Time allowed: 3 hours Maximum marks: 90
- The Question Paper has 30 questions in all. All questions are
- Marks are indicated against each question.
- Questions from serial number 1 to 8 are Very Short Answer questions. Each question carries one mark.
- Questions from serial number 9 to 20 are 3 mark Answers of these questions should not exceed 80 words each.
- Questions from serial number 21 to 28 are 5 marks Answers of these questions should not exceed 100 words each.
- Question number 29 and 30 are map questions of 3 mark each from History and Geography both. After completion, attach the map inside your answer book.
Question.1. Who remarked “when France sneezes the rest of Europe catches cold”.
Answer. Duke Metternich
Who were called colons in Vietnam?
Answer. French citizens living in Vietnam were known as colons.
Question.2. Why should the use of cattle cake as fuel be discouraged?
Answer. Using dung cake or cattle cake as fuel is being discouraged because it consumes most valuable manure which could be used in agriculture.
Question.3. Distinguish between pressure groups and political parties by stating any one point of distinction.
Answer. Pressure groups do not aim to directly control or share political power but political parties directly control and share political power.
Question.4. Why did India adopt multi-party system?
Answer. India adopted multi-party system because:
- India is a large country and has social and geographical diversities.
- It is easy to absorb different diversities in a multi-party system.
Question.5. Name any two sectional interest groups.
Answer. Trade Unions and Professional bodies like lawyers, teachers etc.
Question.6. Why do MNCs set up their offices and factories in those regions where they get cheap labor and other resources?
Answer. MNCs set up offices and factories for products in regions where they can get cheap labor and other resources so that (i) the cost of production is low and (ii) the MNCs can earn greater profits.
Question.7. If any damage is done to a consumer by a trader, under which consumer right one can move to consumer court to get compensation?
Answer. Right to seek redressal. The consumers can seek redressal against trade practices of exploitation and have the right to fair settlement of the genuine grievances.
Question.8. Why is the supervision of the functioning of formal sources of loans necessary?
Answer. Supervision of the functioning of formal sources of loans is necessary because banks have to submit information to the RBI on how much they are lending, to whom they are lending and at what interest rate etc.
Question.9. “The decade of 1830 had brought great economic hardship in Europe.” Support the statement with arguments.
Answer. See Q. 11, 2013 (I Outside Delhi).
“The Ho Chi Minh Trail became advantageous to Vietnamese in the war against U.S.” Support the statement with arguments.
Answer. “The Ho-Chi-Minh Trail became advantageous to Vietnamese in the war against U.S.”
- The trail symbolizes how the Vietnamese used their limited resources to great advantage.
- The trail, an immense network of footpaths and roads was used to transport men and material from North to South.
- It was improved in late 1950s and from 1967 about 20,000 North Vietnamese troops came south each month. The trail had support bases and hospitals along the way.
- Mostly supplies were carried by women porters on their backs or on their bicycles.
- The U.S regularly bombed this trail to disrupt supplies but efforts to destroy this important supply line by intensive bombing failed because they were rebuilt very quickly.
Question.10. What type of flag was designed during the ‘Swadeshi Movement’ in Bengal? Explain its main features.
Answer. During the ‘Swadeshi Movement’ in Bengal, a tricolor flag—red, green and yellow was designed. It had eight lotuses representing the eight provinces of British India.
It had a crescent moon, representing Hindus and Muslims.
Question.11. “The plantation workers in Assam had their own understanding of Mahatma Gandhi and the notion of Swaraj”. Support the statement with arguments.
Answer. “The plantation workers in Assam had their own understanding of Mahatma Gandhi and the notion of Swaraj”
- For plantation workers in Assam, freedom meant the right to move freely in and out of the confined space in which they were enclosed.
- Under the Inland Emigration Act of 1859 plantation workers were not permitted to leave the tea gardens without permission.
- Swaraj meant retaining a link with the village from which they had come.
- When they heard of the Non-cooperation Movement, thousands of workers defied the authorities, left the plantations and headed home.
- They believed that Gandhi Raj was coming and everyone would be given land in their own village.
Question.12. Classify industries on the basis of source of raw material. How are they different from each other?
Answer. On the basis of sources of raw material industries are classified as:
(I) Agro based industries; (II) Mineral based industries
Question.13. ‘Consumption of energy in all forms has been rising all over the country. There is an urgent need to develop a sustainable path of energy development and energy saving.’ Suggest and explain any three measures to solve this binning problem.
