NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Chapter 11 – The Making of the National Movement: 1870s-1947
Class 8 Social Science NCERT Solutions Our Past III is an excellent resource for all Class 8 pupils who want to do well on their final exams. All of the questions at the end of each chapter of the textbook are answered in these solutions. These NCERT solutions, whether for a class test or a final exam, cover the complete chapter in an orderly manner to give students confidence in the contents. The more complex concepts have been described in the most straightforward manner possible. As a result, NCERT Solutions Class 8 Chapter 11 Social Science will fully meet your needs.
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Chapter – 9 The Making of the National Movement 1870s -1947
Ques 1. Why were people dissatisfied with British rule in the 1870s and 1880s?
Ans. People were dissatisfied with British rule in the 1870s and 1880s due to the following reasons.
i) The British passed the Arms Act in 1878 which disallowed Indians from possessing arms.
ii) In the same year they passed the Vernacular Press Act. This Act snatched the freedom of the speech and expression. It allowed the government to confiscates the assets of newspapers including their printing presses if the newspapers published anything that was objectionable to the government.
iii) In 1833, the Illbert Bill was introduced. The bill provided for the trial of British or European persons by Indians and sought equality between British and Indian judges in the country. But the white opposition forced the government to withdraw the bill.
Ques 2. Who did the Indian National Congress wish to speak for?
Ans. i) The need for an all-Indian organisation of educated Indians had been felt since 1880.
ii) The Ilbert Bill controversy deepened this desire.
iii) A retired British official, A.O. Hume, also played a role in bringing Indians from the various regions together.
iv) The Indian National Congress wished to speak for the entire people belonging to different communities of India.
Ques 3. What economic impact did the First World War have on India?
Ans. i) World War I altered the economic and political situation in India.
ii) Defence expenditure of the Government of India rose manifold. As a consequence taxes on individual incomes and business profits increased several times.
iii) Increased military expenditure and demands for war supplies, resulted in sharp rise in prices, causing great difficulties for the common people.
iv) Business groups reaped fabulous profits from the war.
a) The war created a demand for industrial goods (jute, bags, cloth, rails) and caused a decline of imports from other countries into India.
b) Indian industries expanded during the war. Indian business groups began to demand greater opportunities for development.
Ques 4. What did the Muslim League resolution of 1940 ask for?
Ans. i) The Muslim League resolution of 1940 asked for ‘Independent States’ for Muslims in the north-western and eastern areas of the country.
ii) The resolution did not mention partition or the name Pakistan.
iii) From the late 1930s, the League began viewing the Muslims as a separate nation from the Hindus.
iv) It also feared that Muslims may even go unrepresented.
v) The Congress rejection of League desire to form a joint Congress League government in the United Provinces in 1937 also made the League angry.
Ques 5. Who were the Moderates? How did they propose to struggle against British rule?
Ans. i) The moderates were against taking extreme actions. They had deep faith in the good intention of the government. They were of the opinion that slowly and steadily they would make the British go to their own land.
ii) The moderate leaders developed public awareness about the unjust nature of British rule. They published newspapers, wrote articles and showed how British rule was leading to the economic ruin of the country to mobilise public opinion.
iii) They believed that the British had respect for the ideals of freedom and justice and therefore they would definitely accept all the demands of the people of India.
iv) Their main task was to acknowledge the British government with these demands.
Ques 6. How was the politics of the Radicals within the Congress different from that of the Moderates?
Ans. By the 1890s a large number of Indians began to raise question on the
political style of the Congress.
i) In the Bengal, Maharashtra and Punjab, leaders like Bipin Chandra Pal, Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Lala Lajpat Rai began to explore more radical objectives and methods.
ii) They criticised the moderates for their “politics of prayers”.
iii) They emphasised the importance of self-reliance and constructive work.
iv) They argued that people must rely on their own strength, not on the “good” intentions of the government.
v) They also opened that people must fight for swaraj.
vi) Tilak raised the slogan, “Freedom is my birthright and I shall have it”.
Ques 7. Discuss the various forms that the Non-Cooperation Movement took in different parts of India. How did the people understand Gandhiji?
