UncategorizedCBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 History 2017 Outside Delhi

CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 History 2017 Outside Delhi

CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 History 2017 Outside Delhi

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    General Instructions:

    • Answer all the questions. Some questions have internal choice. Marks are indicated against each question.
    • Answer to questions no. 1 to 3 carrying 2 marks should not exceed 30 words each.
    • Answer to questions no. 4 to 9 carrying 4 marks should not exceed 100 words each.
    • Answer to questions no. 10 to 12 carrying 8 marks should not exceed 350 words each.
    • Questions no. 13 to 15 are source based questions.
    • Question no. 16 is a Map question that includes identification and location of significant test items. Attach the map with the answer-book.

    ** Answer is not given due to change in present syllabus

    CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 History 2017 Outside Delhi Set – I

    Part – A

    Question 1.
    Identify any two strategies evolved by Brahmanas to enforce the norms of Varna Order from c. 600 BCE to 600 CE. [2] Answer:
    Two strategies evolved by the Brahmanas to enforce the norms of Varna order are :

    • To assert that the Varna order was of divine origin.
    • They advised kings to ensure that these norms were followed within their kingdoms.

    Question 2.
    Examine how the Amara-nayaka system was a political innovation of the Vijaynagar Empire ? [2] Answer:
    The Military Commanders of the Rayas of the Vijaynagar were known as Amara-nayakas They had to do the following works :

    1. Amara-nayaka system was derived from the Iqta system of the Delhi Sultanate. Amara is believed to be derived from the Sanskrit word ‘Samara’ meaning batde or war.
    2. They were entided to collect taxes and other dues from the peasants, traders and craftpersons. They had to pay tribute to the king once in a year.

    Question 3.
    “The relationship between India and Pakistan has been profoundly shaped by the legacy of partition.” Explain any two consequences of it. [2] Answer:
    The two consequences of it:

    1. The Partition generated memories, hatreds, stereotypes and identities that still continue to shape the history of people on both sides of the border.
    2. This hatred have manifested themselves during inter-community conflicts and communal clashes in turn have kept alive the memories of past violence.

    Part – B

    Question 4.
    Describe the distinctive features of domestic architecture of Mohenjodaro. [4] Answer:
    The domestic architecture of Mohenjodaro had distinctive features :

    1. The lower town of Mohenjodaro had an expansion of residential buildings. All these buildings had a courtyard.
    2. The rooms were on all the sides of the courtyards.
    3. In the hot and dry weather, the courtyards were the centre of activities like cooking and weaving.
    4. While constructing residential buildings, the people had foil concern for privacy. These buildings did not have any window in the walls, along the ground level. Besides, the main entrance did not give a direct view of the interior or the courtyard.
    5. Every house had its own bathroom as well. House drains first emptied into a sump or cesspit into which solid matter settled while waste water flowed out into the street drains.

    Question 5.
    Explain the language and content of Mahabharata. [4] Answer:

    1. Mahabharata is one of the major epics. It was originally written in Sanskrit. Today it is available in world’s leading languages.
    2. There are versions in other languages as well i.e., Prakrit ,Pali, Tamil etc.
    3. The content of the Mahabharata is broadly divided into two sections : narrative and didactic.
      • The ‘narrative section’ includes social messages.
      • Generally historians agree that Mahabharata was meant to be a dramatic, moving story and that the didactic portion was probably added later.
      • The ‘didactic section’ contains prescriptions about social norms and stories.
      • Didactic refers to something that’s meant for purposes of instruction.

    Question 6.
    Examine the causes that made Al-Baruni visit India. [4] Answer:
    The causes that made Al-Baruni visit India are :

    1. In 1017, Sultan Mahmud invaded Khwarizm and took Al-Baruni with other scholars as hostage to Ghazni.
    2. Al-Baruni developed a liking for India and interest in Indian culture and literature. When Punjab became a part of the Ghaznavid Empire.
    3. Al-Baruni was highly educated of his times.
    4. He was well versed in Syrian, Arabic, Hebrews, and Persian.
    5. He wanted to learn more of mathematics, astronomy and medicine.
    6. Al-Baruni spent years learning Sanskrit and studying religious and philosophical text.
    7. He visited India, contacted local people and learnt Indian philosophy too.

