Mechanical Properties of Fluid | Class 11 Physics

# Mechanical Properties of Fluid | Class 11 Physics

Mechanical Properties of Fluid: A fluid is a substance that can flow, assuming the shape of its container and that offers little or no resistance to flow. Fluids include liquids and gases. Liquids are incompressible, meaning that the volume of a liquid is always the same, regardless of the amount of pressure applied to it. Gases are compressible, meaning that the volume of a gas can changed by applying pressure to it.

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The mechanical properties of fluids determined by two factors: the forces that act on the fluid and the viscosity of the fluid. The forces that act on a fluid can be divided into two categories: inertial forces and surface forces. Inertial forces caused by the motion of the fluid and are independent of the shape of the container. Surface forces are caused by the interaction of the fluid with the surfaces of the container. The viscosity of a fluid is a measure of its resistance to flow. The higher the viscosity of a fluid, the greater the resistance to flow.

## Pressure

Pressure is a force that applied to a surface. The amount of pressure that applied determined by the amount of force that applied and the area over which the force applied. The pressure that applied to a surface measured in pounds per square inch (psi).

## Mechanical Properties of Fluids – Pascal’s Law

Pascal’s law is a principle in fluid mechanics that states that a pressure applied to an enclosed fluid is transmitted equally in all directions. This law named after Blaise Pascal, who discovered it in 1647.

Streamline Flow

The flow of fluids in a pipe can streamlined by adding specially designed fins to the pipe. The fins create a turbulence behind them that helps to keep the fluid moving in a straight line. This is important for pipelines that carry fluids such as oil and natural gas, because it reduces the amount of friction that the fluids experience as they travel through the pipe. This results in a smoother flow and less wear and tear on the pipe.

## Mechanical Properties of Fluids – Bernoulli’s Principle

Bernoulli’s principle states that when a fluid flows through a tube, the velocity of the fluid increases as the cross-sectional area of the tube decreases.

### Mechanical Properties of Fluids Class 11 Formulas

viscosity, η:

• ρ
• ν
• =
• µ

,where ρ- is the density of the fluid,

ν- is the kinematic viscosity, and

µ- is the dynamic viscosity.

surface tension, γ:

γ =σ/r, where σ- is the surface tension and

r- is the radius of the liquid drop.

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