Ans. Non-cooperation movement took place in different parts of India and in various forms. In many cases, people resisted British rule non-violently, and in either case people linked their movements to local grievances. People also took Gandhiji in different way and linked their movements to local grievances.
i) In Kheda of Gujarat, Patidar Peasants organised non-violent campaigns against the high land revenue demand of the British.
ii) In coastal Andhra and interior Tamil Nadu, liquor shops were picketed.
iii) In Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh, tribals and poor peasants staged a number of “forest Satyagrahas”. Believing about Gandhiji that Gandhiji would get their taxes reduced and have the forest regulations abolished.
iv) In many forests, peasants proclaimed swaraj and believed that “Gandhi Raj” was about to be established.
v) In Sind, Muslims traders and peasants were very enthusiastic about the Khilafat call.
vi) The Khilafat – Non – cooperation alliance gave enormous communal unity and strength to the national movement in Bengal too.
vii) In Punjab, the Akali agitation of the Sikh sought to remove corrupt mahants supported by the British from their gurudwaras. The movement got closely associated with Non-Cooperation movement. All the above incidents show how people thought about Gandhiji. They took Gandhiji at their Messiah as someone who could help them overcome their misery and poverty.
Ques 8. Why did Gandhiji choose to break the salt law?
Ans. i) In 1930, Gandhiji led a march to break the salt law.
ii) According to this law, the state had a monopoly on the manufacture and sale of salt.
iii) Mahatma Gandhi along with other nationalists reasoned that it was sinful to tax salt since it is such an essential item of our food.
iv) The Salt march related the general desire of freedom to a specific grievance share by everybody. Hence it did not divide the rich and the poor.
v) Gandhiji and his followers marched for over 240 miles from Sabarmati to the coastal town of Dandi.
vi) Here they broke the government law by gathering natural salt found on the seashore. They also boiled sea water to produce salt.
Ques 9. Discuss those developments of the 1937-47 period that led to the creation of Pakistan.
Ans. The Congress failure to mobilise the muslim masses in the 1930s allowed the League to widen its social support.
i) It sought to enlarge it support in the early 1940s when most congress leaders were in jail.
ii) At the end of the World War II in 1945, the British opened negotiations between the congress, the League and themselves for the independence of India.
iii) The congress failed to accept this claim since a large number of Muslims still supported it.
iv) In march 1946 the British cabinet sent a three-member mission to Delhi to examine this demand and to suggested a suitable political framework for a free India.
v) But it could not get the Congress and the Muslim League to agree to specific details of the proposal.
vi) Partition now became more or less inevitable.
vii) After the failure of the Cabinet mission, the Muslim League decided on mass agitation for winning its Pakistan demand.
viii) It announced 16 August 1946 as “Direct Action Day”.
ix) Thousands of people were killed and numerous women had to face untold brutalities during the partition.
x) So, the joy of our country’s independence from British rule came mixed with the pain and violence of partition.
Ques 11. Find out more about the life and work of any two participants or leaders of the national movement and write a short essay about them. You may choose a person not mentioned in this chapter.
Ans. 1. Sarojini Naidu: Sarojini Naidu “the Nightingale of India was a distinguished poet, renowned freedom fighter and one of the great orators of her time. In 1898, she got married to Govindarajulu Naidu, a doctor by profession. She presided over the annual session of the Indian National Congress at Kanpur (1925). She had a leading role in Salt Satyagraha and consecutive struggles. She was President of the National Women’s Conference for many years and trained many volunteers who took up women’s cause. She was the first woman to be appointed in 1947 as the Governor of the United Province (Presently—Uttar Pradesh)
2.Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel
- He played an important role in the negotiations for independence from 1945-47.
- Patel hailed from an impoverished peasant-proprietor family of Nadiad, Gujarat.
- A foremost organiser of the freedom movement from 1918 onwards, Patel served as President of the Congress in 1931.
- The British government declared 565 states, small and big, independent. They were given freedom: whether to join in India or Pakistan or remain independent.
- Sardar Patel did herculean efforts for merging all the states, included in Indian territory, in India.
NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science History – Our Pasts-III Chapter 11 1870s-1947: The Birth of the National Movement
Class 8 History NCERT Solutions Our Past III is accessible in a PDF format that is simple to download. These PDFs can be viewed at any time and from any location. The solutions PDF for each chapter can be downloaded and used on your computer or phone. NCERT Solutions Class 8 is completely free. Our solutions PDF will assist you in successfully answering the problems utilizing a logical approach and methodology.
NCERT Solutions for Social Science Chapter 11 in Class 8 1870s-1947: The Birth Of A National Movement
“The Making of National Movement 1870s-1947” is Chapter 11 of the Social Science curriculum for Class 8. This chapter is from Part 3 of Class 8’s history book. If you’re a Class 8 student, you’re probably already familiar with the chapter. This chapter explains how India’s freedom struggle began and the circumstances that led to the rise of the Nationalist movement in the country.
This chapter covers subjects such as people’s policies, the loss of authority of the Nawabs, peasants, and sepoys, replies to reformers, mutiny turning into revolt, how the conflict spread from Meerut to Delhi, and what happened afterward. All of these principles are described in simple terms, with additional questions, debates, and other activities as needed.
Our subject matter specialists have put together these NCERT Solutions for class 8-chapter 11 history in a way that is both efficient and fascinating.
Chapter 8 of Social Science History Weightage of Wise Marks
Chapter 11 is from the Social Science book Our Past III, which is part of the History curriculum for Class 8. Many questions in the history portion are derived from this chapter, so studying these NCERT Solutions will assist students in improving their exam scores. This chapter is also crucial in terms of competitive exams. This chapter contains 9 questions in various formats, including objective questions such as true or false, fill in the blanks, and descriptive questions such as short and long replies.
What is the significance of NCERT Solutions Class 8 Chapter 11?
- NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science are quite helpful in developing a solid understanding of chapter 11’s contents.
- These NCERT solutions not only help students learn ideas but also assist them in developing an exam plan that will help them succeed in tests.
- A thorough examination of all key ideas is presented, assisting students in their preparation.
- Our specialists develop these NCERT Solutions in a simplified way that is easily understood by students.
- These NCERT solutions can be used by Class 8 students for last-minute preparation or for review.
Frequently Asked Questions
Q1. Why were people between 1870 and 1880 disgruntled with British rule?
Ans: The East India Company arrived in India to trade, but soon began to exert political control over the country’s governments. The following are some of these reasons: Indians were prohibited from carrying any form of weapon under the Arms Act of 1878. People become more enraged as a result of this.
The Vernacular Press Act of 1878 granted Britishers the right to control the press and to shut down any newspaper if it published material critical of the British government. White people opposed the Ilbert bill because it demanded equal treatment for Indian and British judges. Indian judges were despised by white people.
Q2. What was Gandhiji’s motivation for breaking the salt law?
Ans: When the British gained control of the salt trade, they levied a salt tax. This was harsh to Gandhiji because salt was a necessary item for people. On March 12, 1930, he began a civil disobedience movement and led the Dandi March from Sabarmati ashram to village Dandi in Navsari district. In 24 days, he covered 240 miles. He broke the salt prohibition by picking salt from the seashore when he arrived in the community.
Q3. What does it mean to “make a national movement”?
Ans: The “Making of National Movement” refers to all of the actions made by Indian independence fighters to guarantee India’s independence.
Q4. Tiwari Academy, why did Mahatma Gandhi opt to defy the salt law?
Ans: Mahatma Gandhi opted to disobey the salt rule because salt was a basic need for the people and hence imposing a fee on it was extremely unfair.
Q5. What was European artists’ major interest when it came to the British Class 8?
Ans: The European artist’s major goal was to establish dominance against the British.
Q6. When did India gain independence from the British Empire 8?
Ans: India gained independence on August 15, 1947.
Q7. Where can I find NCERT Social Science Solutions for Class 8 online?
Ans: On INFINITY LEARN, you can find NCERT Social Science Solutions for Class 8 online. INFINITY LEARN solutions are completely free of charge. They can also be found on the INFINITY LEARN Mobile app.