    Question 7.
    How do you think that the chronicles commissioned by the Mughal Emperors are an important source for studying Mughal history ? [4] Answer:
    (i) Chronicles commissioned by the Mughal Emperors are an important source to study the empire and its court. They were written in order to project a vision of an enlightened kingdom to all those who came under its umbrella. The authors of Mughal chronicles focused on events related to life of the rulers their family, the court and the nobles, wars and administrative systems.

    (ii) These chronicles were written in Persian. This language flourished as a language of the court and of literary writings, alongside North Indian languages, especially Hindavi and its regional variants. The Mughals were Chagtai Turks by origin, Turkish was their mother tongue.

    (iii) Rulers wanted to ensure that there was an account of their rule for posterity. The histories that the authors of Mughal chronicles wrote focused on events centered on the ruler, his family, the courts and nobles, wars and administrative arrangements,

    (vi) Akbar Nama, ShahjahanNama, Alamgir Nama suggest that in the eyes of their authors the history of the empire and the court was synonymous with that of the emperor.

    Question 8.
    Examine the events that took place during 1920s and 1930s which consolidated the communal identities in the country. [4] Answer:
    The events that took place during 1920s and 1930s that further consolidated the communal identities in the country are as follows :

    1. An important development came in 1906 with the formation of the All India Muslim League at Dhaka.
    2. Muslims were angered by ‘Music— before-mosque’. The playing of music by a religious procession outside a mosque at the time of namas^ could lead to Hindu-Muslim violence.
    3. The Congress won an absolute majority in five out of eleven provinces and formed governments in seven of them.
    4. Hindus were angered by the rapid spread of ‘tabligh’ (Propaganda) and tanzim (Organization) after 1923.
    5. Middle class publicists and communal activists sought to build greater solidarity within their communities, mobilising people against the other community.
    6. Hindu Mahasabha defines Hindu identity in opposition to Muslim identity.
    7. Separate Electorate 1909 for Muslims expanded in 1919, created temptations to use sectarian slogans and divided society.

    Question 9.
    Describe the different arguments made in favour of protection of depressed classes in the Constituent Assembly. [4] Answer:

    1. N. G. Ranga , a socialist leader argued that real minorities were the poor and down trodden. They needed protection, props and ladder through constitutional rights.
    2. Some members of depressed castes emphasized that that problems of “untouchables “could not be resolved through protection and safeguard alone. Their disabilities were caused by the social norms and moral values of caste society.
    3. Society had used their services and labour but kept them at a social distance such as refusing them to enter into temples and mix or dine with them.
    4. J. Nagappa pointed out that numerically the depressed castes formed between 20 to 25 percent of the total population were not a minority. Their sufferings were due to their systematic marginalization not their numerical insignificance. They had no access to education, no share in the administration.
    5. Ambedker advocated/recommended the abolition of untouchability. The Constituent Assembly finally recommended that untouchability be abolished, Hindu temples be thrown open to all ca’Stes, and seats in legislatures and jobs in government offices be reserved for the lowest castes.

