Time allowed: 3 hours Maximum marks: 90
- The Question Paper has 30 questions in all. All questions are
- Marks are indicated against each question.
- Questions from serial number 1 to 8 are Very Short Answer questions. Each question carries one mark.
- Questions from serial number 9 to 20 are 3 mark Answers of these questions should not exceed 80 words each.
- Questions from serial number 21 to 28 are 5 marks Answers of these questions should not exceed 100 words each.
- Question number 29 and 30 are map questions of 3 mark each from History and Geography both. After completion, attach the map inside your answer book.
Question.1. Name the Treaty of 1832 that recognised Greece as an independent nation.
Answer. Treaty of 1832: Constantinople
What was the result of the peace negotiation in Geneva that followed the French defeat in Vietnam?
Answer. In the peace negotiation in Geneva that followed the French defeat, the Vietnamese were persuaded to accept the division of the country. North and South were split. Ho Chi Minh and the communists took power in North. Bao Dai’s regime was put in power in South.
Question.2. Why are there a wide range of colours, hardness, crystal forms, lustre and density found in minerals?
Answer. A mineral that will be formed from a certain combination of elements depends upon the physical and chemical conditions under which the mineral forms. It is because of these physical and chemical conditions that minerals possess a wide range of colours, crystal forms, lustre and density.
Question.3. How are issue specific movements different from generic movements?
Answer. Issue specific movements seek to achieve a single objective within limited time frame.
General generic movements seek to achieve a broad goal in the very long term.
Question.4. Name any one political party that has national level political organisation but not recognised as a national political party.
Answer. State parties like the Samajwadi Party, Samata Party and Rashtriya Janata Dal have national level political organisations with units in several states but are not recognised as . national parties.
Question.5. Which organisation led the protest against water privatisation in Bolivia?
Answer. The protest against water privatisation in Bolivia was led by FEDECOR.
Question.6. Differentiate between investment and foreign investment.
Answer. The money that is spent to buy assets (land, building, machines and other equipments) is called investment, while the investment made by the MNCs is called foreign investment.
Question.7. Suppose you have to buy a packed bottle for drinking water in your journey. Which logo will you like to see to be sure about its quality?
Answer. Indian Standard Instrument (ISI) issued by Ministry of Agriculture.
Question.8. How do the deposits with banks become their source of income?
Answer. Banks charge a higher interest rate on loans they extend than what they offer on deposits.
The difference of interest is the main source of income of banks.
Question.9. How had the female figures become an allegory of the nation during nineteenth century in Europe? Analyse.
Answer. Artists in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries portrayed nations as female figures. The female form, that was chosen to personify the nation, did not stand for any particular woman in real life. Rather it sought to give the abstract idea of the nation in concrete form. That is, the female figure became the allegory of the nation.
In France, she was named Marianne—a popular Christian name and in Germany, Germania. Germania wears a crown of oak leaves as the German oak stands for heroism. The characteristics of Marianne were drawn from those of Liberty and Republic —the red cap, the tricolour and cockade.
How did nationalism emerge in Vietnam through the efforts of different sections of society to fight against the French? Analyse.
Answer. Nationalism in Vietnam emerged through the efforts of different sections of the society:
- The colonisation of Vietnam by the French brought the people of the country into conflict with the colonisers in all areas of life. Nationalist resistance developed when the French troops landed in Vietnam.
- Schools became an important place for cultural and political battles. Students played a major role by travelling outside Vietnam to Japan to acquire modem education. Their main aim was to seek foreign help to overthrow the puppet emperor and re¬establish the Nguyen dynasty. By 1920s, students were forming various political parties such as Party of Young Annan and publishing journals such as Annanese Student to promote patriotic feelings.
- Teachers and students did not accept the French curriculum in schools. Teachers spread nationalism by modifying texts and criticising what was stated in the textbooks.
- During the nationalist movement, a new image of womanhood emerged. Political thinkers and writers began idealising women rebels of the past. Many women joined the resistance movement. They helped in nursing the wounded, constructing underground rooms and tunnels and even shot down 15 enemy fighter-planes.
- Religious scholars opposed the presence and spread of Christianity by French Christian missionaries.
Question.10. Who had designed the ‘swaraj flag’ by 1921? Explain the main features of this ‘swaraj flag’.
