BiographySubhash Chandra Bose Biography

Subhash Chandra Bose Biography

Subhash Chandra Bose, commonly referred to as Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose, was a remarkable figure in the Indian independence movement. Born on January 23, 1897, in Cuttack, India, to Janakinath Bose and Prabhavati Dutt, his life story is one of unwavering dedication and bravery. Subhash Chandra Bose’s birthday, celebrated on the 23rd of January, is now recognized as “PARAKRAM DIWAS” or the “Day of Courage,” acknowledging his immense contribution to India’s freedom struggle.

    Fill Out the Form for Expert Academic Guidance!


    Live ClassesBooksTest SeriesSelf Learning

    Verify OTP Code (required)

    I agree to the terms and conditions and privacy policy.

    Early Life and Education

    Subhash Chandra Bose’s Birthday is on January 23, 1897, in Cuttack, Odisha, India. His family was well-educated and politically active. Subhash Chandra Bose Father, Janakinath Bose, was a successful lawyer, and Subhash Chandra Bose mother, Prabhavati Devi, was a devout and pious woman. Bose grew up in a nurturing and intellectually stimulating environment, which greatly influenced his later political career.

    Subhas Chandra Bose was the ninth among fourteen siblings. He received his early education at the Protestant European School, which is now known as Stewart High School, in Cuttack. His exceptional academic abilities earned him the second position in the matriculation exam. Bose’s intellectual growth was significantly influenced by the teachings of Swami Vivekananda and Shri Ramakrishna Paramhansa Dev when he was just 16 years old.

    Shubash Chandra Bose

    Subash Chandra Bose Rebellion

    1. Early Nationalist Sentiments: Subhas Chandra Bose developed a strong sense of nationalism from an early age, inspired by the Indian independence movement against British colonial rule.
    2. British Education: Bose initially pursued his education in England, where he graduated with a degree in Philosophy, Politics, and Economics from the University of Cambridge in 1919.
    3. Civil Service Examinations: Bose appeared for the Indian Civil Service (ICS) examinations in 1920, but his strong anti-British sentiments led to his disqualification.
    4. Entry into Indian Politics: Disillusioned with the British system, Bose returned to India and entered politics. He joined the Indian National Congress and played an active role in the freedom struggle.
    5. Leadership in Congress: Bose rose through the ranks of the Congress party and became a prominent leader. He served as the President of the Indian National Congress in 1938 and 1939.
    6. Formation of Forward Bloc: In 1939, Bose resigned from the Congress due to ideological differences and formed the Forward Bloc, advocating for a more militant approach to gaining independence.
    7. Azad Hind Fauj (Indian National Army): Bose’s rebellion against British rule reached its zenith when he formed the Azad Hind Fauj (Indian National Army or INA) in 1942 with the support of Axis powers during World War II.

    Subash Chandra Bose Higher Education

    • University of Cambridge: Bose’s pursuit of higher education took him to the University of Cambridge, one of the world’s most prestigious institutions, where he studied and graduated in 1919.
    • Influence of Western Ideas: His education in England exposed him to Western political thought and ideas of liberty, which played a significant role in shaping his nationalist outlook.
    • Return to India: Despite his education abroad, Bose returned to India to actively participate in the struggle for independence and contribute to the cause of his homeland.
    • Intellectual and Leadership Skills: Bose’s higher education equipped him with intellectual and leadership skills that he used effectively in organizing and leading various movements and political parties.
    • Combining Western and Indian Ideals: Bose’s education allowed him to synthesize Western ideals of democracy and liberty with Indian aspirations for self-rule, which influenced his approach to the independence movement.
    • Global Perspective: His exposure to international affairs and politics during his higher education helped him in seeking global support for India’s struggle for freedom, as seen in his efforts to garner support from Axis powers during World War II.

    Subhas Chandra Bose’s rebellion against British colonial rule and his higher education experiences played pivotal roles in shaping his leadership and approach to the Indian independence movement. He remains a prominent figure in India’s history for his unwavering commitment to freedom and his contributions to the cause.

    Indian Civil Services and Resignation

    The Indian Civil Services (ICS) and Subhas Chandra Bose’s resignation from it are significant aspects of his early life and political journey. Here’s a detailed explanation of his involvement with the ICS and his subsequent resignation:

    Pursuit of the Indian Civil Services (ICS)

    1. Educational Background: Subhas Chandra Bose was a brilliant student with a strong academic foundation. He pursued his education in India and later went to England for further studies.
    2. Influence of His Father: Bose’s father, Janakinath Bose, had served in the Indian Civil Services, which inspired Subhas to follow in his footsteps. The ICS was considered a prestigious and highly respected administrative service under British rule.
    3. Attempt at the ICS Examination: In 1920, Bose appeared for the Indian Civil Services examination, which was a highly competitive and challenging test. Success in this examination would have led to a career in the British colonial administration.