    Question 10.
    “Gandhiji was as much a social reformer as he was a politician. He believed that in order to be worthy of freedom, Indians had to get rid of social evils such as child marriage and untouchability. Indians of one faith had also to cultivate a genuine tolerance for Indians of another religion—hence his emphasis on Hindu-Muslim harmony.”
    In the light of the statement, highlight the values upheld by Mahatma Gandhi.” [4 × 1 = 4]

    Part – C

    Question 11.
    Explain the agricultural practices followed by the cultivators to increase productivity from c. 600 BCE to 600 CE. [8] OR
    Explain the main features of the Mauryan administration.
    One such strategy was the shift to plough agriculture,with spread in fertile alluvial river valley such as those of the Ganga and Kaveri from 6th century BCE. The iron tipped ploughshare was used to turn the alluvial soil areas which had high rainfall. Transplantation was the strategy used for paddy cultivation in area- where water was plentiful. Broadcasting of seeds was used in paddy cultivation. While the iron plough share let to the growth in agricultural productivity, its use was restricted to certain parts of the subcontinent cultivators in areas which were semi-arid, such as parts of Punjab and Rajasthan did not adopt till the twentieth century, and those living in hilly tracts in the north-eastern and central parts of the subcontinent practiced hoe agriculture which was much better suited to the terrain.

    Another strategy adopted to increase agricultural : production was the use of irrigation, through wells
    and tanks, and less commonly, canals: Communities as well as individuals organised the construction of irrigation works. The latter, usually powerful men including kings, often recorded such activities in inscriptions. A new type of strategies named ‘Land ‘ grants’ were adopted by ruling lineages to extend agriculture to new areas.
    The main features of the Mauryan administration are as follows :

    1. There were five major political centres in the empire—the capital Pataliputra and the provincial centres of Taxila, Ujjaini, Tosali and Suvarnagiri.
    2. It was likely that administrative control was strongest in areas around the capital and the provincial centres. These centres were carefully choosen, Taxila and Ujjaini being situated on important long distance 1 trade routes, while Suvarnagiri was important for tapping the goldmines of Karnataka.
    3. Communication along both land and water routes was vital for the existence of the empire. Journeys from the centre to the provinces could have taken weeks not months. These meant arranging provisions as well as protection of those who were, on the move. The army was important to ensure security and safety.
    4. Megasthenese mentions a committee with six sub-committees for coordinating military activity. Of
      these, one looked after the navy, the second managed transport and provisions, third was responsible for , foot soldiers, the forth for horses, the fifth for the chariots and the sixth for elephants.
    5. The activities of the second committee were rather varied arranging bullock carts to carry equipment, procuring food for the soldiers and fodder for animals and recruiting servants and assistants to look after the soldiers.
    6. Ashoka also tried to hold his empire together propagating Dhamma, the principles of which were simple and virtually universally applicable. This would ensure the well being of the people.
    7. He recruited special officers known as Dhamma Mahamattas. It was their duty to spread the message of Dhamma.
    8. According to Megasthenes—Officers were appointed to different work. Such as some superintended the rivers, measure the land; inspect the sluices by which water is let out from the main canals into branches, so everyone may have equal supply of it. Some officers collect the taxes.

    Question 12.
    Identify the relationship between the Sufis and the State from the eighth to the eighteenth century.
    Identify the relationship of the Alvars and Nayanars of Tamil Nadu with the State from the eighth to the eighteenth century. [8] Answer:

    1. The group of Sufis-the Chishtis, who migrated to India in the late twelveth century adopted the local environment and maintained an influencing relationship with the state.
    2. One of the major feature of the Sufis was austerity including maintaining distance from worldly power. However, they did not maintain the complete isolation from political power.
    3. The Sufis accepted unsolicited grants and donations from political elites. The sultans in turn set up charitable trusts (auqaf) as endowments for hospices and tax-free land (inam).
    4. The Chishtis accepted donations in cash and kind. Rather than accumulate donations, they preferred to use these fully on immediate requirements such as food, clothes, living quarters and ritual necessities (such as sama).
    5. Akbar visited Ajmer Dargah of Khawaja Muinuddinchisti fourteen times to seek blessings for new conquets, fulfilment of vows and the birth of sons. Each of his visits was celebrated by generous gifts, which were recorded in Imperial documents.
    6. Kings did not simply need to demonstrate their association with sufis; they also required legitimation from them.
    7. When the Turks set up the Delhi Sultanate, they resisted the insistence of the ulama on imposing shari’a as state law because they anticipated opposition from their subjects, the majority of whom were non-MuslimsT The Sultans then sought out the sufis—who derived their authority directly from God—and did not depend on jurists to interpret the shari’a.
    8. In spite of this there were some instances of conflicts between Sufis and the Sultan, because both wanted to ascertain their authorities by emphasising on certain rules and regulations. Such ritual includes kissing of feet and prostration.
    9. Sometimes the Sufi Shaikhs were also adorned with high sounding titles. E.g., Nizamuddin Auliya adorned the title of Sultan U1 Mashaikh (literally, Sultan among Shaikhs).