Answer. Mahatma Gandhi designed the ‘Swaraj Flag’ by 1921.
Main features of the ‘Swaraj Flag’:
- It had tricolours — Red, Green and White.
- It had a spinning wheel in the centre.
- It represents the Gandhian idea of self-help.
- Carrying the flag during marches had become a symbol of defiance and a sense of collective belonging.
Question.11. “The Civil Disobedience Movement was different from the Non-Cooperation Movement”. Support the statement with examples.
Answer. The Civil Disobedience Movement was different from the Non-Cooperation Movement in the following ways:
- The people were asked not to cooperate with the government.
- Foreign goods and foreign cloth were boycotted. In many places merchants and traders refused to trade in foreign goods or finance foreign traders.
- Students left the government owned schools and colleges and lawyers gave up legal practices.
Civil Disobedience Movement:
- People were asked not only to refuse cooperation with the British but also to break colonial laws.
- The countrymen broke the salt law by manufacturing salt by boiling sea water at Dandi.
- Peasants refused to pay revenue and chaukidari tax.
- Village officials resigned from their jobs. Forest people violated forest rules and laws.
Question.12. Classify industries on the basis of capital investment. How are they different from one another? Explain with examples.
Answer. On the basis of capital investment industries can be classified as:
(i) Small-scale industry (ii) Large-scale industry
If the investment is more than one crore rupees in any industry, it is considered as a large scale industry. For example, Iron and Steel industry, Cement industry.
If the investment is less than one crore rupees in any industry, it is considered as a small scale industry. For example, Plastic industry, Toy industry.
Question.13. “Efficient means of transport are pre-requisites for the fast development.” Express your views in favour of this statement.
Answer. See Q. 14, 2014 (I Outside Delhi).
Question.14. “The textile industry is the only industry in the country which is self-reliant and complete in the value chain.” Justify the statement.
Answer. See Q. 13, 2015 (III Outside Delhi).
Question.15. What is meant by a ‘national political party’? State the conditions required to be a national political party.
Answer. National political parties have their units in various states. By and large all these units follow the same policies, programmes and strategy that is decided at the national level. Conditions required to be a national political party:
- A party that secures at least 6% of the total votes in general elections of Lok Sabha or assembly elections in four states.
- A party that wins at least 4 seats in the Lok Sabha.
Question.16. What are sectional interest groups? Describe their functioning.
Answer. Sectional interest groups are the groups that seek to promote the interests of a particular section or a group of society. For example, FEDECOR (Bolivian organisation). Functioning:
- They perform a meaningful role in countering the undue influence of other groups.
- They create awareness about the needs and concerns of their own society.
- Their principal concern is .the betterment and well-being of their own members and not the society in general.
Question.17. “Most of the established democracies are facing the challenge of expansion.” Support the statement with examples.
Answer. See Q. 17, 2012 (I Delhi).
Question.18. How can money be easily exchanged for goods or services? Give an example to explain.
Answer. Money as a medium of exchange for goods and services:
A person holding money can easily exchange it for any commodity or service that he or she might want. Everyone prefers to receive payments in money and exchange the money for things they want.
For example: A shoemaker wants to sell shoes in the market and buy wheat. The shoe maker will first exchange shoes for money and then exchange the money for wheat. If the shoemaker had to directly exchange shoes for wheat without the use of money, he would have to look for a wheat growing farmer who not only wants to sell wheat but also wants to buy the shoes in exchange. Both the parties have to agree to sell and buy each other’s commodities. This process is very difficult, time consuming and unhealthy.
Question.19. ‘Barriers on foreign trade and foreign investment were removed to a large extent in India since 1991’. Justify the statement.
Answer. See Q. 18. 2014 (I Delhi).
Question.20. “The credit activities of the informal sector should be discouraged.” Support the statement with arguments.
Answer. The credit activities of the informal sector should be discouraged because:
- 85% of loans taken by the poor households in the urban areas are from informal sources. There is no organisation that supervises the credit activities of lenders in the informal sector.
- Informal lenders charge very high interest on their loans. They try to charge more and more interest on their loans as there are no boundaries and restrictions.
- Higher cost of borrowing means a larger part of the earnings of the borrowers is used to repay the loan.
- In certain cases, the high interest .rate for borrowing can mean that the amount to be repaid is greater than the income of borrower. This could lead to increasing debt and debt trap, therefore the credit activities of the informal sector should be discouraged.
