Table of Contents

## Introduction

In statistics, the median is a measure of central tendency that represents the middle value of a dataset. It is a valuable tool for summarizing and analyzing data, particularly when dealing with skewed or non-normal distributions. This article will explore the concept of the median, its calculation methods, and its significance in various fields.

### Definition of Median

The median is the middle value in a dataset when the data is arranged in ascending or descending order. It divides the dataset into two equal halves, with 50% of the values falling below and 50% above the median. Unlike the mean, which is influenced by extreme values, the median provides a robust measure of central tendency that is less affected by outliers.

### Calculating the Median

To calculate the median, follow these steps:

Arrange the data in ascending or descending order.

If the dataset has an odd number of values, the median is the middle value.

If the dataset has an even number of values, the median is the average of the two middle values.

For example, consider the dataset: 3, 6, 8, 10, 12. The median is 8 since it is the middle value in the ordered list.

### Median Formula for Ungrouped Data

The median formula for ungrouped data is used to find the middle value of a dataset when the data points are listed individually, rather than grouped into intervals or classes. To calculate the median for ungrouped data, follow these steps:

- Arrange the data in ascending or descending order.
- If the dataset has an odd number of values, the median is the middle value.
- For example, if the dataset has 7 values, the median is the value at the 4th position.
- If the dataset has an even number of values, the median is the average of the two middle values.

For example, if the dataset has 8 values, the median is the average of the values at the 4th and 5th positions.

The median formula for ungrouped data takes into account the order of the data points and provides a reliable measure of central tendency that represents the middle value of the dataset.

### Median Formula for Grouped Data

The median formula for grouped data is used to find the middle value or the central tendency of a dataset that is organized into intervals or classes. To calculate the median for grouped data, follow these steps:

- Determine the cumulative frequency of each interval. The cumulative frequency is the sum of the frequencies of all the previous intervals, including the frequency of the current interval.
- Find the total number of data points in the dataset, which is the sum of all the frequencies.
- Identify the median group, which is the interval that contains the median value.
- Calculate the lower-class boundary (LCB) and upper-class boundary (UCB) of the median group. The LCB is the lower value of the median group, and the UCB is the upper value of the median group.
- Use the following formula to calculate the median:
- Median = LCB + ((N/2 – CF) * h) / f
- Where:

- N is the total number of data points (sum of frequencies).
- CF is the cumulative frequency of the interval preceding the median group.
- h is the width or size of each interval.
- f is the frequency of the median group.

By using the median formula for grouped data, you can find the central tendency of a dataset that is organized into intervals, providing a representative measure of the middle value of the data.

**Also Check**

### Significance of Median

The median offers several advantages and applications in different fields:

- Robust Measure: The median is less influenced by extreme values or outliers, making it a suitable choice when dealing with skewed data or observations that deviate significantly from the norm.
- Data Skewness: In skewed distributions, where the data is not symmetrically distributed around the mean, the median provides a more representative measure of central tendency.
- Income and Wealth Distribution: The median is commonly used to describe income and wealth distribution in populations, as it indicates the value at which 50% of individuals have higher values and 50% have lower values.
- House Prices: The median is often used to report house prices since it represents the middle value, providing a better understanding of the typical price range in a given area.
- Survival Analysis: In medical research or survival analysis, the median survival time is a crucial measure, indicating the time at which 50% of individuals have survived.

### Conclusion

The median is a valuable statistical measure that represents the middle value in a dataset. It offers a robust alternative to the mean and is less affected by extreme values. Understanding the concept of median and how to calculate it is essential for effectively summarizing and analyzing data across various domains. Whether it is income distribution, house prices, or survival analysis, the median provides valuable insights into the central tendency of a dataset.

### Solved Examples on Median

**Example 1:** Consider the following dataset: 10, 12, 15, 18, 20, 22, 25, 30.

To find the median:

**Step 1:** Arrange the data in ascending order: 10, 12, 15, 18, 20, 22, 25, 30.

**Step 2:** Count the number of data points, which is 8. Since the number of data points is even, the median is the average of the two middle values.