Answer. Every sector of the national economy—agriculture, industry, transport, (commercial and domestic), needs greater inputs of energy.
With increasing population and changing lifestyles energy consumption is increasing very fast. We are not self sufficient in energy according to demands. Therefore we have to adopt a cautious approach for the judicious use of our limited resources. Conservation of energy should be done at all levels.
Three measures to reduce consumption of energy in all forms:
- We can do our bit by using public transport systems instead of individual vehicles.
- Switching off electricity when not in use.
- Using power saving devices or using non-conventional sources of energy such as solar energy, wind energy etc.
- Checking the power equipment’s regularly can help in saving of energy.
Question.14. Suggest any three steps to minimize the environmental degradation caused by the industrial development in India.
Answer. Steps to minimize the environmental degradation caused by industrial development in India are: –
- Minimizing use of water for processing by reusing and recycling in two or more successive stages. Harvesting of rain water to meet water requirements of industries and other domestic purposes.
- Treating hot water and effluents before releasing them in rivers and ponds.
- Particulate matter in the air can be reduced by fitting smoke to factories with electrostatic precipitators, fabric filters, scrubbers and inertial separators. Smoke can be reduced by using oil or gas instead of coal in factories.
- Machinery and equipment’s can be fitted with silencers to prevent noise pollution.
Question.15. What is meant by regional political party? State the conditions required to be recognized as a ‘regional political party’.
Answer. A regional party is a party that is present in only some states. Regional parties or State parties need not be regional in their ideology. They have state identity as they are present only in some states. Some of these parties are all India parties that happen to have succeeded only in states. Example, Samajwadi Party, Rastriya Janata Dal.
Conditions required for a party to be recognized as a regional political party:
- A party that secures at least six percent of the total votes in an election to the legislative assembly of a state.
- Wins at least two seats in the legislative assembly.
Question.16. What are public interest pressure groups? Describe their functioning.
Answer. Public Interest Groups are those that promote collective rather than selective interests. Their functioning is as follows:
- It aims to help groups other than their own members.
- They represent some common interest that needs to be defended.
- The members of the organization may not benefit from the cause that the organization represents.
For example, a group fighting against bonded labor fights not for itself but for those who are suffering under such bondage. E.g., BAMCEF.
Question.17. Which three challenges do you feel are being faced by political parties in India? Give your opinion.
Answer. There are four major areas where the working of political parties faces challenge: See Q. 25, 2016 (II Delhi).
Question.18. “Deposits with the banks are beneficial to the depositors as well as to the nation”. Examine the statement.
Answer. Benefit of deposits to the depositors:
- Bank accepts the deposits and pays interest to the depositor.
- Banks help people save their money and keep their money in safe custody of the bank.
- People can withdraw the money as and when they require.
- Banks also grant loans to people for a variety of purposes.
Benefit of deposits to the Nation:
- Banks use the major proportion of the deposit to extend loans.
- There is a huge demand for loans for various economic activities. In times of need, business houses and industries can borrow money from the banks.
- Banks mediate between those who have surplus funds and those who are in need of these funds. Thus, it helps in the economic development of the Nation.
Question.19. Why had the Indian government put barriers to foreign trade and foreign investments after independence? Analyze the reasons.
Answer. See Q. 18, 2014 (II Delhi).
Question.20. “Rules and regulations are required for the protection of the consumers in the market place.” Justify the .statement with arguments.
Answer. See Q. 28, 2013 (I Delhi).
Question.21. “Napoleon had destroyed democracy in France but in the administrative field he had incorporated revolutionary principles in order to make the whole system more rational and efficient.” Analyze the statement with arguments.
Answer. See Q. 21, 2012 (I Delhi).
“The peace negotiations in Geneva followed the division of Vietnam that set in motion a series of events that turned Vietnam into a battle field.” Analyze the statement with arguments.
Answer. The peace negotiations in Geneva followed the division of Vietnam that set in motion a series of events that turned Vietnam into a battle field.”
- In the peace negotiations in Geneva that followed the French defeat, the Vietnamese were persuaded to accept the division of the country, i.e., North and South.
- The division set in motion a series of events that turned Vietnam into a battlefield bringing death and destruction to its people as well as the environment.
- The Bao Dai regime was soon overthrown by a coup led by Ngo Dinh Diem. Diem built a repressive and authoritarian government.
- Anyone who opposed him was called a Communist and was jailed and killed.
- With the help of Ho Chi Minh government in North, the NLF fought for the unification of the country. The U.S watched this alliance with fear. Worried about the communist gaining power, it decided to intervene decisively sending in troops and arms.