    Resignation from the ICS

    • Anti-British Sentiments: Despite his academic prowess and the potential for a promising career in the ICS, Bose was deeply influenced by the freedom struggle and had developed strong anti-British sentiments during his time in England.
    • Conscientious Decision: When Bose qualified for the ICS examination, he was faced with a difficult choice. He had to decide between pursuing a career in the ICS and his commitment to India’s independence.
    • Disqualification: Ultimately, Bose chose his commitment to the nationalist cause over a career in the British-administered civil services. His outspoken anti-British views and refusal to disavow them during the mandatory interview led to his disqualification from the ICS.
    • Shift to Indian Politics: Bose’s disqualification from the ICS marked a turning point in his life. He returned to India and actively entered politics, joining the Indian National Congress and dedicating himself to the struggle for India’s freedom.
    • Leadership in the Congress: Bose quickly rose through the ranks of the Congress party due to his dedication and leadership qualities. He served as the President of the Indian National Congress in 1938 and 1939, playing a crucial role in shaping the party’s policies and strategies.
    • Formation of the Forward Bloc: In 1939, Bose resigned from the Congress party due to ideological differences and formed the Forward Bloc, a more radical and militant group within the nationalist movement.

    Subhas Chandra Bose’s decision to resign from the Indian Civil Services exemplified his unwavering commitment to the cause of India’s independence. It marked the beginning of his remarkable political career, where he became a prominent leader in the fight against British colonial rule and played a key role in shaping the course of India’s struggle for freedom. His principled stand and willingness to sacrifice personal success for the greater good of his country continue to inspire generations of Indians.

    Controversies and Debates on Subash Chandra bose

    Subhas Chandra Bose’s life and legacy have been shrouded in controversy and debates, particularly concerning the mystery surrounding his death and the Gumnami Baba controversy. Here’s an overview of these controversies:

    Mystery Surrounding His Death

    • Disappearance: Subhas Chandra Bose’s death has been the subject of much speculation and debate. He was reported to have died in a plane crash on August 18, 1945, in Taiwan (then Formosa). However, the circumstances surrounding his death have been questioned from the beginning.
    • Absence of Verifiable Evidence: One of the primary controversies is the absence of concrete and verifiable evidence to confirm his death. Many key documents and records related to his death were either not made public or were lost over time.
    • Sightings and Survival Theories: Over the years, there have been numerous alleged sightings and claims of Bose’s survival. Some theories suggest that he may have survived the crash and gone into hiding to continue his fight for Indian independence.
    • Official Investigations: Several official investigations and committees have been formed to probe the circumstances of Bose’s death. The Mukherjee Commission (1999-2005) was one such effort, which concluded that Bose did not die in the plane crash, although this finding remains disputed.
    • International Intrigue: The role of foreign governments, particularly the British and the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Soviet Union), in potentially suppressing information about Bose’s death has also fueled suspicions and conspiracy theories.

    The Gumnami Baba Controversy

    • Gumnami Baba’s Identity: After India gained independence in 1947, there were reports of a mysterious sadhu (holy man) known as Gumnami Baba living in the town of Faizabad (now Ayodhya) in Uttar Pradesh. Many claimed that this sadhu was Subhas Chandra Bose in disguise.
    • Resemblance and Circumstantial Evidence: Supporters of the theory that Gumnami Baba was Bose pointed to the physical resemblance between the two and cited circumstantial evidence such as possessions allegedly belonging to Bose found in the sadhu’s possession.
    • Inquiries and Investigations: The Gumnami Baba controversy led to several inquiries and investigations by journalists, researchers, and government-appointed committees. The Justice Mukherjee Commission also looked into the Gumnami Baba angle but did not conclusively establish his identity as Bose.
    • Contested Identity: The controversy surrounding Gumnami Baba’s identity continues to this day, with some believing that he was indeed Subhas Chandra Bose and others considering it a case of mistaken identity or unsubstantiated speculation.

