CBSE Notes – Civics
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Chapter 3 -Democracy and Diversity
A society with similar types of people, especially if ethnic variations are minimal, such as in Germany and Sweden.
‘Migrant’ refers to somebody who moves from one region or country to another, usually for a job or other reasons.
Civil Rights Movement:
The Civil Rights Movement spanned from 1954 to 1968 and was led by Martin Luther King Jr. A series of events and reform movements aimed at ending legalised racial discrimination against African-Americans are referred to as the movement. Against racially discriminatory laws and practises, this movement used nonviolent civil disobedience measures.
Black Power Movement:
The Black Power Movement started in 1966 and continued until 1975. It was an anti-racist and more militant movement. To abolish racism in the United States, the Black Power Movement advocated using violence if necessary.
Incident of two US athletes who protested at Mexico Olympics in 1968:
To reflect Black poverty, US competitors Tommie Smith and John Carlos accepted their medals wearing only a pair of black socks and no shoes. The uplifted clenched fists and black-gloved hands were meant to represent Black Power. They were reacting to socioeconomic injustices and divisions. Their goal was to raise international attention to racial prejudice in the United States with this gesture. During the ceremony, Peter Norman donned a human rights insignia on his shirt to show his support for the two Americans. Tommie Smith and John Carlos’ medals were revoked when the International Olympic Association found them guilty of breaking the Olympic spirit by making a political statement.
Origins of Social differences:
- Accident of birth: We don’t choose to be a part of our community; we are born into it. We are a part of it because we were born into it. In our daily lives, we encounter societal disparities depending on the chance of birth.
- Based on choices: Some of the variations are the result of our choices. Atheists are a group of people who do not believe in God. They have no faith in God or any religion. Some people choose to practise a faith different than their birth religion. Most of us choose to study a subject that we are passionate about and work in a field where we can flourish. All of this leads to the establishment of social groups based on our preferences.
Deep social divisions and conflicts can result from overlapping social distinctions. When social differences overlap, one becomes more important than the other, and people begin to feel as if they belong to a distinct community.
In Northern Ireland, for example, class and religion are intertwined. If you’re Catholic, you’re probably impoverished and have a history of discrimination.
In Northern Ireland, there have been clashes between Catholics and Protestants.
It’s easier to accommodate cross-cutting social differences. Cross-cutting occurs when parties with a common interest on one topic are on opposing sides on other subjects.
In the Netherlands, for example, class, and religion tend to intersect. Protestants and Catholics are almost equally likely to be impoverished or wealthy. In the Netherlands, there are no wars.
Factors determining the outcome of politics of social divisions are:
- How people perceive their identities. It’s tough to accommodate those who see their identities in exclusive terms. It was difficult to reconcile Northern Ireland’s divides as long as individuals saw themselves as either Catholic or Protestant. It is simpler if identities complement national identities. This aids in the group’s cohesiveness.
- How political leaders raise the demands of any community. It is easier to meet demands that are within the constitutional framework and do not jeopardise the well-being of another group. The demand for ‘only Sinhala’ came at the expense of the Tamil community’s interests and identity in Sri Lanka.
- How Government reacts to the demands of different groups. Social differences become less dangerous for society if the rulers are ready to share power and accept the reasonable demands of minority communities, as in Belgium. If, as in Sri Lanka, the demand is crushed in the name of national unity, the end outcome is just the contrary. Such forced integration attempts sow the seeds of disintegration.