Question.22. Why did Mahatma Gandhiji decide to call off the Civil Disobedience Movement? Explain.
Answer. Mahatma Gandhi decided to call off the Civil Disobedience Movement because:
- Worried by the development of Civil Disobedience Movement the colonial government began arresting the Congress leaders one by one.
- This led to violent clashes in many places.
- When Abdul Ghaffar khan, a devout disciple of Mahatma Gandhi was arrested in April 1930, angry crowds demonstrated in the streets of Peshawar, facing armored cars and police firing. Many were killed.
- A month later, when Mahatma Gandhi was arrested industrial workers in Sholapur attacked the police force, municipal buildings, law courts, railway stations and all other structures that symbolized British rule.
- A frightened government responded with the policy of brutal repression. The peaceful satyagrahis were attacked, women and children were beaten and about 1 lakh people were arrested.
Question.23. Explain the importance of conservation of minerals. Highlight any three measures to conserve them.
Answer. See Q. 13, 2012 (I Outside Delhi).
Question.24. “Roadways still have an edge over railways in India.” Support the statement with arguments.
Answer. Roadways score over railways:
- Construction of roads is easier and cheaper as compared to railways.
- Roads provide door to door service, thus the cost of loading and unloading is much . lower as compared to railways which generally leave the people and goods at the
destined railway stations.
- Roads can negotiate higher gradients of slope and, as such, can traverse through mountainous terrain. But railways cannot negotiate steep gradients.
- Road transport is economical in transportation of few persons and relatively smaller amount of goods over short distances.
- Road transport is also used as a feeder to other modes of transport. They provide links between railway stations, airports and sea ports.
- They link agricultural farms with markets and industries, thus linking rural and urban
Question.25. Describe the popular struggle of Bolivia.
Answer. See Q. 15, 2012 (II Delhi).
Question.26. “Political parties are a necessary condition for a democracy”. Analyze the statement with examples.
Answer. “Political parties are a necessary condition for a democracy” in the following ways:
- Without political parties democracies cannot exist. If we do not have political parties, every candidate in elections will be independent.
- No one will be able to make any promises to the people about any major policy changes.
- The government may be formed but its utility will remain uncertain.
- Elected representatives will be accountable to their constituency, for what they do in their locality but no one will be responsible for how the country will run.
- As societies become large and complex they also needed some agencies to gather different views on various issues and to present these to the government, that’s why political parties are needed.
Question.27. How can the formal sector loans be made beneficial for poor farmers and workers? Suggest any five measures.
Answer. Formal sector loans can be made beneficial for poor farmers and workers in the following ways:
- Create greater awareness among farmers about formal sector loans.
- Process of providing loans should be made easier. It should be simple, fast and timely.
- More number of Nationalized Banks/cooperative banks should be opened in. rural sectors. Banks and cooperatives should increase facility of providing loans so that dependence on informal sources of credit reduces.
- The benefits of loans should be extended to poor farmers and small scale industries,
- While formal sector loans need to expand, it is also necessary that everyone receives these loans. It is important that formal credit is distributed more equally so that the poor can benefit from cheaper loans.
Question.28. Describe the impact of globalization on Indian economy with examples.
Answer. Impact of Globalization on the Indian Economy:
- Greater competition among producers (both local and foreign), has been advantageous to consumers, particularly the well-off section. There is greater choice before the consumers who now enjoy improved quality and lower prices for several products.
- Globalization has led to a higher standard of living especially in urban areas.
- MNCs have increased their investments in India in industries such as electronics, automobiles, cellphones, soft drinks, fast food, banking services etc. leading to more job opportunities in these industries and services.
- Globalization has enabled some large Indian companies to emerge as MNCs themselves like Tata Motors, Infosys, Ranbaxy, Asian Paints, etc.
- Globalization has also created new opportunities for companies providing services particularly those involving IT (Information Technology). For example, call centers.
- Local companies supply raw materials to foreign industries and have prospered. However, for a large number of producers and workers the impact has not been uniform, and globalization has posed major challenges.
Question.29. Three features A, B and C are marked on the given political outline map of India. Identify these features with the help of the following information and write their correct names on the lines marked in the map:
A. The place where cotton mill workers organized Satyagraha.
B. The place related to the calling off the Non-Cooperation Movement.
C. The place where the Indian National Congress Session was held.
Note: The following questions are for the Visually Impaired Candidates only in lieu of Q. 29:
(29.1) Name the city where cotton mill workers organized Satyagraha.
