What is Phosphorus Pentachloride?
Phosphorus pentachloride is a colorless, poisonous gas with a pungent, irritating odor. It is used to make other chemicals and to produce chlorine gas. Phosphorus Pentachloride – Structure.
Structure of Phosphorus Pentachloride
PCl 5 is a colourless and highly corrosive gas with a pungent smell. It is formed when chlorine gas is passed over heated phosphorus. It is a covalent molecule with a tetrahedral molecular geometry. The phosphorus atoms are bonded to each other with single covalent bonds and the chlorine atoms are bonded to each other with double covalent bonds. This gives the molecule a pyramidal shape with the chlorine atoms at the apex.
Properties of Phosphorus Pentachloride
Phosphorus pentachloride is a colorless, fuming liquid with a pungent, choking odor. It is soluble in water and is a powerful oxidizing agent.
Uses of Phosphorus Pentachloride (PCl₅)
Phosphorus pentachloride is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula PCl₅. It is a colorless, oily liquid that is soluble in organic solvents. PCl₅ is a powerful chlorinating agent that is used to produce other chlorinated compounds. It is also used as a flame retardant and as a pesticide.
Methods of Preparation of Phosphorus Pentachloride (PCl₅)
1. In a 500 ml round-bottom flask equipped with a condenser and a stir bar, combine 100 ml of concentrated sulfuric acid and 100 ml of concentrated phosphoric acid.
2. Carefully add 100 grams of phosphorus to the flask.
3. Swirl the flask to mix the ingredients and then place it on the hotplate.
4. Heat the mixture until it begins to boil and then reduce the heat to a simmer.
5. Simmer the mixture for 2 hours, stirring occasionally.
6. Turn off the heat and allow the mixture to cool.
7. Carefully pour the mixture into a 1000 ml beaker.
8. Add 400 ml of water to the beaker and stir to dissolve the phosphorus pentachloride.
9. Pour the solution into a separatory funnel and drain off the bottom layer.
10. Wash the bottom layer with 200 ml of water and then pour it into a clean 1000 ml beaker.
11. Place the beaker on the hotplate and heat the solution until it begins to boil.
12. Reduce the heat to a simmer and simmer the solution for 2 hours, stirring occasionally.
13. Turn off the heat and allow the solution to cool.
14. Pour the solution into a storage bottle.
Harmful Effects of Phosphorus Pentachloride
Phosphorus pentachloride is corrosive to the skin, eyes, and respiratory tract. It can also cause severe burns. Inhalation of phosphorus pentachloride can cause chest pain, shortness of breath, and death.
Phosphorus Pentachloride – Structure.