CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 Political Science 2015 Delhi
Time allowed : 3 hours
Maximum marks : 100
- All questions are compulsory. This questions paper has 27 questions in all. There are five sections in this question paper.
- Section A contains Questions number 1-5 of 1 mark each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 20 words each.
- Section B contains Questions number 6-10 of 2 marks each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 40 words each.
- Section C contains Questions number 11-16 of 4 marks each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 100 words each.
- Section D contains Questions number 17-21 of 5 marks each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 150 words each.
- In Section D Question number 21 is a map-based question. Write its answer in your answer-book.
- Section E contains Question number 22-27 of 6 marks each. The answers to these questions should not exceed 150 words each.
CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 Political Science 2015 Delhi Set – I
Why was the North Atlantic Treaty Organization also called Western Alliance?  Answer:
Most countries of Western Europe sided with the US which got formalised into an organization – the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Hence it was also called Western Alliance.
What is meant by Hegemony?  Answer:
Hegemony means leadership or dominance especially by one state or social group over others. It is the form of military predomination, economic power, political clout and cultural superiority.
Which major factor was responsible for the dramatic victory of Indira Gandhi in 1971 elections?  Answer:
- The positive slogan of “Garibi Hatao” (remove poverty)
- Indira Gandhi focused on growth of public sector
- Abolition of princely privileges, privy purse.
Name the three social and political regions of the Northernmost State of India  Answer:
Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh.
Why were the seven small states created in North-East India?  Answer:
- The seven sister states also called “Paradise Unexplored” are Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura.
- They were created for economic development of the region.
- Due to social-cultural issues.
What is meant by the Cuba Missile Crisis?  Answer:
The leaders of the USSR were apprehensive that the USA would attack Communist-ruled Cuba and overthrow Fidel Castro. Hence, the Soviet Union placed nuclear missiles in Cuba to face any eventuality caused by a possible attack by USA. This led to a situation which is known as the Cilba Missile Crisis.
Suggest any two steps to be taken by the government to check pollution and save environment.  Answer:
Clean production involves changes in production systems or products that reduce pollution at the source in the process of product development stage.
Biodiversity issues are suited to the precautionary principle because their complexity and geographic scope increase scientific uncertainty and because the results of errors can be devastating. Risk assessment and other tools have been unable to predict and prevent such disasters as the devastation of marine ecosystems and the collapse of fisheries.
“Welfare State is getting replaced by market.” Analyse the reason for this change. [2 × 1 = 2] Answer:
“The Welfare State is a society in which an assured minimum standard living and opportunity’ becomes the possession of every citizen.” (G.D.H.) The Welfare State is a system wherein government agrees to underwrite main levels of employment, income, education, medical aid, social security, housing for all its citizens.
Welfare state is being replaced by increasing trend of globalisation.
- Globalisation results in erosion of state capacity.
- Concept of state sovereignty is getting affected.
- It withdraws many welfare functions from the government.
How did the Sino-Indian conflict affect the opposition also?  Answer:
The Sino-Indian conflict in 1962 was responsible for the growing differences within the Communist Party of India which was in opposition. It got divided into Communist Party of India (Marxist) which was Pro-China and CPI which was Pro-Russia.
How did the dominance of Congress Party in the first three general elections help in establishing a democratic set-up in India?  Answer:
- Dominance of Congress Party in India was different from the dominance of one party in countries like Cuba, China & Mexico.
- Even after having a one party dominance at the centre, free, fair and regular elections were held and voice of the opposition was heard with respect.
- Even in the first general elections, there was government of CPI in Kerala which was not destabilized by the Congress Party in power at the Centre. Hence, inspite of one-party dominance, other parties were still emerging and contesting elections.
Why did India distance itself from the two camps led by the U.S. and the Soviet Union ? Explain.  Answer:
India distanced itself from both the camps led by the US and USSR. : India wanted to keep away from the military alliances led by US and Soviet Union. During the Cold War, the US-led North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the Soviet- led Warsaw Pact came into existence. India advocated Non-alignment as the ideal foreign policy approach. India wanted to serve its national interests rather than the interests of the superpowers, take independent decisions and upkeep the sovereignty of the nation. The strategy of planned economic development was adopted by India. This policy emphasised on import-substitution. The emphasis on developing a resource base also meant that export oriented growth was limited. This development strategy limited India’s economic interaction with the outside world.
Describe any four major developments in the Indian politics since 1989.  Answer:
Political Developments since 1989 are :
- Defeat of the Congress party in the elections held in 1989. The party that had won as many as 415 seats in the Lok Sabha in 1984 was reduced to only 197 in this election.