(29.2) Name the place related to the calling off the Non-Cooperation Movement.
(29.3) Where was the Indian Nation Congress Session held in December 1920?
Answer. (29.1) Ahmedabad (29.2) Chauri Chaura (29.3) Nagpur
Question.30. On the given political outline map, of India, locate and label the following with appropriate symbols:
A. Oil Field—Digboi
B. Iron and Steel Plant—Bhilai
C. Major Sea Port—Kochi
Note: The following questions are for the Visually Impaired Candidates only, in lieu of Q.No. 30:
(30.1) In which state is Digboi oil field located?
(30.2) Name the state where Bhilai Iron and Steel Plant is located.
(3Q.3) Name the Southernmost major sea port located on the eastern coast of India.
Answer. (30.1) Assam (30.2) Chhattisgarh (30.3) Tuticorin
Except for the following questions, all the remaining questions have been asked in Set-I.
Question.1. Who was proclaimed German Emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles in January 1871?
Answer. Kaiser William I of Prussia was proclaimed German Emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles in January 1871.
What was the main aim of the Scholar Revolt of 1868?
Answer. The main aim of Scholar Revolt of 1868 was to oppose French control and expansion of Christianity.
Question.2. How are ‘Gobar gas plants’ beneficial to the farmers?
Answer. “Gobar Gas Plants” are beneficial to the farmers in the form of energy and improved quality of manure.
Question.8. Prove with an argument that there is a great need to expand formal sources of credit in rural India.
Answer. There is great need to expand formal sources of credit in rural India because:
- There is no organization that supervises the credit activities of lenders in the informal sector. They lend at whatever interest rate they choose.
- No one can stop rural money-lenders from using unfair means to get their money back.
Question.17. “Democracy accommodates social diversities.” Support the statement with examples.
Answer. “Democracy accommodates social diversities” in the following ways:
- Democracies develop a procedure to conduct their competition. This reduces the possibility of these tensions becoming explosive or violent.
- No society can fully and permanently resolve conflicts among different groups. But we can certainly learn to respect these differences and can evolve mechanism to negotiate these differences.
Example, Belgium has successfully negotiated differences among ethnic population. This reduces the possibility of tensions.
- Ability to handle social differences, divisions and conflicts is thus a definite plus point of democratic regimes.
Question.18. Explain by giving examples that Multinational Corporations (MNCs) are spreading their productions in different ways.
Answer. See Q. 27, 2015 (I Delhi). [Page 106
Question.19. ‘Credit has its own unique role for development’. Justify the statement with arguments.
Answer. See Q. 28, 2012 (I Delhi).
Question.22. Why did Mahatma Gandhi relaunch the Civil Disobedience Movement with great apprehension? Explain.
Answer. Mahatma Gandhi entered into a pact with Irwin on 5 March, 1931.
- By this Gandhi-Irwin Pact, Gandhiji committed to participate in a Round Table Conference in London and the government agreed to release the political prisoners.
- In December 1931, Gandhiji went to London for the conference, but the negotiations broke dowrn and he returned disappointed.
- Back in India, he discovered that the government had begun a new cycle of repressive measures.
- Abdul Ghaffar Khan and Jawaharlal Nehru were both in jail and the Congress had been declared illegal.
- A series of measures hacj been imposed to prevent meetings, demonstrations and boycotts. Thus, with great apprehension Gandhiji relaunched the Civil Disobedience Movement.
Question.23. Explain any five major problems faced by road transport in India.
Answer. Problems faced by road transportation:
- The road network is inadequate in proportion to the volume of traffic and passengers.
- About half of the roads are unmetalled which makes them useless during rainy season.
- The National Highways are inadequate and lack roadside amenities.
- The roadways are highly congested in cities.
- Most of the bridges and culverts are old and narrow.
Question.25. Suggest and explain any five measures to reform political parties.
- Law to regulate the internal affairs of political parties like maintaining a register of its members, to follow its own constitution, to have independent authority, to act as judge in case of party dispute, to hold open elections to the highest post.
- It should be mandatory for political parties to give one-third tickets to women candidates.
Also there should be quota for women on the decision-making bodies of the party.
- There should be state funding of elections. The government should give money to parties to support their election expenses in kind (petrol, paper, telephone etc.) or in cash on the basis of votes secured by the party in the previous election.
- People can put pressure on political parties in various ways through petitions, publicity in media and agitations.
- Ordinary citizens, pressure groups and movements and the media can play an important role in this. Ordinary citizens can reform politics if they take part directly and join political parties.
