BiologyRabi Crops

Rabi Crops

The country of India makes its name among the top three global producers of a variety of crops. Hence, agriculture plays an important role in the country’s economy. Cropping seasons in India are majorly divided into three types, i.e., Kharif crops, Rabi crops, and Zaid crops.

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    Kharif crops are crops cultivated during monsoons and are also called monsoon crops eg: rice, maize, millet, ragi, pulses, soybean, groundnut. Rabi crops are sown in the winter and harvested in the spring Rabi crops examples: wheat, barley, oats, gram, mustard, linseed. Zaid crops are crops grown for a shorter period of time and are commonly called summer crops eg: Cucumber, pumpkin, tomato, bitter gourd.

    Rabi Crops

    What is Rabi Crop?

    Rabi crops are usually sown during the onset of winter in the Indian subcontinent and harvested in the spring. The planting season normally begins in mid-November, while the harvest season begins in April or May. Rabi crops are named after an Arabic term that signifies “spring” in India. Since it is harvested during this season, it gets its name.

    Rabi Crops Examples

    Here are some Rabi crops examples listed below.

    Cereals Vegetables Fruits
    Wheat Tomato Mangoes
    Barley Capsicum Grapes
    Chickpeas Peas Banana
    Oats Cabbage Mulberry
    Rapeseed Cauliflower Datepalm
    Bajra Broccoli Orange
    Mustard Potato Grapefruit

    Rabi Crop Season

    As discussed above, crops are divided into three types on the basis of their required climatic conditions. The Rabi crop season mainly ranges from mid-November to May. These crops are sown after the monsoons, in the winters, and reaped in the spring season. Rabi crops grow best in the ground with percolated rainwater. Unlike Kharif crops, these crops require less rainfall. A good rain during the winter can ruin the production of these crops.

    Rabi Crop In India


    In India, wheat is the second-most important cereal after rice. In the northern states of the country, it is a staple food. India contributes about 14% of the total wheat production in the world and is the second-largest producer of cereal. Cool and moist weather is most favorable for wheat growth.

    The optimal temperature range for wheat seed germination is 20°C to 25°C. Low temperatures in the early stages and high temperatures later in the maturation stage result in the completion of the majority of the wheat growth cycle.


    Barley is a preferred cereal for most Indians. It is very efficient in weight loss and improving digestion. But apart from being used as food, it has other commercial uses too. It is used as animal fodder and as an ingredient in cosmetic products like creams. It grows best in fertile, clay soils and cool, dry weather. The optimum temperature for barley cultivation is 25 degrees Celsius.


    Mustard is one of the most used items in every Indian household. Mustard oil is used in cooking and treating joint and muscle pain. It can also be used as mustard powder, mustard soup, or mustard chutney. It is cultivated as a rabi crop, which requires a cool climate to grow. The ideal temperature for mustard growth is 15° C to 25°C.


    The widely produced Rabi food crop is assumed to be the first fruit on the planet. It is high in nutrients and is beneficial for gut health. Banana Spread, Banana Powder, Kerala Banana Chips, and other products made from bananas are widely available in the market. The most favorable temperature for banana cultivation is 31 or 32°C.


    India is one of the largest cultivators of mangoes, growing approximately half of all mango production in the world. Mango Fruit Spread, Mango Chutneys, Mango Juice, and a variety of other products are commonly consumed by people. In mango cultivation, the temperature plays an important role. The ideal temperature for its growth is 24-27°C. It can be sown in both tropical and subtropical climates.


    Cabbage is a very popular and healthy green vegetable with numerous health benefits. It contains proteins, essential amino acids, and minerals. It requires a cool and moist climate with temperatures ranging from 15 to 20 degrees Celsius. West Bengal, Odisha and Gujurat are the largest cabbage-producing states in India.


    Capsicum, also known as bell pepper, is an important Rabi crop. It is sold in a variety of colors, including red capsicum, yellow capsicum, and green capsicum. It has health benefits like preventing cancer and improving immunity. It required a dry season and moderately low temperatures ranging between 18 and 25 °C. West Bengal, Haryana, and Karnataka are some of the major producers of capsicum in India.

    Rabi Crops Characteristics

    • Rabi crops are grown in the winter season between October and December.
    • These crops are harvested before the summer season arrives. It is usually done in the spring, between March and May.
    • Rabi crops demand a cool climate and are hence cultivated in areas that are not so extremely cold or hot.
    • These are rainfed crops, but they do not require heavy rainfall. In the absence of rain, they require irrigation facilities.
    • Rabi crops mostly take longer to grow.
    • They help increase soil fertility and are grown as a part of crop rotation.
    • Many Rabi crops are part of both the cattle and human diets. For example, wheat and barley are staple foods for many people. On the other hand, oats and barley are also used as fodder for livestock.
    • Rabi crops are usually selected for their capacity to resist various pests throughout the winter season.

    Difference Between Rabi Kharif and Zaid crops

    Kharif Crops Rabi Crops Zaid Crops
    These crops are sown between July and August These crops are sown between October and December These crops are sown between March and August.
    These crops are sown between September and October. These crops are harvested between April and June. These crops are reaped in the summer months.
    Water supply depends of monsoon rains It depends on rains due to western temperate cyclone It depends on the irrigation.
    It includes crop like rice, maize, bajra, ragi, soybeans, etc. It includes crop like wheat, peas, barley, oats, carrots, etc. It includes crop like watermelon, muskmelon, sugarcane, etc.

    FAQs on Rabi Crops

    What is the meaning of rabi crops?

    Rabi crops are crops sown in winter and harvested in spring. Some examples of these crops are wheat, peas, barley, and oats.

    What is the season name of rabi crops?

    Rabi season starts with the arrival of winter. These crops are sown between the months of October and December and harvested from April to June

    What are the 5 main rabi crops?

    The major rabi crops in India are wheat, barley, mustard, sesame, and peas.

    What are the seasons of rabi and kharif?

    The kharif planting time occurs from July to October when the south-west monsoon happens, and the Rabi planting season is from October to March, which is in the winter.

    Which is a rabi season?

    Rabi crops are typically planted in mid-November, once the monsoon rains have finished, and they are ready for harvest in April or May. These crops are cultivated with either naturally stored rainwater in the soil or with the help of irrigation.

    What are rabi crops examples?

    Rabi crops examples include wheat, barley, mustard, peas, and gram. These crops are sown in winter and harvested in spring, providing essential grains and pulses.

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