- Rise of Reservation issue in national politics: The National Front government decided to implement the recommendations of the Mandal Commission.
- The economic policy of India went under drastic changes and economic reforms were introduced.
- Demolition of the disputed structure of Babri masjid in December 1992. This event symbolised and triggered various changes in the politics of the country and intensified debates about the nature of Indian nationalism and secularism.
How was the European Union evolved over time from an economic union to an increasingly political one? ‘  Answer:
- The formation of European Union was aided by the Cold war. It became a forum for the western European States to co-operate on trade and economic issues.
- It also laid stress on a common foreign and security policy, co-operation on justice and home affairs and the creation of a common currency.
- It has also started to act more as a nation state.
- While the attempts to have a Constitution for the EU have failed still it has its own flag, anthem, founding date and currency. It also has seme form of a common foreign and security policy in its dealings with other nations. It shows that Europian Union evolved over time from an economic union to an increasingly political one.
Explain any two merits and two demerits each of the Green Revolution.  Answer:
- It increased the availability of food in the country due to rise in wheat and rice production.
- Regions like Punjab, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh became agriculturally prosperous.
- The farmers of medium §ize holdings, benefitted from the changes and the emerged as politically influential in many parts of the country.
- It led to polarization between classes and regions.
- Only the states like Punjab, Haryana and Western U.P. became prosperous while others remained backward.
- The poor farmers remained neglected and the beneficiaries were the rich farmers.
Critically evaluate the difficulties involved in implementing the suggested reforms to reconstruct the U.N.  Answer:
Following are the difficulties in implementing the reforms to reconstruct the U.N.:
- There is no demarcation as to how big an economic or military power did a state should be to qualify for Security Council membership.
- Level of budget contribution that would enable a state to buy its way into the Council is not mentioned.
- Regarding population, it is undecided whether a big population would be an asset or a liability for a country, trying to play a bigger role in the world.
- If respect for democracy and human rights was the criteria, countries with excellent records would be in line to be members, but it not necessary that they will also be effective as Council members.
The most important reason why the reforms cannot be done is the Veto power of the permanent member. There has been a move to abolish Veto power system, there is also a realization that the permanent members are unlikely to agree to such a reform. Also, the world may not be ready for such a radical step even though the Cold War is over. Without the Veto, there is a danger just like 1945 that the great powers would lose interest in the world body, that they would do what they pleased outside it, and that without their support and involvement the body would be ineffective.
Assess any two positive aspects of the Chipko Movement.  Answer:
(i) The movement began in two or three villages of Uttarakhand when the forest department refused permission to the villagers to fell ash trees for making agricultural tools. However, the forest department allotted the same patch of land to a sports manufacturer for commercial use. This enraged the villagers and they protested against the move of the government. Issues of ecological and economic exploitation of the region were raised. The villagers demanded that no forest-exploiting contracts should be given to outsiders and local communities should have effective control over natural resources like land, water and forests.
(ii) Women’s active participation in the Chipko agitation was a very novel aspect of the movement. The forest contractors of the region usually doubled up as suppliers of alcohol to men. Women held sustained agitations against the habit of alcoholism and broadened the agenda of the movement to cover other social issues as well.
Read the passage given below carefully and answer the following questions :  The interim government took a firm stance against the possible division of India into smaller principalities of different sizes. The Muslim League opposed the Indian National Congress and took the view that the States should be free to adopt any course they liked. Sardar Patel, India’s Deputy Prime Minister and the Home Minister during the crucial period, immediately after Independence, played a historic role in negotiating with the rulers of Princely States in bringing most of them into the Indian Union.
(i) Which government has been referred to as the interim government ?
(ii) Why did Muslim League oppose the Indian National Congress ?
(iii) What makes the role of Sardar Patel a historic one? Explain.
(i) The government of free India working before the General elections has been termed as the Interim Government.
(ii) The Muslim League opposed the Indian National Congress because the interim government took a firm stance against a possible division of India in to smaller principalities of different size. The league wished that the princely states should be free to adopt any course they liked.
(iii) Sardar Patel played a historic role in negotiating with the rulers of Princely States in bringing most of them into the Indian Union whether by negotiation or by force.
Read the passage given below carefully and answer the following questions :
The New Congress had something that its big opponents lacked – it had an issue, an agenda and a positive slogan. The Grand Alliance did not have a coherent political programme. Indira Gandhi said that the opposition alliance had only one common programme ‘Indira Hatao’. In contrast to this, she put forward a positive programme captured in the famous slogan ‘Garibi Hatao’.
(i) Which Congress is being referred to as ‘the New Congress’ ?
