Social and Political life NCERT Extra Questions
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India after Independence
What were the problems that faced the new government after independence?
The majority of Indians lived in villages, and village development was a pressing need. Farmers and peasants relied on the monsoon for survival, thus agriculture had to develop.
Barbers, carpenters, weavers, and other non-farm service groups in the rural economy would not be paid if the crops failed, therefore the government was confronted with the challenge of constructing irrigation dams.
The government had to create programmes to educate the poor and provide proper health care in the cities, where factory employees lived in dense slums with little access to education or health care.
What were the new Government’s priorities?
The vast majority of people needed to be raised out of poverty, and agricultural output needed to be increased to feed such a large population. Industries had to be established to create jobs for the unemployed. Following independence, these were the government’s top goals.
Write a brief note on the Constituent Assembly.
The Constituent Assembly was established to draft India’s constitution. During the writing of the Indian constitution, the Constituent Assembly met several times. The constitution was written over the course of nearly three years, from December 1946 to November 1949.
The “Constituent Assembly” held its meetings in New Delhi. The assembly’s members hailed from all over India and represented a variety of political groups. The Chairman of the Drafting Committee, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, played the most crucial role. The document was completed under the supervision of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar.
On January 26, 1950, the Indian constitution was completed and adopted. India formed a republic on January 26th, and every year since then, the 26th of January has been observed as Republic Day.
What is the Universal adult franchise? Was it adopted by the Indian constitution?
The right or privilege to vote is known as the universal adult franchise. The Indian Constitution established the right to vote for all adults. In-state and national elections, all Indians over the age of 21 will be entitled to vote.
This was a groundbreaking move because Indians never could choose their leaders.
How was the ‘right to vote’ adopted in the UK and the US?
The right to vote was provided in phases in countries such as the United Kingdom and the United States. Only males with property had the right to vote at first, then men with education. Working-class males were granted the right to vote after a long struggle. After a long battle, American and British women were ultimately granted the right to vote.
Write a brief not on the abolition of untouchability and Reservation Policy.
Another key component of the Indian constitution was the abolition of untouchability and the Reservation Policy. The Indians who were the poorest and most disadvantaged were granted specific rights under the Constitution.
Untouchability was no longer practiced. Hindu temples, which were formerly only accessible to the upper castes, were opened to everybody, including the untouchables.
The Constituent Assembly suggested that members of the lowest castes be given a set number of seats in legislatures and government employment.
The Reservation policy was opposed by a large number of members of the Constituent Assembly. Many members, however, claimed that the strategy was vital to help the Harijans, who had been oppressed for thousands of years.
The Adivasis or Scheduled Tribes, like the erstwhile Untouchables, were given reservations in educational institutions and jobs. These Indians, like the Scheduled Castes, had been denied and discriminated against. The new constitution aimed to give people a proper education, health care, and a secure source of income.
What are 3 lists of subjects that the constitution has provided to balance the different views on power-sharing between the centre and the state?
The constitution provides three lists of subjects:…
- A Union List of subjects that would be the sole responsibility of the Centre, such as taxes, defense, and foreign affairs.
- A State List of issues such as education and health care that would be mostly handled by the states
- A Concurrent List, under which the Centre and the states would share responsibilities for subjects such as forests and agriculture.