The property of any fluid that attempts to minimize its free surface area is known as surface tension. The Force per length acting on an imaginary line drawn tangentially on the free surface of a liquid is used to calculate its surface tension. Surface tension S = Force/Length, equal to F/l, equal to work done/area change. The SI unit is Nm-1 or Jm-2, and the dimensional formula of surface tension is [MT-2]. The quantity is a scalar value. Surface tension is a molecular phenomenon that is electrical and is the root cause of Force. The surface tension of a liquid is determined solely by its composition and is unaffected by the film surface or line length. Because of the surface tension properties of the liquid, small drops are spherical. The concept of Surface tension and its dimension is an important topic for JEE Preparation.
Adhesive Force is the Force of attraction that acts between molecules of different substances, such as the Force of attraction between paper and ink molecules, water and glass molecules, and so on.
A unified force is the Force of attraction between molecules of the same substance. For instance, consider the Force of attraction between water molecules, glass molecules, etc.
Van Der Waals’s forces include both cohesive and adhesive forces.
Surface tension is the tendency of liquid surfaces to contract to the smallest possible surface area. Surface tension has two dimensions: Force per unit length and energy per unit area.
The surface tension dimensional formula is as follows:
M stands for Mass.
L stands for length. T is for Time.
Surface Tension (T) = Force Length-1………….(1)
Because Force = Mass ×Acceleration
And, acceleration = velocity × time-1 = [L T-2]
∴ Dimensional unit of surface tension
Substitute equation (2) in equation (1) later, we get,
Surface Tension (T) = Force × Length-1
Or, T = [M1 L1 T-2] × [L-1] = M1 T-2.
The surface tension dimension formula is represented as M1 T-2.
FAQs for Dimensional Formula of Surface Tension
What exactly is Surface Tension? Describe its formula.
The free surface energy, which is present in all liquids, is referred to as the surface tension of a liquid. This surface tension produces forces that, for example, allow water insects to walk on water's surface without sinking due to gravitational forces balancing the insect's weight on the surface. The ratio of surface force F applied to a liquid, and the length d over which the Force acts is defined as surface tension. It is up to the birds to walk on water, like floating a paperclip. Surface tension = (surface force)/(length)
What happens if the surface tension fails to hold?
Because the balance is disrupted, the surface tension can only be broken by agitated movement while placing an object denser than water. For example, if we place a small needle on the water's surface, we know it will sink. However, if placed correctly, it will float. This occurs as long as the object does not disrupt or break through the water molecules and separate them. Because the outermost layer of water forms the surface, they must compensate to create a stronger bond between the molecules of water, which creates surface tension.
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