(ii) Highlight any two steps taken by Indira Gandhi to remove poverty.
(iii) How far is it justified to call the ‘opposition alliance’ as the ‘Grand Alliance ’?  Answer:
(i) The Congress-led by Indira Gandhi after the split in Congress in 1969.
(ii) (1) Nationalization of Banks
(2) Abolition of Privy Purse
(3) Land reforms
(iii) All the major parties i.e. SSP, PSP, Bhartiya Jan Sangh, Swatantra Party and the Bhartiya Kranti Dal came together to form an alliance against the New Congress. To call this alliance of opposition parties as a Grand Alliance is justified because all the major parties were included in this alliance.
Read the passage given below carefully and answer the following questions :
The Cold War was not simply a matter of power rivalries, military alliances and of balance of power. These were accompanied by a real ideological conflict as well, a difference over the best and most appropriate way of organizing political, economic, and social life all over the world.  (i) Why is a war-like situation called Cold War?
(ii) Identify one military pact each signed by each of the two super powers to balance the power rivalries.
(iii) Differentiate between the ideologies represented by the rival blocs.
(i) Because actual weapons are not being used and there is a constant fear of war, it is not war but the competition, the tensions and a series of confrontations hence called ‘Cold War’.
(ii) U.S.A led NATO. U.S.S.R led Warsaw Pact.
(iii) U.S. led alliance has adopted capitalism and liberal democracy whereas U.S.S.R led bloc was propagating Socialism/Communism and mainly the one party system.
Study the cartoon given above and answer the following questions :
(i) Which country is represented by this mighty soldier ?
(ii) Why have the names of so many countries been written on the uniform of the soldier ?
(iii) What message does this cartoon convey to the international community ?
(ii) Because the U.S had invaded all these countries. The diagram shows USA’s hegemony and supremacy of power.
(iii) It gives the message that the U.S is a Superpower and has the might to push its interests in any part of the world.
In the outline political map of India given above, five States have been marked as A, B, C, D and E. With the help of the information given below, identify them and write their correct names in your answer book along with the serial number of the information used and the related alphabet in the map.  (i) The State to which C. Rajagopalachari, the first Indian Governor-General of India, belonged.
(ii) The State where the first non-Cong¬ress Government was formed by E.M.S. N amboodiripad.
(iii) The State to which Rafi Ahmed Kidwai, the Union Minister for Food and Agriculture (1952-54) belonged.
(iv) The State which faced the most acute food crisis in 1965-67.
(v) The State which led the country to White Revolution through Dairy Cooperative Movement.
Describe any six criteria for the new membership of Security Council as suggested after 1997.  OR
What is meant by Security? Mention any four components of Indian security strategy.  Answer:
On 1st January, 1997, the UN Secretary- General Kofi Annan initiated an enquiry into how the U.N. should be reformed. Few criteria which have been decided for new member to Security council for both permanent and non-permanent are that the country should be :
- A major economic power.
- A major military power.
- A substantial contributor to the U.N. budget.
- A big nation in terms of its population.
- A nation that respects democracy and human rights.
- A country that would make the council more representative of the world’s diversity in terms nr geography, economic systems and cultures.
Every time a person steps out of his or her house, there is some degree of threat to their existence and way of life. Our world would be saturated with security issues if we took such a broad view of what is threatening.
Security relates only to extremely dangerous threats—threats that could so endanger core values that those values would be damaged beyond repair if we did not do something to deal with the situation. The first component was strengthening its military capabilities because India has been involved in conflicts with its neighbours—Pakistan in 1947-48, 1965, 1971 and 1999; and China in 1962. Since it is surrounded by nuclear armed countries in the South Asian region, India’s decision to conduct nuclear tests in 1998 was justified by the Indian government in terms of safeguarding national security. India first tested a nuclear device in 1974.
The second component of India’s security strategy has been to strengthen international norms and international institutions to protect its security interests. India’s first Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru, supported the cause of Asian solidarity, decolonisation, disarmament, and the UN as a forum in which international conflicts could be settled. India also took initiatives to bring about a universal and non-discriminatory non-proliferation regime in which all countries would have the same rights and obligations with respect to weapons of mass destruction (nuclear, biological, chemical). It argued for an equitable New International Economic Order (NIEO).
The third component of Indian security’ strategy is geared towards meeting security challenges within the country. Several militant groups from areas such as the Nagaland, Mizoram, the Punjab, and Kashmir among others have, from time to time, sought to break away from India. India has tried to preserve national unity’ by adopting a democratic political system, which allows different communities and groups of people to freely articulate their grievances and share political power. Finally, there has been an attempt in India to develop its economy in a way that the vast mass of citizens are lifted out of poverty and misery and huge economic inequalities are not allowed to exist. The attempt has not quite succeeded; we are still a very poor and unequal country. Yet democratic politics allows spaces for articulating the voice of the poor and the deprived citizens.
