Universal Forces

# Universal Forces

## universal forces

The forces that are always present and that act on objects. The four fundamental forces are gravity, electromagnetism, and the strong and weak nuclear forces.

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## Universal Forces

There are four fundamental forces in the universe: gravity, electromagnetism, strong nuclear force, and weak nuclear force. Of these, gravity is the weakest but also the most ubiquitous; it is the force that keeps us tethered to the Earth and is responsible for the formation of stars and planets. Electromagnetism is the force that governs how electrically charged particles interact; it is responsible for everything from the light emitted by the Sun to the operation of our electronic devices. The strong nuclear force is the force that holds together the nuclei of atoms; it is much stronger than the electromagnetic force but is only effective over very short distances. The weak nuclear force is responsible for radioactive decay; it is weaker than the strong nuclear force but has a larger range of action.

## Four Forces in Physics

There are four forces in physics: the strong force, the weak force, the electromagnetic force, and the gravitational force.

The strong force is the force that holds together the nuclei of atoms. It is much stronger than the other forces, but it only acts over very short distances.

The weak force is responsible for radioactive decay. It is weaker than the strong force, but it acts over longer distances.

The electromagnetic force is the force that governs the interactions between electrically charged particles. It is responsible for things like electricity and magnetism.

The gravitational force is the force that attracts objects to each other. It is the weakest of the four forces, but it acts over long distances.

## What is Gravity

?

Gravity is a natural force that attracts objects towards the center of the earth.

## Electromagnetism

and the Weak Force

One of the four fundamental forces, electromagnetism, is responsible for pretty much everything we interact with on a daily basis. It’s what makes a TV work and what lights up a light bulb. It also holds together the atoms that make up every solid, liquid, and gas in the universe.

The other three forces—the strong force, the weak force, and gravity—are responsible for holding together the nuclei of atoms, radioactive decay, and everything else in the universe (respectively).

But while electromagnetism and gravity are well-understood, the weak force is still something of a mystery. It’s responsible for a type of radioactive decay called beta decay, in which a neutron in an atom’s nucleus decays into a proton and an electron. This causes the atom to become unstable and emit radiation.

The weak force is also responsible for the sun’s energy output. In the sun’s core, hydrogen atoms are fused together to form helium. This process, called nuclear fusion, releases huge amounts of energy.

But the weak force is very weak. It’s about 10,000 times weaker than the strong force, which holds together the nuclei of atoms. And it’s 10 million times weaker than electromagnetism.

This makes it very difficult to study. In fact, it wasn’t until the

## Strong Nuclear Force

The nuclear force is the force that holds together the nuclei of atoms. We say that it is “strong” because it is much stronger than the other forces that hold together atoms, such as the electromagnetic force.

The strong nuclear force is carried by the “gluons”. Gluons are particles that are exchanged between quarks.

The strong nuclear force is only active at very short distances. When two nuclei are far apart, the strong nuclear force is not strong enough to hold them together.

The strong nuclear force is responsible for the binding energy of nuclei. This is the energy that is released when nuclei are formed.

The strong nuclear force is also responsible for the “strong interactions” of particles. These are the interactions that occur when quarks are brought together to form hadrons (such as protons and neutrons).

## Four Types of Forces

There are four types of forces:

Gravity: a force that pulls two objects together.

Friction: a force that opposes motion.

Electrical: a force that attracts or repels electrons.

Magnetic: a force that attracts or repels objects with a magnetic field.

## Unification of Fundamental Forces

It might seem like physical laws are different in different contexts. The laws of motion are different on Earth than on Mars, and the laws of electricity are different in a circuit than in a capacitor. The physical laws seem to change as the situation changes.

But the laws of physics are actually the same in every situation. The laws of motion on Earth are the same as on Mars. The laws of electricity in a circuit are the same as in a capacitor.

The physical laws are the same in every situation, but they can be expressed in different ways. The laws of motion on Earth can be expressed in terms of Newton’s laws of motion. The laws of motion on Mars can be expressed in terms of the law of gravity. The laws of electricity in a circuit can be expressed in terms of the laws of electromagnetism.

The physical laws are the same in every situation, but they can be expressed in different ways. The laws of motion on Earth can be expressed in terms of Newton’s laws of motion. The laws of motion on Mars can be expressed in terms of the law of gravity. The laws of electricity in a circuit can be expressed in terms of the laws of electromagnetism.

The physical laws are the same in every situation, but they can be expressed in different ways. The laws of motion on Earth can be expressed in terms of Newton’s laws of motion. The laws of motion on Mars can be expressed in terms of

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