    1. Alvars were devotees of Vishnu and Nayanars were devotees of Shiva.
    2. Chola rulers supported Brahmanical and Bhakti traditions. Royal patronage was granted to Nayanars.
    3. They tried to claim the divine support and with this motive they built magnificent Shiva temples at Chidambaram. Thanjavur and Gangaikandaholapuram.
    4. In these temples, bronze made sculptures of Lord Shiva were kept and known as Nataraj.
    5. Chola ruler Prantaka I consecrated metal images of saints of Shaivism—Appar, Sambandar and Sundarar.
    6. Krishna I, a Rashtrakuta ruler, who built Kailash temple at Ellora, also granted for the construction of many temples. These rulers not only popularised the hymns of Shiva but also made a great contribution in the compilation of Tevaram.
    7. The chola rulers often attempted to claim divine support and proclaim their own power and status by building splendid temples and metal sculpture to recreate the visions of these popular saints.
    8. The vellala peasants revered both Nayanars and Alvars.

    Part – C

    Question 13.
    “After introducing the Permanent Settlement in Bengal, the zamidars regularly failed to pay the land revenue demand.” Examine the causes and consequences of it.
    “A chain of grievances in Awadh linked the prince, taluqdars, peasants and sepoys to join ‘ hands in the revolt of 1857 against the British.” Examine the statement. [8] Answer:

    1. The initial demands were very high arguing that the burden on zamindar would gradually decline as agricultural production expanded and price rose.
    2. A high demand was imposed in 1790s when the agricultural prices were depressed. This made difficult to pay their dues to zamindar.
    3. The zamindars could not collect rent and pay the rent.
    4. Revenue was in variable, regardless of the harvest and had to be paid punctually. As per sunset law, the payment had to be paid before sunset. If not done, the zamindari was liable to be auctioned.
    5. The permanent settlement limited the power of zamindar to collect rent from the ryot.
    6. The Company recognized zamindars as important but wanted to control and regulate them.
    7. Zamindars lost their power to organize local justice and local police.
    8. Rent collection was a perennial problem. Sometimes bad harvest and low prices made payments of dues difficult for ryots.
    9. Sometimes ryots deliberately delayed payments but the zapiindar could not assert his power over them.
    10. Rich ryot, village head man, Jotedars and Mandals were happy to see the zamindars in trouble.

    A chain of grievances in Awadh linked the prince, taluqdars, peasants and sepoys to join hands in the revolt of 1857 against the British.

    (i) The Nawab of Awadh, Wajid Ali Shah was removed by Dalhousie on the pretext of poor governance. It was looked down upon by the people as high insult to them. The local people sympathised with the Nawab. Thus, the public sentiment was gainst the British government that got a vent during the revolt.

    (ii) The British land revenue policy further undermined the position and authority of the taluqdars. After annexation, the first British revenue settlement, known as the Summary Settlement of 1856, was based on the assumption that the taluqdars were interlopers with no permanent stakes in land. The Summary Settlement proceeded to remove the taluqdars wherever possible. The increase of revenue demand in some place was 30 to 70%. Thus taluqdars were not happy with the annexation.