Describe any six factors responsible for the disintegration of U.S.S.R.  OR
What is meant by New International Economic Order? Mention any four reforms of the global ‘ trading system proposed by UNCTAD in 1972?
Factors responsible for Disintegration of U.S.S.R:
- Internal weaknesses of Soviet political and economic institutions. Economic stagnation for many years led to consumer shortages.
- There was a huge economic burden as Soviet economy used much of its resources in maintaining a nuclear and military arsenal and the development of its satellite states in Eastern Europe and within the Soviet system (the five Central Asian republics in particular)
- Ordinary citizens became more knowledgeable about the economic advancement of the West. After years of being told that the Soviet system was better than Western Capitalism, the reality of its backwardness came as a political and psychological shock.
- Soviet Union became stagnant in an administrative and political sense as well.
- The Communist Party who ruled for over 70 years was not accountable to the people. Ordinary people were alienated by slow and stifling administration, rampant corruption.
- The inability of the system to correct mistakes and the unwillingness to allow more openness in government and the centralisation of authority in a vast land was another reason.
The Non-aligned countries were categorised as the Least Developed Countries (LDCs) — and the challenge they faced was to be more developed. Economic development was also vital for the independence of the new countries. Without sustained development, a country could not be truly free and then be dependent on richer countries. The idea of a New International Economic Order (NIEO) originated with this realization.
Reforms of the global trading system proposed by UNCTAD in 1972.
- To give the LDC’s control over their natural resources exploited by the developed Western countries.
- To obtain access to western markets so that the LDCs could sell their products and therefore, make trade more beneficial for the poorer countries.
- To reduce the cost of technology from the Western countries.
- To provide the LDCs (Least developed countries) with a greater role in international economic institutions.
Explain globalization. How has technology contributed in promoting globalization ?  Answer:
Globalization is the process where the economics of various countries in the world become more and more connected to one another. In a globalized economy, people from one country can buy goods quite easily from other countries. Now- a-days, people in one country can even buy services from other countries (because of the internet a company can have accountants in India, for example, do its taxes).
Technology has played an important role in the contribution to Globalization.
- The invention of the telegraph, the telephone, mobiles, television, internet, e-mail, fax, information technology etc. has revolutionised communication in different parts of the world.
- The ability of ideas, capital commodities and people to move more easily from one part of the world to another has been made possible largely by technological advances.
- The digital and information resolution has changed the way the world learns, communicates, does business and treats illness.
- Computer technology has made long distance learning an everyday reality.
Examine any three factors responsible for the US hegemony in the world politics .  OR
Assess the positive and negative aspects of India’s relations with Bangladesh.  Answer:
Three factors responsible for the US hegemony in world Policies.
(i) The U.S. Hegemony as a Hard Power
- The most important factor for the overwhelming superiority of US power is its superiority of its military power.
- American military dominance is both absolute and relative. In absolute terms, the US has military capabihties that can reach any point on the planet accurately, lethally and in real time, while its own forces are sheltered to the maximum extent possible from the dangers of war.
- No other power can remotely match US military might. It spends more on its military capability than the next 12 powers combined. The military dominance of the US is not just based on higher military spending, but on the qualitative gap, that no other power can match.
(ii) The US Hegemony as a structural power
- Hegemony in this second sense is in the role played by the US in providing global public goods such as the sea lanes of communication (SLOCs)
- The naval power of the hegemony is another reason for its structural power.
- The internet is the direct outcome of a US military research project that began in 1950s.
- There is not a single sector of the world economy in which an American firm does not feature in the “top three” lists.
(iii) The U.S Hegemony as a soft power
- The predominance of the US in the world today is based not only on its military power and economic powers, but also on its cultural presence,
- All ideas of good life and personal success, most of the dreams of individuals and societies across the globe, are dreams churned out by practices prevailing in 21 st century America.
- America is the most powerful culture on earth. Westernisation of Indian culture is one very important example of the same. The fast foods found in America have impacted the eating preferences of the rest of the world as well,
Positive Aspects of India’s relations with Bangladesh. Relations between India and Bangladesh are based r on the moral support given by India during the
freedom struggle of Bangladesh. India had to bear the influx of more than 80 lakh refugees. But the rapid change of governments and the assassination of Mujib impacted the strong relations between the, two. But still some positive aspects do exist:
- Bangladesh is a part of ’Look East Policy’.
