives of more than two syllables form the comparative and superlative by putting more and most before the positive.

    Positive Comparative Superlative
    beautiful more beautiful most beautiful
    Courageous more courageous most courageous
    Difficult more difficult most difficult
    Industrious more industrious most industrious

    (f) The following Adjectives can take either er and est or more and most

    polite simple feeble gentle narrow
    cruel common handsome pleasant stupid

    polite simple feeble gentle narrow
    cruel common handsome pleasant stupid
    He is the most cruel person
    He is the cruellest person.
    Question no. 2 is simpler than question no. 1.
    Question no. 2 is more simple than question no. 1.
    (g) The comparative is not used when we compare two qualities in the same person or thing.
    He is more kind than rich.
    He is kinder than rich.

    Irregular Comparison

    In the case of some adjectives, the Comparative and Superlative are not formed from the positive.

    Positive Comparative Superlative
    Good, well better best
    Bad, evil, ill worse worst
    Little less, lesser least
    Much, many more most
    Late later, latter latest, last
    Old older oldest
    Far farther farthest

    Exercise 2

    Supply the correct form of the Adjectives given in brackets.
    (a) Use later or latter in the following :
    1. I prefer the ………. proposal to the former.
    2. They passed the ……….. proposal.
    3. The …….. part of the book is interesting.
    4. Is there no ……….. news than yesterday’s.

    (b) Use ‘older’ or ‘elder’.
    1. He is my ……… brother.
    2. Ram is ……… than Krishna.
    3. The nephew is ………. than his uncle.
    4. He is ………. than any other person present here.

    (c) Use ‘nearest’ or ‘next’.
    1. This is the ……… hop to my house.
    2. He sits ……… to me in the class.
    3. What are you going to do ………..?
    4. The …………. school is five kilometres from this village.
    Answers :
    1. latter
    2. later
    3. latter

    1. elder
    2. older
    3. older
    4. older

    1. nearest
    2. next
    3. next
    4. nearest

    Exercise 3

    Supply the proper form (Comparative or Superlative) of the adjectives given in the brackets.
    1. Is your father ……. now. (well)
    2. There is no animal ……….. than the dog. (faithful)
    3. June is ………. than April or May. (hot)
    4. Her condition is now ……… than what it was. (bad)
    5. She is …….. than her sister. (pretty)
    6. Sita is the ……… of the two. (tall)
    1. better
    2. more faithful
    3. hotter
    4. worse
    5. prettier
    6. taller

    Exercise 4

    Complete the blanks with suitable adjectives. Choose them from the box.

    a little, whose, attractive, huge, Indian, some, red, most, blue, big, only a few, own, all

    1. A ……… crowd gathered round the place of accident.
    2. ……….. Indians speak the kind of English which is branded as English.
    3. We have only ………. time. We have to hurry up.
    4. ……….. words are missing in these sentences.
    5. The man …………. house we want to buy is a teacher.
    6. She has ……….. eyes.
    7. That student was given an ………… prize.
    8. The ……….. house on the top of the hill has a door.
    9. ……… students answered questions correctly.
    10. I know it from my ………. experience.
    1. huge
    2. Most, Indian
    3. a little
    4. Some
    5. whose
    6. big
    7. attractive
    8. red, blue
    9. A few, all
    10. own

    Exercise 5

    Rearrange the following to change them into meaningful sentences :
    1. superior / Japanese / are / goods
    2. caps / expensive / are / these / very
    3. Ram / nice / a / is / person
    4. clever / that / is / very / boy / a
    5. pretty / Mohini / a / is / girl
    6. two / she / blue / has / handbags
    7. you / gallant / young / are / a / man
    8. great / some / made / people / are
    1. Japanese goods are superior
    2. These caps are very expensive.
    3. Ram is a nice person.
    4. That is a very clever boy.
    5. Mohini is a pretty girl.
    6. She has two blue hand bags.
    7. You are a gallant young man.
    8. Some people are made great.

    Exercise 6

    The following passage has not been edited. There is an error in each line. Write the error along with the correction. Underline your correction.
    In India there are much festivals. (a) ________
    These are celebrated by language communities. (b) _______
    Much of these help to form bonds of (c) _______
    friendship. Each differences disappear. (d) ______
    Holi is considered to be one so occasion (e) _______
    The whole country puts on a festival air. (f) ________
    (a) much — many
    (b) language — linguistic
    (c) Much — Most
    (d) Each — All
    (e) so — such
    (f) festival — festive.

    Exercise 7

    The following passage has not been edited. There is a word missing in each. line. Find the missing word and write it in your answer sheet along with the word that comes before it and one that comes after it. Do not forget to underline your answer. You have to fill in adjectives only.
    Ruchi Ram had a childhood. But poverty (a) _________
    and loss only made him more. Once during (b) _______
    a journey he had to spend the night on a tree. (c) ________
    He was to stay anywhere else lest someone (d) _______
    stole his books. Later, he became a professor and a man. (e) _________
    (a) a poor childhood
    (b) more determined. Once
    (c) the whole night
    (d) was unwilling to
    (e) a famous man

    Exercise 8
    (For Practice)

    Supply suitable adjectives to fill in the blanks.
    1. It was an ………. question.
    2. The ……….. woman lives in a hut.
    3. This is a very ………….. matter.
    4. It is a …………. lie.
    5. The injured man needs …………… advice.
    6. You cannot have it ………… ways.

    Exercise 9
    (For Practice)

    Supply the correct form of the adjectives given in the brackets (Only the Compara¬tive or Superlative).
    1. He is the ………… man of our city. (rich)
    2. Who is the ……….. man of the 20th century ? (great)
    3. Sheela is two years ………. than Radha. (old)
    4. Name the ……….. state of India. (large)
    5. This patient needs a ………. diet. (nutritious)
    6. He is the ……. friend I have. (good)

    Exercise 10
    (For Practice)

    The following passage has not been edited. There is an error in each line. Write the error along with the correction. Underline your correction.
    The Arayans were intelligence people. They (a) ________
    did not inherit the science tradition (b) ________
    of the Harappans but had great speculation (c) _________
    reasoning. They gave wondering theories of (d) _______
    matter and motion. They said that the basis constituents of all matter were five elements. (e) _______

    Multiple Choice Questions
    Exercise 1

    Fill in the blanks in the following sentences using one of the four options given in the brackets :
    1. He is his …….. (my/your/own/their) master.
    2. There was much talk and ……….. (much/more/little/a little) work.
    3. He is a man of ………… (a few/a little/few/little) words.
    4. This boy is ………… (strong/tall/wise/stronger) than Hari.
    5. …………… (Which/What/Where/When) time is it ?
    6. The town stood a …………. (tall/much/high/long) siege.
    7. Babar’s was a …………. (good/bad/decisive/long) victory.
    8. Delhi is a …………. (populous/peoplous/crowd/rush) city.
    9. It was an …………. (ease/easy/easily/easiness) question.
    10. Ambani is a …………. (wealth/money/wealthy/health) man.
    1. own
    2. little
    3. few
    4. stronger
    5. What
    6. long.

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