    • British land revenue officers believed that by removing taluqdars they would be able to settle the land with the actual owners of the soil.
    • They thought they will be able to reduce the level of exploitation of peasants while increasing revenue returns for the state. But this did not happen in practice.
      The revenue flows for the state increased but the burden of demand on the peasants did not decline. Thus neither taluqdars nor peasants had any reasons to be happy with the annexation.

    (iv) The grievances of the peasants were carried over into the sepoy lines since a vast majority of the sepoys were recruited from the villages of Awadh. For decades the sepoys had complained of low levels of pay and the difficulty of getting leave. The relationship of the spoys with their superior white officers underwent a significant change in the years preceding the uprising of 1857.

    (v) In the 1840s, the officers developed a sense of superiority and started treating the sepoys as their racial inferiors, riding roughshod over their sensibilities. Abuse and physical violence became common and thus, the distance between sepoys and officers grew. .

    (vi) The company introduced a new catridge for its soldiers. It was to be bitten before use by soldiers. It was reported that it was made of the fat of cow and pig. Hence, soldiers of both Hindu and Muslim thought that it was a conspirary of the Company to destroy their religion.

    (vii) During the early phase of the company rule, British soliders and officers had friendly relation with the Indian soldiers. Things changed after 1835 and British began to consider themselves as superior. All senior positions in the army were given to them and even at the same ranks Britishers were paid more. The native soliders were treated with disrespect.

    Part – D

    Question 14.
    Read the following extract carefully and answer the questions that follow :

    Buddhism in Practice
    This is an excerpt from the Sutta Pitaka, and contains the advice given by the Buddha to a wealthy householder named Sigala :

    In five ways should a master look after his servants and employees … by assigning them work according to their strength, by supplying them with food and wages, by tending them in sickness;-by sharing delicacies with them and by granting leave at times ……

    In five ways should the clansmen look after the needs of samanas (those who have renounced the world) and Brahmanas : by affection in act and speech and mind, by keeping open house to them and supplying their worldly needs.
    There are similar instructions to Sigala about how to behave with his parents, teacher and wife.
    (14.1) In what ways should amasterlook after his servants and employees ? [2] (14.2) In what ways should the clansmen look after the needs of samanas ? [2] (14.3) Explain the main aspects of Buddhist philosophy. [3] Answer:
    (14.1) There are five ways to look after the servants and the employees : assigning them work according to their strength, supplying them with food and wages, tending them in sickness, sharing delicacies and granting leaves at times.

    (14.2) The clansman should look after the needs of samanas in the following ways : by affection in act and speech and mind, by keeping open house to them, supplying their worldly needs.

    (14.3) According to the Buddhist philosophy the world is transient (annica) and constantly changing, it is also soulless (anatta) as there is nothing permanent or eternal. Within this transient world sorrow is intrinsic to human existence. It is by following the path of moderation between severe penance and self-indulgence that human beings can rise above these worldly troubles.

    Question 15.
    Read the following extract carefully and answer the questions that follow:
    The Ain on land revenue collection Let him (the amil-guzar) not make it a practice of taking only in cash but also in kind. The latter is effected in several ways, First, kankut : in the Hindi language kan signifies grain, and
    kut, estimates If any doubts arise, the crops should be cut and estimated in three lots, the good, the middling and the inferior, and the hesitation should be removed. Often, too, the land taken by appraisement, gives a sufficiently accurate return. Secondly, batai, also called bhaoli, the crops are reaped and stacked and divided by agreement in the presence of the parties. But in this case several intelligent inspectors are required; otherwise, the evil-minded and false are given to deception. Thirdly, khet-batai, when they divide the fields after they are sown. Fourthly, lang batai, after cutting the grain, they form it in heaps and divide it among themselves, and ceash takes his share home and turns it to profit.
    (15.1) Explain the kankut system of land revenue. [2] (15.2) How as the land revenue assessed in the case of batai or bhaoli ? [2] (15.3) Do you think that the land revenue system of the Mughals was flexible ? [3] Answer:
    (15.1) In the Kankut system, in the Hindi language kan signifies grain and kut estimates. If any doubts arise the crops should be cut and estimated in three lots : the good, the middling and the inferior, and the hesitation should be removed. Often, too, the land taken by appraisement, gives a sufficiently accurate return.