- On disaster management and environmental issues, the two states have been cooperating regularly.
- A few differences have been resolved amicably.
- Both sides are trying to identify the common threats and areas of cooperation.
Negative Aspects of India’s relations with Bangladesh
- Illegal migration of Bangladesh in the states of India.
- Dispute over sharing of Ganga and Brahamputra river waters.
- Islamic fundamentalist groups are against having good relations with India.
- Bangladesh government has felt the Indian government as a regional bully.
Suppose you are an important leader of the Farmers’ agitation. The government authorities ask you to present any three demands on behalf of the farmers. On priority basis, which three demands will you make? Support your demands with appropriate arguments.  OR
In 2014 elections, people have voted for stable government at the Centre. Do you think that the era of the coalition has ended? Support your answer with suitable arguments.
Farmland, clean water and a way of life shall be the three demands. They are dependent on thriving agricultural community that is threatened by rising land prices and development. Safeguard these irreplaceable resources—our rural landscape and its family farms by protecting regional farmlands and working landscape through this fund. Besides this, I will put the various suggestions and demands against the government to improve the situations of the Indian farmers and their productivity as well as safe guard for them.
Minimum support price: Wheat and rice come with a government minimum support price, and fruits and vegetables don’t. Farmers find it reassuring to know that MSP exists and may influence open market prices and/or demand for their produce.
(i) Risk of crop failure: Pulses, fruits and vegetables are more vulnerable to adverse weather, leading to higher risk of failure. Rather than pay for crop insurance (where it is available), farmers prefer to simply avert these crops.
(ii) Care and effort required in cultivation: Wheat and rice require less care and effort to grow than vegetables. Higher cafe for crops means reduced availability of farmers for alternate income generating activities, where ware crafts or wage labour.
(iii) Need to sell quickly due to lack of storage facilities: India has about 5400 cold storage units, the majority of which are appropriate for potato. So farmers don’t really have much of an option to store fruit and vegetables for later. The need to sell immediately means that they are at the mercy of current-market prices unlike grain that can be held on to for a longer time.
(iv) Price volatility: Fruits and vegetables experience a much higher degree of price volatility than grains. Part of the reason for this is the high level of mismatch between demand and supply of fruits and vegetables. Another reason is the inefficiency of markets in matching supply and demand in different parts of the country. And of course, their inherent perishability and lack of cold-chain is an additional worry.
The era of a coalition has definitely ended. This statement can be explained by the following points :
- People have given absolute majority to one party i.e. B.J.P.
- People were fed up with the previous experience of coalition governments.
- Regional parties like DMK etc. have been wiped out.
- Many important decision could, not be taken due to varying interests of coalition parties.
No, I don’t believe that the era of a coalition has ended. This statement can be explained by the following points :
- Regional parties still have relevance and they are ruling in different states.
- Congress and B.J.P. both are trying continuously to work the regional parties in their favour.
- The present government still depends and needs the support of different regional parties to get the bills passed in the parliament.
- At present, the congress party is trying to unite the opposition parties against the ruling party in order to regain power.
Analyse any three lessons learnt from the emergency of 1975.
Analyse any three major factors which led the popularity of Indira Gandhi’s Government in the early 1970s.  Answer:
(i) It is extremely difficult to do away with democracy in India. Defeat of Indira Gandhi in 1977 election supports the above fact.
(ii) Secondly, it brought out many ambiguities regarding the emergency provision in the Constitution that have been rectified. It could not have been misused if there had not been ambiguities.
(iii) Thirdly, the Emergency made everyone more aware of the value of civil liberties. The courts too, have taken an active role after the Emergency in protecting the civil liberties of the individuals. This was a response to the inability of the judiciary.
Indira Gandhiji had adopted a very bold strategy. She converted a simple power struggle into an ideological struggle. She launched a series of initiatives to give the government policy a Left orientation. She got the Congress Working Committee to adopt a Ten Point Programme in May 1967.
This programme included social control of banks, nationalization of General Insurance, ceiling on urban property and income, public distribution of food grains, land reforms and provision of house sites to the’rural poor. While the ‘Syndicate’ leaders formally approved this Left-wing programme, they had serious reservations about the same.