**Step 3:** The two middle values are 18 and 20.

**Step 4:** Add the two middle values and divide by 2: Median = (18 + 20) / 2 = 19.

Therefore, the median of the dataset is 19.

Class |
Interval |
Frequency |

10 | 20 | 5 |

20 | 30 | 8 |

30 | 40 | 10 |

40 | 50 | 6 |

To find the median: Step 1: Calculate the cumulative frequency for each interval

Class |
Interval |
Frequency |
Cumulative Frequency |

10 | 20 | 5 | 5 |

20 | 30 | 8 | 13 |

30 | 40 | 10 | 23 |

40 | 50 | 6 | 29 |

Step 2: Determine the total number of data points, which is the sum of all frequencies: N = 29.

Step 3: Identify the median group, which is the interval containing the (N/2)th data point. Here, (N/2) = 29/2 = 14.5, which falls in the 30 – 40 interval.

Step 4: Calculate the lower class boundary (LCB) and upper class boundary (UCB) of the median group. For the 30 – 40 interval, LCB = 30 and UCB = 40. Step 5: Use the median formula:

Median = LCB + ((N/2 – CF) x h) / f

For the median group (30 – 40):

CF = 13 (cumulative frequency of the previous interval)

h = 10 (width of each interval)

f = 10 (frequency of the median group)

Median = 30 + ((14.5 – 13) x 10) / 10

= 30 + (1.5 x 10) / 10

= 30 + 1.5

= 31.5

Therefore, the median of the grouped data is 31.5.

## Frequently Asked Questions on Median

### What is the median in statistics?

In statistics, the median is a measure of central tendency that represents the middle value of a dataset when it is arranged in ascending or descending order. It divides the dataset into two equal halves, where half of the values are below the median and half are above it.

### How do you find the median for an odd number of data points?

To find the median for an odd number of data points, simply arrange the data in ascending or descending order and select the middle value as the median. For example, in the dataset 3, 7, 9, 12, 15, the median is 9 because it is the middle value.

### How do you find the median for an even number of data points?

To find the median for an even number of data points, arrange the data in ascending or descending order and calculate the average of the two middle values. For example, in the dataset 2, 4, 6, 8, the two middle values are 4 and 6, so the median is (4 + 6) / 2 = 5.

### What is the significance of the median in data analysis?

The median is a robust measure of central tendency that is less affected by extreme values or outliers compared to the mean. It provides a reliable indication of the typical or central value in a dataset. The median is commonly used in various fields, including statistics, economics, and social sciences, to describe and analyze data distributions.

### Can the median be used for all types of data?

Yes, the median can be used for all types of data, including numerical and ordinal data. It is especially useful when the data contains outliers or when the distribution is skewed, as it provides a more representative measure of central tendency compared to the mean.

### Yes, the median can be used for all types of data, including numerical and ordinal data. It is especially useful when the data contains outliers or when the distribution is skewed, as it provides a more representative measure of central tendency compared to the mean.

To calculate the median for grouped data, the cumulative frequency of each group is used. The median group is identified, and the lower class boundary, upper class boundary, frequency, and width of the interval are considered. The median formula is then applied to determine the median value for the grouped data.

### Can the median be influenced by outliers?

Unlike the mean, the median is less affected by outliers. Outliers are extreme values that are significantly higher or lower than the other data points. Since the median is based on the middle value(s) of the dataset, extreme values have less impact on its calculation. This makes the median a more robust measure of central tendency when dealing with skewed or outlier-prone data.

### How does the median differ from the mode?

The median and mode are both measures of central tendency, but they represent different aspects of the data. While the median represents the middle value of a dataset, the mode is the value that occurs most frequently. The median is particularly useful for assessing the typical value in a dataset, while the mode helps identify the most common value(s). It is possible for a dataset to have multiple modes, but only one median.