BiographyC.V. Raman Biography

C.V. Raman Biography

C.V. Raman, also known as Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman, was born on November 7, 1888, in Trichinopoly, India, and passed away on November 21, 1970, in Bangalore. He was a key figure in advancing science in India. In 1930, he received the Nobel Prize in Physics for his discovery related to light changes when passing through a clear substance, now known as the Raman effect.

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    Raman completed his master’s in physics from the University of Madras in 1907. Afterward, he took a job as an accountant with the Indian government but later became a physics professor at the University of Calcutta in 1917.

    While studying light’s behavior in different materials in 1928, he noticed a unique light scattering pattern. This discovery, known as the Raman frequencies, relates to energy changes in the substance the light passes through.

    In 1929, Sir C.V. Raman was given the title of ‘knight’. In 1933, he joined the Indian Institute of Science in Bangalore as the physics department head. By 1947, he led the Raman Research Institute. In 1961, he became part of the Pontifical Academy of Science.

    He helped establish many Indian research centers, started the Indian Journal of Physics and the Indian Academy of Sciences, and trained many students. These students got significant roles in Indian and Myanmar universities and government. His nephew, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, won the 1983 Nobel Prize for Physics alongside William Fowler.

    Overview of Sir C.V. Raman Biography

    Attribute Information
    C.V. Raman Full Name Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman
    C.V. Raman Birtdday November 7, 1888
    C.V. Raman Discovery Raman Effect
    Notable Affiliation C.V. Raman College (Many institutions are named in his honor)

    C.V. Raman Photo

    C.V. Raman Biography

    C.V. Raman College

    Sir C.V. Raman’s educational journey was marked by his time at the Presidency College in Madras (now Chennai) where he pursued his undergraduate and postgraduate studies in Physics.

    What is C.V. Raman Effect?

    The Raman effect describes how light changes its wavelength after interacting with molecules. When light passes through a clear, dust-free chemical sample, a tiny portion reflects in different directions from the original beam. Most reflected light has the same wavelength, but some don’t due to the Raman effect.

    This phenomenon was named after Indian physicist Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman, who reported it in 1928. Though the effect was described theoretically by Austrian physicist Adolf Smekal in 1923 and noticed by Russian physicists Leonid Mandelstam and Grigory Landsberg just a week before Raman, it’s Raman who gets the credit.

    If we think of incoming light as made of particles or photons, these particles hit the sample’s molecules. Most times, they bounce back without changing. But sometimes, the molecules either take or give energy to these photons. This changes the photon’s energy, and hence its frequency. The change in frequency helps understand the energy shifts during this interaction.

    However, the Raman effect is weak. In liquids, the changed light’s strength might be only a tiny fraction of the original beam. Still, the Raman pattern is unique for different molecules and shows how many molecules are involved. That’s why it’s useful in analyzing materials.

    The energy changes in the Raman effect come from the molecule’s rotational and vibrational movements. It’s challenging to see just rotational changes, especially in liquids. Most studies focus on vibrational changes which are clearer and can be seen in gases, liquids, and solids. Among these, liquids and solids are studied more since gases show a very faint Raman effect.

    C.V. Raman Contribution to Science

    Sir C.V. Raman made good use of his time with Professor Jones during his physics studies at Presidency College. They had limited lab tools, but Raman used them to explore countless questions. Often, these questions had no answers in books, so Raman’s nature pushed him to do experiments.

    He explored how light spreads even though he knew its wave nature. He showed his findings to Professor Jones, who took a long time to respond. Raman knew of a magazine, the Philosophical Magazine, maybe from a nearby library. In 1906, when he was only 18, he wrote a paper for it.

    This was notable because his college wasn’t known for research. Soon after, R.W. Wood from Johns Hopkins University published a related paper and later announced Raman’s discovery of the Raman Effect.

    In 1917, Raman moved to teach physics at the University of Calcutta and also worked at the IACS, climbing to a top position. He called this time his “golden age” and was surrounded by talented students. In 1929, he led an important science meeting.

    C.V. Raman also studied the science behind musical instruments. He came up with ideas explaining how string instruments work, which was better than previous theories. He was the first to study sounds from Indian drums. In 1933, Raman became the director of the Indian Institute of Science in Bangalore.

    Before him, most leaders and teachers there were British. He continued to teach physics for two more years. In 1947, when India became independent, he became its first National Professor. In 1948, he left the institute and in 1949 started the Raman Research in Bangalore, where he worked until he passed away in 1970.

    C.V. Raman Achievements and Awards

    Sir C.V. Raman received many honorary doctorates and was part of numerous science societies worldwide. He was part of societies in Munich, Zürich, Glasgow, Ireland, Hungary, the Soviet Union, America, Romania, and Czechoslovakia. In 1924, he became a Fellow of the Royal Society, but left in 1968, a unique case for an Indian. He led the 16th Indian Science Congress in 1929 and was the first leader of the Indian Academy of Sciences from 1933 until he passed away. In 1961, he joined the Pontifical Academy of Sciences.

    Sir C.V. Raman worked for the Indian Finance Service and earned several awards. In 1912, he got the Curzon Research Award, and in 1913, the Woodburn Research Medal. In 1928, the Accademia Nazionale delle Scienze in Rome gave him the Matteucci Medal. He became a knight in 1930 and the Viceroy of India, Lord Irwin, honored him at the Viceroy’s House in New Delhi. He won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1930 for his work on light scattering.

    This made him the first Asian to win a Nobel Prize in Science. Rabindranath Tagore, another Indian, had won a Nobel Prize for Literature in 1913. Raman also received the Hughes Medal in 1930, the Franklin Medal in 1941, the Bharat Ratna award in 1954 (shared with C. Rajagopalachari and Sir Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan), and the Lenin Peace Prize in 1957.

    FAQs on C.V. Raman Biography

    What is C.V. Raman famous for?

    C.V. Raman is renowned for discovering the Raman effect in light scattering.

    Which Nobel Prize has C.V. Raman won?

    C.V. Raman won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1930.

    Who got the first Nobel Prize in India?

    Rabindranath Tagore was the first Indian to win a Nobel Prize, in Literature.

    Who got the first Nobel Prize in Physics?

    Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen received the first Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901.

    Who is known as the father of Indian science?

    Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose is often referred to as the father of Indian science.

    Who is C.V. Raman?

    C.V. Raman was an eminent Indian physicist known for his work on light scattering.

    What did C.V. Raman discover?

    C.V. Raman discovered the Raman effect, a change in the wavelength of light during scattering.

    When did C.V. Raman die?

    C.V. Raman passed away on 21st November 1970.

    What is the full name of C.V. Raman?

    The full name of C.V. Raman is Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman.

    Why is C.V. Raman famous?

    C.V. Raman is celebrated for his groundbreaking discovery of the Raman effect in light scattering.

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