She also announced several big and popular policy measures like the nationalization of fourteen leading private banks and the abolition of the ‘privy purse’ or the special privileges given to former princes. Morarji Desai was the Deputy Prime Minister and Finance Minister. She put forward a positive programme captured in the famous slogan: Garibi Hatao (Remove Poverty). She focused on the growth of the public sector imposition of ceiling on rural land holdings and urban property, removal of disparities in income and opportunity, and abolition of princely privileges. Through Garibi Hatao, Indira Gandhi tried to generate a support base among the disadvantaged, especially among the landless labourers, Dalits, Adivasis, minorities, women and the unemployed youth. The slogan of Garibi Hatao and the programme that followed it were a part of Indira Gandhi’s political strategy of building an independent nationwide political support base.
CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 Political Science 2015 Delhi Set – II
Note: Except for the following questions, all the remaining questions have been asked in previous set.
Why was the Warsaw Pact also called the ‘Eastern Alliance’?  Answer:
Most countries of Eastern Europe had joined the alliance led by USSR i.e., the Warsaw pact, hence it is also known as Eastern Alliance.
What was ‘Operation Enduring Freedom’?  Answer:
Operation enduring freedom was launched by the US against all those suspected to be behind the attack on World Trade Tower.
Describe any two major objectives of Nehru’s foreign policy.  Answer:
Objectives of Nehru’s foreign Policy.
- To preserve the hard earned sovereignty of India.
- To protect territorial integrity.
Describe the era of multi-party system in India after 1989. [2 + 2 = 4] Answer:
In India after 1989, almost all the governments were coalition governments which, represented inclusion of multiparties in the government.
In 1996 -BJP formed a government with the help of, many regional parties.
In 1996 – United Front emerged and formed the government with the support of Congress party,
In 1998 – 99- NDA was formed which was a combination of about 25 political parties. This coalition formed the NDA government.
In 2004- UPA was another Alliance of various National and regional parties. (Any 3 examples) The above process shows that multiparty system of India changed its character and started to polarize around two major National parties i.e., Indian
National Congress and Bhartiya Janata Party.
Explain the economic and military influence of, the European Union.  Answer:
Economic Influence :
- EU is the world’s biggest economy with a GDP of more than 12,000 billion in 2005, slightly larger than that of the USA.
- Its currency Euro can pose a threat to the dominance of the US dollar.
- Its share of world trade is three times larger than that of the US.
Military Influence :
- The EU’s combined armed forces are the second largest in the world.
- Its total spending on defence is second after that of the US.
- Two members of the EU have large arsenal of nuclear warheads.
- It is the world’s second most important source of space and communications technology.
Which two models of modern development were there before India on the eve of independence? Which model did India decide to choose and why? [2 + 2 = 4] Answer:
At the time of independence, there were two models of modern development before India
(i) Liberal-Capitalist model which was prevalent in Europe and the US.
(ii) Socialist model which was prevalent in the USSR. The mixed model of development was chosen because many in India were deeply impressed by this mixed model neither was it completely dependent on the government nor on the private sector. This model was considered to be most useful for the welfare and upliftment of all the categories of people in India.
Describe any three reasons for the superpower to have military alliances with smaller countries during the Cold War Period.
Describe the role of Gorbachev to reform the Soviet System and the effects of these reforms on the U.S.S.R.  Answer:
International alliances during the Cold war era were determined by the requirements of the superpowers and the calculations of the smaller states. In some cases, the superpowers used their military power to bring countries into their respective alliances. The Soviet Union, for example, used its influence in eastern Europe, backed by the very large presence of its armies in the countries of the region, to ensure that the eastern half of Europe remained within its sphere of influence. Although with their nuclear weapons and regular armies, they were so powerful that the combined power of most of the smaller states was no match for the superpowers, yet alliances with the smaller states were helpful in gaining access to :
(i) Vital resources such as oil and minerals.
(ii) Availability of territory from where the superpowers could launch their weapons and troops and of locations from where they could spy on each other.
(iii) Economic support with which many small allies together could help pay for military expenses.
Role of Gorbachev to reform the Soviet system: To reform the distraught Soviet union and to bring in democratisation within the Communist party, Gorbachev introduces the policies of ‘perestroika’ and ‘glasnost’.
(i) Perestroika refers to the restructuring of the political and economic system, established by the Communist party, meant to kickstart the stagnant 1980s economy of the Soviet union. However, the suddenness of these reforms, coupled with growing instability inside the outside the Soviet union, contributed to its collapse.
(ii) Glasnost-(Openness) was a policy of open discussion of political and social issues, introduced by Gorbachev with the aim of increase the efficacy of the Soviet system, by constructive criticism and open dialogue.
(iii) Peace with the West: Gorbachev also made attempts to end the cold war and improve relations with the West. He met with the U.S. president and signed the INF treaty regarding nuclear weapons.
He also removed Soviet troops from Afghanistan, ending the Soviet-Afghanistan war.