Question.21. Analyse the measures and practices introduced by the French revolutionaries to create a sense of collective identity amongst the French people.
Answer. See Q. 21,2012 (I Outside Delhi).
“U.S. entry into the war in Vietnam marked a new phase that proved costly to Vietnamese as well as to the Americans.” Analyse the statement.
Answer. Effect of the War on Vietnam:
- US entry into the war proved costly to the Vietnamese as well as to Americans. The phase of struggle with the US was brutal.
- From 1965-1972, many (over 403100) US personnel served in Vietnam out of which 7484 were women. Many died in battle and a large number of people were wounded.
- Thousands of US troops arrived equipped with heavy weapons and tanks backed by most powerful bombers of the time—B52s. The widespread attacks and use of chemical weapons—Napalm, Agent Orange and Phosphorous bombs destroyed many villages and decimated jungles. Civilians died in large numbers.
Effect of the US involvement on life within the US:
- Most of the people were critical of the government’s policy of war. When the youths were drafted (forced recruitment) for the war, the anger grew.
- Compulsory service in the armed forces could be waived only for university graduates. This meant many of those sent to fight did not belong to the privileged elite, but were minorities and children of working class families which created a lot of resentment.
- US media played a major role in both supporting and criticising the war. Hollywood made films in support of the war. (Example: John Wayne’s Green Berets; 1968). The film was taken as a war propaganda film, responsible for motivating many young men to die in the war. Other films were more critical. (Example: John Ford Coppola’s Apocalypse Now 1979 reflected the moral confusion that the war caused in the US).
Question.22. Why did Gandhiji decide to launch a nationwide satyagraha against the proposed Rowlatt Act 1919? How was it organised? Explain.
Answer. See Q. 10, 2015 (I Delhi).
Question.23. Highlight the importance of petroleum. Explain the occurrence of petroleum in India.
Answer. Importance of Petroleum in India:
- It is the second most important energy source of India after coal. It can be easily transported by pipelines and does not leave any residue. This property of petroleum gives it an added advantage in its use over other fuels.
- It provides fuel for heat and light.
- It provides lubricants for machinery.
- It provides raw material for a number of manufacturing industries.
- It is an important fuel used in transportation sector.
- Petroleum refineries act as a ‘nodal industry’ for synthetic textiles, fertilizers and many chemical industries.
Occurrence of Petroleum in India:
- Most of the petroleum occurrences in India are associated with anticlines and fault traps in the rock formations of the tertiary age.
- In regions of folding anticlines it occurs where oil is trapped in the crest of the up fold. The oil bearing layer is porous limestone or sandstone through which oil may flow.
- Petroleum is also found in fault traps between porous and non-porous rocks.
Question.24. “The economic strength of a country is measured by the development of manufacturing industries.” Support the statement with arguments.
Answer. See Q. 23, 2015 (I Outside Delhi).
Question.25. How are the democratic governments better than the other forms of governments? Compare.
Answer. See Q. 25, 2014 (I Delhi).
Question.26. “Pressure groups and movements exert influence on politics in different ways.” Support the statement with suitable examples.
Answer. See Q. 26, 2015 (I Delhi).
Question.27. Describe the vital and positive role of credit with examples.
Answer. See Q. 28, 2014 (I Outside Delhi).
Example: In the festive season, a shoe manufacturer, Ram receives an order from a large trader in town for 3,000 pairs of shoes to be delivered in a month’s time. To complete production on time Ram has to hire workers for stitching and pasting work. He has to purchase the raw materials. To meet these expenses Ram obtains loans from two sources. First, he asks the leather supplier to supply leather now and promises to pay him later. Second, he obtains loan in cash from the large traders as advance payment for 1000 pairs of shoes with a promise to deliver the whole order by the end of the month.
At the end of the month, Salim is able to deliver the order, make a good profit and repay the money he had borrowed.
Salim obtains credit to meet the working capital needs of production. The credit helps him to meet the ongoing expenses of production, complete production on time and thus increase his earnings. Credit therefore plays a vital and positive role in this situation.
Question.28. What is globalisation? Describe the role of Multinational Corporations (MNCs) in promoting globalisation process.