    (15.2.) Batai also called bhaoli, the crops are reaped and stacked and divided by agreement in the presence of the parties.

    (15.3.) Yes, the land revenue system of the Mughals was flexible.

    1. First tax assessment —(Jama) was made and then actual collection—(Hasil)
    2. The option of paying in cash or kind was available to farmers.
    3. The lands were actually measured and then the assessment of revenue made.

    Question 16.
    Read the following extract carefully and answer the questions that follow :
    A rural city ?
    Read this excerpt on Madras from the Imperial Gazetteer, 1908 :
    … the better European residencies are built in the midst of compounds which almost attain the dignity of parks; and rice-fields frequently wind in and out between these in almost rural fashion. Even in the most thickly peopled native quarters such as Black Town and Triplicane, there is litde of the crowding found in many other towns
    (16.1) Where and why were better European residencies built ? [2] (16.2) Explain the condition of black towns. [2] (16.3) State the meaning of gradual urbanisation of Madras (Chennai). [3] Answer:
    (16.1) (a) Better European residences were built due to the economic activities of the English East India Company in Bombay/Calcutta/Madras.
    (b) Better European residences are built in the midst of compounds, which almost attain the dignity of parks and rice field and at the areas of the free flow of the winds.
    (c) Buildings that build in these cities bore marks of their colonial origin. They mould tastes, popularize styles and shape the contours of culture.
    (16.2) The black towns were thickly populated, with less hygienic living conditions and with no planning. The “Black” areas come to be symbolised not only chaos and anarchy, but also filth and disease.
    (16.3) The ‘dubashes’ were Indians who could speak two languages—the local language and English.

    Part – E

    Question 17.
    (17.1) On the given political outline map of India, locate and label the following appropriately : [1 × 2 = 2] (a) Masulipatanam—a territory under British control during 1857.
    (b) Goa—a territory under the Mughals.
    (17.2) On the same map of India, three places which are major Buddhist sites have been marked as A, B and C. Identify them and write their correct names on the lines drawn near them. [3] CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 History 2017 Outside Delhi 1
    CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 History 2017 Outside Delhi 2

    CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 History 2017 Outside Delhi Set – II

    Note : Except for the following questions, all the remaining questions have been asked in previous set.

    Part – A

    Question 1.
    Identify any two occupations to be performed by Kshatriyas as per Varna Order. [2] Answer:
    The two occupations to be performed by the Kshatriyas were to engage in warfare, protect people and administer justice.

    Question 3.
    Examine the outcome of the battle of Rakshasi- Tangadi (Talikota). [2] Answer:
    The battle was fought in 1565. Rama Raya, the Chief Minister of Vijaynagar led the army into the batde of Rakshasi-Tangadi (Talikota) where his forces were routed by combined forces of Bijapur, Ahmednagar and Golconda. These forces sacked the city of Vijaynagar.

    Part – B

    Question 5.
    What do you know about the authors and the period when Mahabharata was compiled ? Explain. [4] Answer:
    There are so many views about the author of Mahabharata. Following views have been put forward regarding the authorship of Mahabharata : It is believed that the original story was written by the charioteer-bards known as Sutas. They originally accompanied Kshatriya warriors to the battlefield and composed poems celebrating their victories and other achievements. It is also believed that the beginning text of Mahabharata was orally circulated. Scholars and priests carried it from one generation to another.

    From the 5th century BCE, the Brahmanas took over the story and started writing. This was the time when Kurus and Panchals were gradually becoming Kingdoms. This story of Mahabharata also revolved around them. Some parts of the story reflect that old social values were replaced by the new ones. c. 200 BCE and 200 CE is another phase in the composition of the Mahabharata. During this period worship of Vishnu was gaining ground. Krishna came to be identified as Vishnu. Large didactic sections resembling Manusmriti were added during the period between C 200 and 400 CE. These interpretations made the Mahabharata an epic consisting of 100,000 verses. This enormous composition is traditionally attributed to a sage named Vyasa.

