TopicsGeneral TopicsMonsoon Season 2024 – Months, Causes, Experience, Challenges

Monsoon Season 2024 – Months, Causes, Experience, Challenges

The term “monsoon” originates from the description of seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the annual latitudinal oscillation of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. While it typically refers to the rainy phase of a periodically shifting cycle, there is also a dry phase. In some cases, the phrase is used to describe locally heavy but brief rainfall.

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    Monsoon Season 2024

    The monsoon season in India for 2024 is expected to follow the usual pattern, starting around June 1 and lasting until September. This period is vital for agriculture and the overall economy of the country. The monsoon’s arrival and progression can vary, affecting different regions differently. Stay updated with local weather forecasts and agricultural advisories to make the most of the monsoon season.

    By understanding the significance of the monsoon 2024 and its impact on various aspects of life in India, individuals can better prepare for and appreciate this essential weather phenomenon.

    What Causes of Monsoon?

    Understanding the causes of monsoon is crucial to comprehend the complex weather patterns that shape our climate. Here, we will delve into the specific aspects of monsoon causes that you are interested in learning more about.

    • Differential Heating

    The primary cause of monsoons is the differential heating between land and ocean. During the monsoon season, the land heats up faster than the ocean due to its lower heat capacity. This rapid heating creates a low-pressure system over the land, which draws in moist air from the ocean. As the air rises, it cools, and the water vapor condenses, resulting in heavy rainfall. This process is known as the “heat engine” of the monsoon.

    • Coriolis Effect

    The Coriolis effect plays a significant role in the direction of monsoon winds. It is a force caused by the Earth’s rotation, which deflects moving objects, including air masses. In the Northern Hemisphere, the Coriolis effect causes winds to deflect to the right, while in the Southern Hemisphere, it deflects to the left. This deflection creates a circular motion, which contributes to the formation of high and low-pressure systems.

    • Himalayan Mountains

    The Himalayan Mountains are a crucial factor in the formation of the Indian monsoon. As moist air from the ocean rises over the mountains, it cools, and the water vapor condenses, resulting in heavy rainfall on the windward side of the mountains. This process is known as orographic enhancement. The Himalayas act as a barrier, forcing the air to rise and cool, which leads to the formation of clouds and precipitation.

    • ENSO

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a periodic fluctuation in sea surface temperature and air pressure in the tropical Pacific Ocean. It has a significant impact on the Indian monsoon. During El Niño events, characterized by warmer than average sea surface temperatures, the Indian monsoon tends to weaken. Conversely, during La Niña events, with cooler temperatures, the monsoon tends to strengthen. This is because ENSO influences the atmospheric circulation patterns that drive the monsoon.

    Effects of Monsoons Season

    • Floods: Heavy rainfall can cause rivers to overflow, leading to floods, property damage, displacement, and water contamination.
    • Droughts: Weaker or delayed monsoons result in less rainfall, causing crop failures, water scarcity, wildfires, and economic losses.
    • Cyclones: Monsoon cyclones bring strong winds, heavy rainfall, storm surges, infrastructure damage, and power outages.
    • Landslides: Heavy rainfall can trigger landslides, leading to property damage, disruption of networks, environmental harm, and soil erosion.
    • Rainfall Distribution: Uneven rainfall distribution affects agriculture, causing crop failures, water scarcity, drought risks, and economic losses.

    South Asia’s Monsoon Experience

    When the summer monsoon season commences, countries in South Asia, including Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka, often face heavy rainfall, which can lead to flooding. The monsoon’s onset is gradual, with pre-monsoon showers building up over several days before heavy rain and storms ensue. The rainfall pattern then stabilizes, lasting for a few hours daily. The unpredictability of rain can quickly turn a sunny day into a torrential downpour, exacerbating flooding due to the volume of water.

    India’s Monsoon Season

    India’s monsoon season typically starts around June 1 and lasts until the end of September. The monsoon is crucial for Indian agriculture, as it accounts for about 80% of the country’s rainfall, supporting crops like cotton, rice, oilseeds, and coarse grains. The monsoon’s impact is significant, with moisture-laden winds splitting into the Arabian Sea Branch and the Bay of Bengal Branch, bringing rain to different regions of India.

    The etymology of the word “monsoon” is not entirely clear, deriving from the Portuguese “monço,” which came from Arabic “mawsim.” The monsoon is predicted to start around June 1 and last until the end of September. Due to the geology of the Indian Peninsula’s southernmost tip, moisture-laden winds split into two branches: the Arabian Sea Branch and the Bay of Bengal Branch.

    The Arabian Sea Branch arrives first in Kerala, India’s coastline state, making it the first Indian state to receive monsoon rain. This branch flows north along the Western Ghats, bringing rain to coastal areas west of the Western Ghats. The eastern portions of the Western Ghats do not receive much rain from this monsoon due to the wind not traversing the Western Ghats.

    The Bay of Bengal Branch of the Southwest Monsoon flows over the Bay of Bengal, carrying extra moisture to north-east India and Bengal. The winds bring a lot of rain to the Eastern Himalayas, with Mawsynram, located on the southern slopes of the Khasi Hills in Meghalaya, India, being one of the wettest places on Earth. The winds shift west after reaching the Eastern Himalayas, passing through the Indo-Gangetic Plain at a rate of around 1–2 weeks per state.

    India’s Reliance on Monsoon Rainfall

    The monsoon is responsible for roughly 80% of India’s rainfall, making it crucial for crops such as cotton, rice, oilseeds, and coarse grains. Indian agriculture is mainly reliant on rainfall.

    Monsoon Season – Urban Experience and Challenges

    City dwellers appreciate the monsoon for providing relief from the peak summer heat in June. However, the roads suffer significantly, and a lack of municipal infrastructure combined with shifting climate patterns results in significant economic losses, including property damage and deaths. Major floods are common in certain parts of India, such as Assam and West Bengal, during this season.

    Parliamentary Sessions for Monsoon Season

    A session of the Parliament is the period during which the two Houses of the Parliament of India meet to conduct business. The President is authorized under the Constitution to convene each House at such times that there is no more than a six-month break between sessions. As a result, the Parliament is required to assemble at least twice a year. The Indian parliament holds three sessions annually: Budget (February to May), Monsoon (July to September), and Winter (November to December).

    Monsoon Season FAQs

    What is the current status of the 2024 Monsoon Season in India?

    The 2024 Southwest Monsoon season in India is currently progressing as per the normal schedule. The India Meteorological Department (IMD) has predicted a normal monsoon for the year, with rainfall expected to be 96% to 104% of the long-period average.

    How does the 2024 Monsoon Season compare to previous years?

    The 2024 Monsoon Season is expected to be similar to the previous year, with normal rainfall distribution across the country. However, it's important to note that there may be variations in the intensity and distribution of rainfall in different regions.

    What are the challenges faced during the 2024 Monsoon Season?

    Some of the key challenges faced during the 2024 Monsoon Season include urban flooding due to inadequate drainage systems, crop damage due to excessive or erratic rainfall, and the spread of monsoon-related diseases like malaria and dengue.

    How can farmers prepare for the 2024 Monsoon Season?

    Farmers can prepare for the 2024 Monsoon Season by following these tips: Ensure proper drainage in fields to prevent waterlogging, Use weather-resistant crop varieties and adopt sustainable farming practices

    What is the impact of the 2024 Monsoon Season on the Indian economy?

    The Monsoon Season has a significant impact on the Indian economy, particularly in sectors like agriculture, hydropower generation, and tourism. A normal monsoon is expected to boost agricultural production and support economic growth in 2024.

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