Except for the following questions, all the remaining questions have been asked in Set-1 and Set-ll.
Question.1. Who was proclaimed the King of United Italy in 1861?
Answer. Victor Emmanuel-II
Who led the ‘Scholar Revolt’ in Vietnam in 1868?
Answer. The “Scholar Revolt” in Vietnam in 1868 was led by officials at the imperial court.
Question.2. Why has aluminum metal great importance?
Answer. Aluminum metal has great importance because:
- It combines the strength of metals such as iron with extreme lightness.
- It has good conductivity and great malleability.
Question.8. Why are most of the poor households deprived from the formal sector of loans?
Answer. Most of the poor households are deprived from the formal sector loans because of lack of proper documents and absence of collateral.
Question.17. Analyze the three components of a political party.
Answer. The three components of a political party are as follows:
- The leaders. A political party consists of leaders, who contest elections and if they win the elections, they perform the administrative jobs.
- The active members. They are the ones who work actively for the party. They are the assistants of the leaders and implement the plans and ideologies of the political party. (in) The followers. They are the ardent followers of the parties and their leaders and support them in the elections.
Question.18. How are consumers exploited in the market place? Explain.
Answer. See Q. 28, 2014 (I Delhi).
Question.19. “The consumer movement arose out of dissatisfaction of the consumers”. Justify the statement with arguments.
Answer. See Q. 19, 2014 (III Outside Delhi).
Question.22. How did the Civil Disobedience Movement come into force in various parts of the country? Explain with examples.
Answer. Civil Disobedience Movement came into force in various parts of the country:
- Gandhiji led the salt march from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi with his followers starting the Civil Disobedience Movement.
- Thousands in different parts of the country broke the salt law, manufactured salt and demonstrated in front of government salt factories.
- In the countryside, the rich Patidars of Gujarat and Jats of Uttar Pradesh were active in the movement. As rich communities were very hard hit by the trade depression and falling prices, they became enthusiastic supporters of the Civil Disobedience Movement.
- As the depression continued and cash invoice dwindled, the small tenants found it difficult to pay the rent. They wanted the unpaid rent to the landlords to be remitted and thus they joined the movement.
- Merchants and industrialists supported the movement by giving financial assistance and also by refusing to buy and sell the imported goods.
- The industrial working class of Nagpur region also participated in the Civil Disobedience Movement. Railway workers, dock workers, mineral of Chota Nagpur etc. participated in protest rallies and boycott campaigns .
Question.23. Classify communication services into two categories? Explain main features of each.
Answer. Two types of means of communication are—A. Personal communication,’ B. Mass communication.
A. Features of Personal communication:
- It is the communication between two or more persons at personal level.
- The Indian postal network handles parcels as well as personal written communication.
- It includes cards and envelops, posts and telegraph, email etc.
- Telephone services like STD, ISD provide easy and comfortable network to a large number of people.
A. Features of Mass communication:
- It is communication through which one can communicate with several people at the same time.
- It provides entertainment and creates awareness among people about various National programmed and policies.
- It includes print media like newspapers, magazines, books etc. and electronic media like radio, television etc.
Question.25. “Democracy stands much superior in promoting dignity and freedom of the citizens”. Justify the statement.
Answer. Examples to illustrate that dignity and freedom of citizens are best guaranteed in a democracy:
- Dignity of women. Democracy recognizes dignity of women as a necessary ingredient of society. The one way to ensure that women related problems get adequate attention is have more women as elected representatives. To achieve this, it is legally binding to have a fair proportion of women in the elected bodies. Panchayati Raj in India has reserved one-third seats in local government bodies for women. In March 2010, the Women’s Reservation Bill was passed in the Rajya Sabha ensuring 33% reservation for women in Parliament and State legislative bodies.
- Democracy has strengthened the claims of disadvantaged and discriminated castes. When governments are formed, political parties usually take care that representatives of different castes and tribes find a place in it. Some political parties are known to favour some castes. Democracy provides for equal status and opportunities for all castes.
- Democracy transforms people from the status of a subject into that of a citizen. A democracy is concerned with ensuring that people will have the right to choose their rulers and people will have control over the rulers. Whenever possible and necessary, citizens should be able to participate in decision-making that affects them all.
- A citizen has the right and the means to examine the process of decision-making. There is transparency in a democracy like India. In October 2005, the Right to Information (RTI) law was passed which ensures all its citizens the right to get all the information about the functions of the government departments. In a democracy, people also have the right to complain about its functioning.
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