    Legacy and Impact of Subash Chandra Bose

    Subhas Chandra Bose’s legacy and impact on India’s struggle for independence, as well as his place in history, are profound and enduring. Here are key points regarding his legacy, commemorations, and historical perspective:

    Influence on Indian Independence

    • Militant Approach: Subhas Chandra Bose’s contribution to the Indian independence movement is characterized by his militant and uncompromising approach towards achieving freedom from British colonial rule.
    • Formation of Azad Hind Fauj (Indian National Army): Bose’s most significant contribution was the formation of the Azad Hind Fauj (Indian National Army or INA) during World War II. The INA aimed to liberate India from British rule with the help of Axis powers. This move galvanized nationalist sentiments and played a pivotal role in the struggle for independence.
    • Inspiration to Youth: Bose’s charisma, leadership, and unwavering commitment to the cause made him a symbol of hope and inspiration for the youth of India. He instilled a sense of patriotism and the belief that freedom was achievable.
    • Impact on Political Landscape: Bose’s influence extended beyond the INA to the broader political landscape. His leadership and ideas challenged established political forces and contributed to the political awakening of India.

    Commemorations and Tributes

    • Netaji Jayanti: Bose’s birth anniversary, celebrated on January 23rd, is observed as “Netaji Jayanti” in India. It is a day of remembrance and tribute to his contributions.
    • Statues and Memorials: There are numerous statues, memorials, and museums dedicated to Subhas Chandra Bose across India, including the Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose International Airport in Kolkata.
    • Awards and Honors: The Indian government has bestowed various awards and honors on Bose, including the Bharat Ratna, India’s highest civilian award, which he received posthumously in 1992.
    • Legacy in Popular Culture: Bose’s life and struggles have been the subject of numerous books, films, and documentaries, further cementing his place in popular culture and historical narratives.

    Historical Perspective on Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose

    • National Hero: In India, Subhas Chandra Bose is revered as a national hero and a symbol of the indomitable spirit of the Indian people. His legacy is celebrated for its contribution to the country’s independence.
    • Controversial Aspects: Bose’s legacy is not without controversy, primarily regarding the circumstances of his death and the Gumnami Baba controversy. Historians continue to debate and research these aspects to uncover the truth.
    • Diverse Opinions: In the broader historical perspective, opinions about Bose’s approach and leadership vary. Some view him as a charismatic and fearless freedom fighter Subash Chandra Bose, while others critique his alignment with Axis powers during World War II.
    • Global Impact: Bose’s influence extended beyond India. He is recognized as a figure of international significance, given his efforts to garner support for India’s independence from various world powers during the war.

    Subhas Chandra Bose remains a complex and multifaceted figure in India’s history. His legacy continues to be celebrated, studied, and debated, reflecting the enduring impact he had on the struggle for Indian independence and his place in the annals of world history.

    FAQs on Netaji Shubash Chandra Bose Biography

    What is the biography of Subhash Chandra Bose short?

    Subhash Chandra Bose was a prominent Indian nationalist leader who played a crucial role in India's struggle for independence against British colonial rule. He was born on January 23, 1897, and died on August 18, 1945, under mysterious circumstances. Bose is best known for his leadership in the Indian National Army (INA) and his famous slogan, 'Give me blood, and I shall give you freedom.'

    What are the important points about Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose?

    Important points about Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose are: Fierce independence activist Founding leader of the Forward Bloc Advocated militant resistance against British rule Sought help from Axis powers during World War II Led the INA in the fight against the British Mysteriously died in 1945

    What did Subhash Chandra Bose do for freedom?

    Bose dedicated his life to India's struggle for freedom. He organized protests, advocated for militant resistance, sought international support, and led the INA in a military campaign against the British in Southeast Asia during World War II.

    When was Bose born?

    Subhash Chandra Bose was born on January 23, 1897.

    Who called Netaji the first time?

    The title 'Netaji' (meaning 'Respected Leader') was first given to Subhash Chandra Bose by his followers as a mark of respect for his leadership and dedication to the cause of Indian independence

    How did Subhash Chandra Bose die?

    The exact circumstances of Bose's death remain a subject of controversy and mystery. He reportedly died in a plane crash in Taiwan on August 18, 1945, while en route to Japan. Some theories suggest that his death might not have been accidental.

    What was the role of Subhash Chandra Bose in INA?

    Subhash Chandra Bose played a pivotal role in the Indian National Army (INA), which he organized with the support of Japanese forces during World War II. He led the INA in battles against the British in Southeast Asia, aiming to free India from British colonial rule.

    What is the famous slogan given by Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose?

    Netaji is famous for the powerful slogan, 'Give me blood, and I shall give you freedom.' This slogan rallied support for his cause and symbolized his unwavering commitment to India's independence struggle.

    Chat on WhatsApp Call Infinity Learn

      Talk to our academic expert!


      Live ClassesBooksTest SeriesSelf Learning

      Verify OTP Code (required)

      I agree to the terms and conditions and privacy policy.