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Transition Elements

Transition elements are those elements whose atoms possess incomplete d orbital, or any such element that has the capability to give rise to cation having incomplete d orbital.

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    Transition Elements Definition

    Transition elements are defined as those elements that show partially filled d-orbital either in the atomic orbits or in some of the common oxidation states.

    What are Transition Elements?

    Transition elements are those elements which belong to the d-block of periodic table extends from group 3 to group 12. These elements are defined by having partially filled d orbitals in their atoms or in their ions. They are also called d-block elements or transition elements.

    Transition Elements in Periodic Table

    Transition elements are those that are found in the middle block of the periodic table; between groups 3 and 12. This block of elements is sometimes called d- block because the electron which differentiates one element from the other goes into the d orbit.

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    Properties of Transition Elements

    Transition elements exhibit a wide range of properties-

    • High density
    • Formation of colored compounds
    • Variable oxidation states
    • High Electrical and Thermal Conductivity of Porous Graphite.

    Characteristics of Transition Elements

    The key characteristics of transition elements include-

    • Multiple oxidation states: Transition metals could have varying oxidation numbers.
    • Formation of colored compounds: Transition metal compounds are generally coloured because of d-d electron transfer process.
    • Magnetic properties: The majority of transition metals and their complexes show magnetic behaviors due to presence of unpaired d electrons.
    • Catalytic properties: Catalysts are present in many chemical reactions as they help the reaction occur.

    General Electronic Configuration of Transition Elements

    The general electronic configuration of transition elements is [n – 1] d 1-10 ns 0-2 [noble gas]. For example the configurations of iron (Fe) are [Ar]3d64s2[Ar] 3d6 4s2 [Ar]3d64s2.

    Electronic Configuration of Transition Elements

    Transition elements form a series in which the d-sub shells are filled gradually. For example for cobalt element Co configuration is [Ar]3d74s2[Ar] 3d7 4s2[Ar]3d74s2.

    Paramagnetic and Ferromagnetic Behaviour of Transition Elements

    Most transition elements are paramagnetic as they contain unpaired d electrons. Some atomic species such as Fe, Co, Ni have high magnetic moments.

    Oxidation state of transition element

    Transition elements form multiple oxidation states and the oxidation states differ by one. For example; Iron can exist as Fe2+ and Fe3+.

    Transition Elements Examples

    Some common examples of transition elements include:

    • Iron (Fe)
    • Copper (Cu)
    • Nickel (Ni)
    • Silver (Ag)
    • Gold (Au)

    Transition Elements List

    The list of transition elements includes:

    • Scandium (Sc)
    • Titanium (Ti)
    • Vanadium (V)
    • Chromium (Cr)
    • Manganese (Mn)
    • Iron (Fe)
    • Cobalt (Co)
    • Nickel (Ni)
    • Copper (Cu)
    • Zinc (Zn)

    Inner Transition Elements

    Inner transition elements, including lanthanides and actinides, are found in the f-block of the periodic table. These elements have partially filled f orbitals and are known for their magnetic properties and ability to form complex ions.

    Magnetic Properties of Transition Elements

    The presence of unpaired d electrons in transition elements leads to magnetic properties. For instance, iron, cobalt, and nickel exhibit strong magnetic properties due to the alignment of unpaired electrons in their d orbitals.

    FAQs on Transition Elements

    What are d block Transition Elements?

    Transition elements are those that form an inner transition series that contains the lanthanoids and actinoids. They are in group B of the periodic table and include those elements that fill the f-orbitals.

    Define transition elements

    Transition elements are defined as those elements that have partially filled d orbitals either in their atomic state or in one or more of their common oxidation states, typically found in the d-block of the periodic table.

    Why are d-block elements called transition elements?

    D-block elements are called transition elements because they exhibit properties that are transitional between s-block and p-block elements. They have partially filled d orbitals, which give them unique chemical and physical properties.

    Why do transition elements show variable oxidation states?

    Transition elements show variable oxidation states because they have partially filled d orbitals, allowing electrons to be removed from both the s and d subshells, leading to multiple possible oxidation states.

    Why do transition elements form colored compounds?

    Transition elements form colored compounds due to the d-d electron transitions within the partially filled d orbitals. When light is absorbed, these electrons are excited to higher energy levels, resulting in the emission of visible colors.

    Is zinc a transition element?

    Zinc is not considered a transition element because it has a completely filled d subshell in both its elemental form and common oxidation state (Zn^2+), which does not exhibit the characteristic properties of transition metals.

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