Effects of the Reforms :
(i) Gorbachev promised to reform the economy and catch-up with the West, yet Soviet union collapsed. The most basic reason can be that when he carried out his reforms, he set in motion unpredictable forces and expectations, which became virtually impossible to control.
(ii) There were sections of society which felt that Gorbachev’s reforms did not benefit in the way that they had hoped. On the other hand, the communist party members felt that their powers-and privileges were eroding. As a result, Gorbachev lost support from all sides.
(iii) His reforms gave rise to nationalism and the desire for sovereignty within various republics including Russia and the Baltic republics (Estonia, Latina, Lithuania), Ukraine and other which led to the disintegration of the U.S.S.R.
Define the ‘Indigenous People* and highlight any two threats to their survival.  OR
Explain the positive impacts of globalization on the present-day world.
Indigenous People bring the issues of environment, resources and politics together.
The UN defined indigenous populations comprising of the descendants of people who inhabited the present territory of a country at the time when persons of a different culture or ethnic origin arrived there from other parts of the world and overcome them.
Threats to their Survival:
(i) The indigenous people in the world demand to be treated as equal. They appeal to governments to come to terms with the continuing existence of indigenous nations as enduring communities with an identity of their own.
(ii) Although they enjoy constitutional protection in political representation, they have not got much of the benefits of development in the country. They have paid a huge cost for development since they are the single largest group among the people displaced by various developmental projects since independence.
The positive consequences of globalisation on india:
(i) Globalisation has enabled some large Indian Companies to emerge as multinationals themselves Tata Motors (automobiles), Infosys (IT), Ranbaxy (medicines), Asian Paints (paints), Sundaram Fasteners (nuts and bolts) are some Indian companies which are spreading their operations worldwide.
(ii) Globalisation has also created new opportunities for companies providing services, particularly those involving IT. The Indian company producing a magazine for the London based company and call centres are some examples.
(iii) Besides, a host of services such as data entry, accounting, administrative tasks, engineering are now being done cheaply in India and are exported to the developed countries.
CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 Political Science 2015 Delhi Set – III
Note: Except for the following questions, all the remaining questions have been asked in the previous set.
Define ‘Bipolarity’.  Answer:
Diversion of the world into two power blocks led by U.S.A. and U.S.S.R. is called bipolarity.
What was the main objective of ‘Operation Desert Storm’?  Answer:
In the First Gulf war, a massive Coalition force of 34 countries by the United Nations fought against Iraq. The operation organized by the United Nations was called as Operation Desert Storm. An American general Normal Schwazkopf was the Chief Commander of Operation Desert Storm.
Differentiate between the traditional and the non-traditional notions of security.  Answer:
|Traditional Notions||Non-Traditional Notions|
|(i) Traditional conceptions of security are principally concerned with the use of military force.||(i) Non-Traditional Notions of security go beyond military threats and dangers affecting the conditions of human existence.|
|(ii) The traditional security conception referent is the state with its territory and governing institutions.||(ii) The referent is expanded and covers wide areas of security.|
|(iii)The scope of traditional Notion of Security is confined to internal and external threats to the state.||(iii) The scope of non-traditional Notion of security covers not just the state but also individuals or indeed all of human kind.|
|(iv) The force is both the principal threat to security and principal means of achieving security.||(iv) Co-operation is the principal means of achieving security. i.e., co-operative security to all humankind.|
When was the Mandal Commission set-up? Describe any two recommendations of this Commission.  Answer:
Mandal Commission was set up in 1978, by Janta Party Government.
- 27% of seats in educational institutions and government jobs were reserved for ‘backward classes’, making the total reservation for SC, ST and OBC to 49%.
- Land reforms to improve the conditions of the OBCs.
Why does ASEAN still remain principally an economic association?  Answer:
ASEAN still remains principally an economic association because:
- ASEAN region as a whole is a much smaller economy compared to the E.U, the US and Japan.
- ASEAN economy is growing much faster than the E.U., the US and Japan.
- It’s objective is to create a common market and production base within ASEAN states.
- It also wants to aid social and economic development in the region.
- It also likes to improve the existing ASEAN Dispute Settlement mechanism to resolve economic disputes.
- It has focused on creating a Free Trade Area (FTA) for investment, labour and services. The US and China have already moved fast to negotiate FTAs with ASEAN.
Why did the movement for secession in the Mizo Hills area gain popular support? How was the r problem resolved?  Answer:
(i) The movement for secession in the Mizo Hills area gained popular support because some Mizos believed that they were never a part of British India and, therefore, did not belong to the Indian Union. The movement for secession gained popular support after the Assam government failed to respond adequately to the great famine of 1959 in Mizo hills,
(ii) To resolve the problem, an agreement was signed by founder and leader of Mizo national front, Laldenga and the Prime Minister of India, Rajiv Gandhi, in 1986.