Answer. Globalisation is the process of rapid integration or inter-connection among countries. Over the last 20-30 years, these has been a tremendous increase in globalisation with the increase in the number of MNCs.
- MNCs set up production centres worldwide where cheap labour is available, markets are near and government policies are favourable.
- They supply produced goods to different countries.
- Countries of the world have come closer due to increased movement of people between countries.
- MNCs provide money for additional investments for faster production.
- MNCs bring with them the latest technology and know-how for enhancing and improving the production process.
Question.29. Three features A, B and C are marked on the given political outline map of India. Identify these features with the help of the following information and write their correct names on the lines marked in the map:
A. The place where the Indian National Congress Session was held.
B. The place associated with the Peasant’s Satyagraha.
C. The city associated with the Jallianwala Bagh incident.
Note : The following questions are f Or the Visually impaired Candidates only, in lieu of Q No. 29:
(29.1) Name the place where the Indian National Congress Session was held in 1927.
(29.2) Name the state where the Indigo planters organised satyagraha.
(29.3) Name the city related to the Jallianwala Bagh incident.
Answer. (29.1) Madras
Question.30 On the given political outline map of India locate and label the following with appropriate symbols:
A. Ankleshwar—Oil field
B. Durgapur—Iron and steel plant
C. Tuticorin—Major seaport
Note: The following questions are for the Visually Impaired Candidates only, in lieu of Q.No. 30:
(30.1) In which state is Ankleshwar oil field located?
(30.2) In which state is Durgapur iron and steel plant located?
(30.3) Name the southern most major seaport of India.
Answer. (30.1) Gujarat
(30.2) West Bengal
Except for the following questions, all the remaining questions have been asked in Set-I.
Question.1. Name the event that mobilised nationalist feelings among the educated elite across Europe in 1830-1848?
Answer. The Greek War of Independence in 1821.
Name the writer who wrote a play based on the lives of Trung sisters.
Answer. Phan Boi Chau.
Question.2. How do minerals occur in igneous and metamorphic rocks?
Answer. In igneous and metamorphic rocks, minerals may occur in cracks, crevices, faults and joints.
Question.8. Why one cannot refuse a payment made in rupees in India?
Answer. One cannot refuse a payment made in rupees in India because it is accepted as a medium of exchange. The currency is authorized by the government of the country.
Question.17. “Democratic government is legitimate government?” Support the statement with arguments.
Answer. Democratic government is a legitimate government. It may be slow, less efficient, not always very responsive or clean. But a democratic government is peoples’ own government. That is why there is an overwhelming support for the idea of democracy all over the world. People’s wish to be ruled by representatives elected by them. As a democratic government is peoples’ own government, they believe that democracy is suitable for their country as it is a legitimate government. Democracy’s ability to generate its own support is itself an outcome that cannot be ignored.
Question.18. “A wide ranging choice of goods are available in the Indian markets.” Support the statement with examples in context of globalisation.
Answer. Globalisation has led to integration of markets across countries. The Indian markets are now flooded with a wide ranging choice of goods. Import from other countries has led to an expanding choice of goods beyond what is domestically produced —:
- We have a wide variety of goods and services before us in the market.
- The latest models of digital cameras, mobile phones and televisions made by leading manufacturers of the world like Sony, Samsung etc. are available in the market.
- Every season, new models of automobiles can be seen on Indian roads. Today Indians are buying cars produced by nearly all the top companies in the world.
- A similar explosion of brands can be seen for many other goods like footwear. For example, Adidas, Nike, Reebok, Puma and many more.
Question.19. “Cheap and affordable credit is crucial for the country’s development.” Assess the statement.
Answer. See Q. 28, 2012 (I Delhi). [Page 34
Question.22. Why did Mahatma Gandhi find in ‘salt’ a powerful symbol that could unite the nation? Explain.
Answer. See Q. 11, 2015 (I Outside Delhi). [Page 114
Question.23. Why are sugar mills concentrated in sugarcane producing areas? Explain any three problems faced by sugar industry in India.
Answer. Sugar industries are concentrated in the sugarcane producing areas because:
- The raw material used in the sugar mills ,t.e., sugarcane is bulky and perishable.
- It cannot be transported to long distances because its sucrose content dries up fast, so it should be processed within 24 hours of harvest.
Challenges faced by the sugar industry in India are:
- Seasonal nature of the industry.
- Old and inefficient methods of production.