    Question 6.
    “India had a unique system of communication during the fourteenth century.” Examine the statement of Ibn Batuta. [4] Answer:
    Ibn Batuta arrived India in the 14th century. He was much impressed by the Postal System of India. Two kinds of postal system were prevalent in the society. These two systems, the horse-post called the Uluq and foot-post called the Dawa. Uluq had their station at every four miles, while the foot-post had three stations per mile and a dawa meant one-third of a mile. The foot system was much spread than the horse system and was prevalent in the entire subcontinent. It is because of this efficient postal system the rulers were able to keep a strict watch over the vast empire. The ruler used to get all the information about all the events in the minimum possible time. It took nearly 50 days to travel from Sindh to Delhi, whereas, the spies of the king were able to send their news reports in just five days through this efficient system of post. This also proved beneficial for the traders since it enabled them to despatch their goods in a short period of time.

    Question 7.
    “The granting of titles to the men of merit was an important aspect of Mughal polity.” Explain. [4] Answer:
    Grand tides were adopted by the Mughal emperors at the time of coronation or after a victory over an enemy. High-sounding and rhythmic, they created an atmosphere of awe in the audience when announced by ushers (naqib). The granting of titles to men of merit was an important aspect of Mughal polity. A man’s ascent in the court hierarchy could be traced through the tides he held. The title Asaf Khan for one of the highest ministers originated with Asaf, the legendry minister of the prophet king Sulaiman (Solomon). The title Mirza Raja was accorded by Aurangazeb to his two highest ranking nobles, Jai Singh and Jaswant Singh. TMef could be earned or paid for. Mir Khan offered ? one lakh to Aurangazeb for the letter Alif, that is A, to be added to his name to make it Amir Khan.

    Part – C

    Question 13.
    Examine the land revenue system that was introduced in Bombay Deccan. How did the peasants fall into the debt-trap of the moneylenders ? Explain. [8] OR
    “Rumours and prosphesies played a part in moving the people into action during the revolt of 1857.” Examine the statement with rumours and reasons for its belief.
    Land Revenue System

    1. The revenue system that was introduced in the Bombay Deccan came to be known as the ryotwari settlement. The revenue was directly settled with the ryot.
    2. The average income from different types of soil was estimated, the revenue-paying capacity of the ryot was assessed and a proportion of it fixed as the share of the state.
    3. The lands were resurveyed every 30- years and the revenue rates increased. Therefore, the revenue
      demand was no longer permanent.
    4. It was based on Ricardian ideas.

    Peasants fell into Debt-trap of money lenders

    1. During the 1820s the revenue that was demanded was so high.
    2. In areas of poor soil and fluctuating rainfall, the problem was particularly acute. When rains failed and harvests were poor, peasants found it impossible to pay the revenue.
    3. However, the collectors in charge of revenue collection were keen on demonstrating their efficiency and pleasing their superiors. So, they went about extracting payment with utmost severity.

    Rumours and prophesies of the revolt of 1857 :

    1. The sepoys who had arrived in Delhi from Meerut had told Bahadur Shah about bullets coated with the faifof cows and pigs.
    2. Biting those bullets would corrupt their caste and religion. They were referring to the cartridges of the Enfield rifles which had just been given to them.
    3. The British tried to explain to the sepoys that this was not the case but the rumour that the new cartridges were greased with the fat of cows and pigs spread like wildfire across the sepoy lines of North India.
    4. In the third week of January 1857 a “low-caste” khalasi who worked in the magazine in Dum Dum had asked a Brahmin sepoy for a drink of water from his lota. The sepoy had refused saying that the “lower caste’s” touch would defile the lota.
    5. There was the rumour that the British government had hatched a gigantic conspiracy to destroy the caste and
      religion of Hindus and Muslims. To this end, the rumours said, the British had mixed the bone dust of cows and pigs into the flour that was sold in the market.
    6. There was fear and suspicion that the British wanted to convert Indians to Christianity.
    7. The response to the call for action was reinforced by the prophecy that British rule would come to an end on the centenary of the Battle of Plassey, on 23 June, 1857.
    8. In North India, chapattis were being distributed from village to village. A person would come at night and give a chapatti to the watchman of the village and ask him to make five more and distribute to the next village, and so on.

    CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 12 History 2017 Outside Delhi Set – III

    Note : Except for the following questions, all the remaining questions have been asked in previous set.

    Part – A

    Question 1.
    State whether gender differences were really important in the early societies. from c. 600 BCE to 600 CE. [2] Answer:
    Gender Differences (Patrilineal succession, Claim of resources, Gotra System)

    1. Under patriliny, sons could clairJi the resources (including the throne in the case of kings) of their fathers when the latter died. .
    2. According to the Manusmriti, the paternal estate was to be divided equally amongst sons after the death of the parents, with a special share for the eldest.

    Question 2.
    Examine the significance of enclosing agricultural land within the fortified area of the city of Vijaynagar. [2] Answer:
    Agricultural tracts were incorporated within the fortified area. The objective of medieval sieges was to starve the defenders into submission. These sieges could last for several months and sometimes even years. Normally rulers tried to be prepared for such situations by building large granaries within fortified areas.

    Part – B

    Question 5.
    Explain how you will prove that the text of Mahabharata was a dynamic one. [4] Answer:
    Mahabharata is a dynamic text:

    1. The growth of the Mahabharata did not stop with the Sanskrit version.
    2. Over the centuries, versions of the epic were written in a variety of languages through an ongoing process of dialogue between peoples, communities, and those who wrote the texts.
    3. Several stories that originated in specific regions or circulated amongst certain people found their way into the epic. At the same time, the central story of the epic was often retold in different ways.
    4. Episodes of Mahabharata were depicted in sculpture and painting.
    5. They also provided themes for a wide range of performing arts—plays, dance and other kinds of narrations.

    Question 6.
    Examine why Bernier described the Mughal towns as the ‘Camp Towns’. [4] Answer:
    During the seventeenth century about 15 percent of the population lived in the towns. This was on average, higher than the proportion of urban population in Western Europe in the same period. In spite of this, Bernier described the Mughal cities as ‘Camp towns’, by which he meant towns that owed their existence and depended for their survival, on the imperial camp. He believed that these came into existence when the imperial court moved in and rapidly declined when it moved out. He suggested that they did not have viable social and economic foundations but were dependent on imperial patronage.

    Bernier was drawing an over simplified picture. There were all kinds of towns : manufacturing towns, trading towns, port-towns, sacred centres, pilgrimage towns, etc. Their existence is an index of the prosperity of merchant communities and professional classes.

    Question 7.
    How do you think that Qandahar remained a bone of contention between the Mughals and the Safavids ? Explain. [4] Answer:
    There was a constant effort by the Mughal policy to ward off this potential danger by controlling strategic outposts – notably Kabul and Qandhar. Qandahar was a bone of contention between the Safavids and the Mughals. All conquerors who sought to make their way into the Indian subcontinent had to cross the Hindukush to have access to north India. The fortress town had initially been in the possession of Humayun, reconquered in 1595 by Akbar. While the Safavid Court retained diplomatic relations with the Mughals, it continued to stake claims to Qandhar. In 1613, Jahangir sent a diplomatic envoy to the court of Shah Abbas to plead the Mughal case for retaining Qandhar but the mission failed. In the winter of 1622 a Persian army besieged Qandhar. The ill-prepared Mughal garrison was defeated and had to surrender the fortress and the city to the Safavids.

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