Introduction to Heparin; Types of Heparin; Comparative Study of Features of Heparin, LMWH, and Fondaparinux :
Adverse Effects of Heparin; Drug Interactions of Heparin
Heparin is a naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan (GAG) that is widely used as an anticoagulant in clinical practice. It is a potent inhibitor of thrombin and other clotting factors. There are different types of heparin, which are classified according to their molecular weight and the number of sugar units they contain.
Low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) are a subclass of heparin that are derived from natural heparin. They are more potent than standard heparin and have a longer half-life. LMWHs are given by subcutaneous injection and are used to prevent and treat venous thromboembolism.
Fondaparinux is a synthetic pentasaccharide that is a direct inhibitor of factor Xa. It is given by subcutaneous injection and is used to prevent and treat venous thromboembolism.
Heparin has a number of adverse effects, including bleeding, thrombocytopenia, and osteoporosis. It can also interact with a number of drugs, including warfarin and aspirin.
Pharmacology of Heparin
Heparin is a naturally occurring anticoagulant that is produced by mast cells. It is a glycosaminoglycan that is composed of a repeating disaccharide unit. Heparin inhibits the action of thrombin and factor Xa, which are important in the blood clotting cascade. It does this by blocking the activation of these enzymes. Heparin also increases the activity of antithrombin III, which further inhibits the clotting cascade.
Fractionated Heparin or LMWH (Low Molecular Weight Heparin)
Fractionated Heparin, also known as LMWH (Low Molecular Weight Heparin), is a type of heparin that is used to prevent and treat blood clots. LMWH is a more specific form of heparin that is broken down into smaller pieces, which allows it to work faster and stay in the body longer. LMWH is also less likely to cause side effects than traditional heparin.
is a synthetic, low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) which is indicated for the prophylaxis and treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Fondaparinux is a selective inhibitor of activated factor X (FXa), and does not require antithrombin III (ATIII) for activity. The mechanism of action of fondaparinux is inhibition of the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin, thereby preventing the formation of a thrombus.
Fondaparinux is administered by subcutaneous injection and is available in a fixed-dose, once-daily tablet formulation. The recommended dosage is 5 mg/day for prophylaxis and 7.5 mg/day for treatment of VTE. Fondaparinux is also approved for prophylaxis of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) following hip or knee replacement surgery.
Unfractionated Heparin or Standard Heparin
Unfractionated heparin is a medication used to prevent and treat blood clots. It is given by injection under the skin, or into a vein. Standard heparin is a type of unfractionated heparin.
Heparin Use Apart From Anticoagulant
Heparin is a medication that is used to prevent blood clots from forming. It is typically given as an injection, and it can be used to prevent blood clots in a number of different settings, including during surgery, after a heart attack, and when someone is having a dialysis treatment.
Adverse Effects of Heparin
There are several adverse effects associated with heparin, including:
•Bleeding – heparin can cause excessive bleeding, which can be life-threatening.
•Low blood pressure – heparin can cause a sudden drop in blood pressure, which can be dangerous.
•Allergic reactions – heparin can cause an allergic reaction, which can be serious.
•Skin reactions – heparin can cause skin reactions, such as hives, that can be uncomfortable and irritating.
•Headache – heparin can cause a headache.
•Nausea – heparin can cause nausea.
•Diarrhea – heparin can cause diarrhea.
•Abdominal pain – heparin can cause abdominal pain.
Heparin resistance is a condition in which a person no longer responds to the anticoagulant effects of heparin. This can occur due to the development of antibodies against heparin, or because the body has become resistant to the drug’s effects. Treatment for heparin resistance typically involves use of an alternative anticoagulant, such as warfarin.
The Risk Associated With Heparin Resistance
There is a risk associated with heparin resistance, as this can lead to adverse outcomes such as blood clots and pulmonary embolism.