- Delays in transportation of cane to the factories.
- The need to maximize the use of bagasse.
Question.25. “All over the world, people express their dissatisfaction with the failure of political parties to perform their functions well.” Analyse the statement with arguments.
Answer. Since parties are the most visible face in a democracy, people blame them for whatever is wrong with the working of democracy.
There are four major areas where the working of political parties faces challenge:
- Lack of internal democracy. There is concentration of power in one or a few leaders at the top. Parties do not hold organisational meetings and do not conduct internal elections regularly. More than loyalty to party principles and policies, it is personal loyalty which becomes more important.
- Dynastic succession. In many parties, top positions are always held by members of one family. Most political parties do not practice transparent and open procedures for their functioning and it is very difficult for an ordinary worker to rise to the top. This is bad for democracy, since people who do not have adequate experience or popular support come to occupy positions of power.
- Money and muscle power. Since parties are focussed only on winning elections, they tend to use short-cuts to win elections. They nominate candidates who have or can raise money and thus are able to have influence on the policies and decisions of the party.
- No meaningful choice. There has been a decline in the ideological differences among parties. They agree more on fundamental aspects, but differ only in details, on how policies are to be framed and implemented. Sometimes people cannot even elect different leaders as the same set of leaders keep shifting from one party to another.
Except for the following questions, all the remaining questions have been asked in Set-I and Set-11.
Question.1. What was the main aim of revolutionaries of Europe during the years following 1815?
Answer. The main aim of revolutionaries of Europe was to oppose monarchial forms of government.
What were the two bases of colonial economy in Vietnam?
Answer. Bases of colonial economy in Vietnam:
- Rice cultivation
- Rubber plantation
Question.2. How do minerals occur in sedimentary rocks?
Answer. In sedimentary rocks a number of minerals occur in beds or layers. They have been formed as a result of deposition, accumulation and concentration in horizontal stratas.
Question.8. Compare formal sector loans with informal sector of loans regarding interest only.
Answer. Most of the informal lenders charge a much higher interest on loans than the formal sector loans.
Question.17. “Nearly every one of the state parties wants to get an opportunity to be a part of one or the other national level coalition.” Support the statement with arguments.
Answer. The state parties also referred to as regional parties are not necessarily regional in ideology. Some of these parties are all India parties that happen to have succeeded only in some states. Over the last three decades, the number and strength of these parties has expanded. Before the general elections one national party was able to secure on its own a majority in the Lok Sabha.
As a result, the national parties were compelled to form alliances with state parties.
Since 1996, nearly every one of the state parties got an opportunity to be a part of one or the other national level coalition government. This contributed to the strengthening of federalism and democracy. Example of state parties having national level political organisation with units in several states are Samajwadi Party (SP), Rashtriya Janata Dal, Samata Party.
Question.18. “Consumer awareness is essential to avoid exploitation in the market place.” Support the statement.
Answer. Consumer awareness is essential to avoid exploitation in the market place. Markets do not work in a fair manner. Exploitation happens in various ways. Therefore, awareness is essential. Certain details are given on the packing of all commodities. When we buy medicines, details are marked on the packets. Rules have been made so that the manufacturer displays the information. Consumers who are not aware may buy, for example,
- medicines that have not been properly inspected and certified by the appropriate authority, or whose expiry date is already over,
- They may buy electronic/ electrical goods which may have defects or these products may not adhere to safety norms. Consumers can complain and ask for compensation or replacement of the product, if it proves to be defective in any manner.
Question.19. “Globalisation and greater competition among producers has been of advantage to consumers.” Justify the statement with examples.
Answer. See Q. 28, 2015 (I Outside Delhi).
Question.22. How did a variety of cultural processes play an important role in making of nationalism in India? Explain with examples.
Answer. See Q. 22, 2014 (II Outside Delhi)
Question.23. What is trade? Explain the importance of international trade.
Answer. The exchange of goods among people, states and countries is referred to as trade. Importance of international trade:
- International trade of a country is an index to its economic prosperity.
- It is considered the economic barometer for a country. If the balance of international trade is favourable, a country will be able to earn more foreign exchange.
- As no country is self-sufficient in all resources it cannot survive without international trade.
- Countries have trade relations with the major trading blocks.
- Exchange of commodities and goods have been superseded by the exchange of information and knowledge.