Why did India distance itself from the two camps led by the U.S. and the Soviet Union ? Explain.  Answer:
India distanced itself from both the camps led by the US and USSR :
- To serve its national interests rather than the interests of the Super Powers.
- To upkeep the sovereignty of the nation and to take independent decisions.
- To follow and advocate the policy of Non-Alignment.
Describe the factors that make most of the former Soviet Republic prone to conflicts and threats.  OR
Describe the role played by India in keeping in Non-Aligned Movement alive and relevant.
Factors that make most of the former Soviet republics prone to conflicts and threats :
- There were internal weaknesses of Soviet political and economic institutions, which failed to meet the aspirations of the people.
- Economic stagnation for many years led to severe shortages of consumer items and a large section of Soviet society began to doubt and question the system and do so openly.
- The Soviet economy used much of its resources in maintaining a nuclear and military arsenal.
- The development of its satellite states in Eastern Europe and within the Soviet system (the five Central Asian republics in particular). This led to a huge economic burden that the system could not cope with.
- They could see the disparities between their system and the systems of the West. After years of being told that the Soviet system was better than Western capitalism, the reality of its backwardness came as a political and psychological shock.
- The Soviet Union had become stagnant in an administrative and political sense as well.
- The rise of nationalism and the desire for sovereignty within various republics including Russia and the Baltic republics (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania), Ukraine, Georgia!
Role played by India in keeping the non-aligned movement alive and relevant:
(i) India has always raised to voice against the newly decolonised countries from becoming members of superpower alliances. India facilitated the involvement of former colonies and newly independent countries into the organisation to protect the interests of undeveloped nations in international politics. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru was one of the chief architects of the non-aligned movement, which was a movement formed during the Cold war era, wherein some states did not seek to align themselves either in the Soviet union or the U.S.
(ii) India was in favour of actively intervening in world affairs to softer cold war rivalries. The foreign policy of independent India vigorously pursued the dream of a peaceful world by advocating the policy of non-alignment, by reducing the Cold.war tensions and by contributing human resources to the U.N. peacekeeping operations.
(iii) Indian diplomats and leaders were often used to communicate and mediate between cold war rivals such as in the Korean War, 1950 India backed the U.S. by endorsing the United Nations resolution that condemned North Korea’s attack on South Korea, India was a staunch supporter of decolonisation process and firmly opposed racism, especially aparthied in South Africa. India also made earnest efforts for the early realisation of freedom of Indonesia from the Dutch colonial regime, by convening an international conference in 1949 to support its freedom struggle.
Explain any three environmental concerns in global politics.  OR
Explain any three reasons for resistance to globalisation.
Any three environmental concerns that have become issues of global politics:
(i) Throughtout the world, cultivable area is barely expanding any more and a substantial portion of existing agricultural land is losing fertility. Grasslands have been overgrazed and fisheries over-harvested. Water bodies have suffered extensive depletion and pollution, severely restricting food production.
(ii) According to the Human Report 2006 of the United Notions Development Programme, 1.2 billion people in developing countries have no access to safe water and 2.6 billion have no access to sanitation, resulting in the death of more than three million children every year.
(iii) Natural forests, which help stabilise the climate, moderate water supplies and harbour a majority of the planet’s biodiversity on land are being cut down rapidly. The loss of biodiversity countries and destruction of forests adversely affects the climate.
Any three reasons for resistance to globalisation :
(i) Leftist argue that contemporary globalisation represents a particular phase of global capitalism that expand the breach between the rich and the poor. The state is becoming weak and the capacity of the state to do welfare of poor people is getting reduced. Resistance to globalisation in India has come from different quarters. Trade unions of the industrial workforce, as well as those protecting former interests have organised protests against the entry of the multinationals.
(ii) Economically, they want a return to self reliance and protectionism, at least in certain areas of the economy, especially in export-import and investment. Most anti-globalisation movements are opposed to a specific programme of globalisation which they see as a form of imperialism. In 1999, at the WTO meeting, there were widespread protests at Seattle, alleging unfair trade practices by economically powerful states.
(iii) Culturally, critics are worried that traditional culture i.e., music, dress and language etc. will be harmed and people will lose their age-old values and ways. The objections to-cultural influence range from the availability of foreign. T.V. channels provided by cable networks, celebration of Valentine’s day, Westernisation of dresses of students in schools and colleges.