Study MaterialsImportant QuestionsNCERT Solutions Class 10 Science

NCERT Solutions Class 10 Science

Class 10 Science NCERT Solutions are helpful resources provided by the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT), an independent body under the Indian government. These solutions cover the curriculum for CBSE and certain state board schools in India.

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    Also Check: CBSE Class 10 Science Syllabus

    Students preparing for their Class 10 exams from different boards can use these NCERT solutions to study and do well in their exams, thus improving their grades.

    NCERT Solutions of Class 10 Science all chapters in PDF

    Chapter 1 – Chemical reactions and equations
    Chapter 2 – Acids, Bases and Salt
    Chapter 3 – Metals and Non-metals
    Chapter 4 – Carbon and Its Compounds
    Chapter 5 – Life Processes
    Chapter 6 – Control and Coordination
    Chapter 7 – How Do Organisms Reproduce?
    Chapter 8 – Heredity and Evolution
    Chapter 9 – Light Reflection and Refraction
    Chapter 10 – The Human Eye and Colourful World
    Chapter 11 – Electricity
    Chapter 12 – Magnetic Effects of Electric Current
    Chapter 13 – Our Environment

    Chapter 1 – Chemical Reactions and Equations

    In the first chapter of Class 10 NCERT Science, students will learn about chemical reactions. They’ll discover how to write equations and carry out different types of reactions like combination and decomposition. Before this, we studied changes in matter—physical and chemical. When a chemical change happens, it’s called a chemical reaction. A chemical reaction is shown with symbols representing the starting materials, end products, and their physical forms. Students will also learn how to write these reactions symbolically. The chapter also covers balancing chemical equations in different states.

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    NCERT Solutions Class 10 Science

    Then, they’ll explore various types of chemical reactions like combination, decomposition, displacement, and double displacement. Each type is explained with examples and reactions. The lesson also touches on energy—exothermic reactions give out heat, while endothermic reactions absorb energy. Redox reactions, a mix of reduction and oxidation, are also explained with examples. The chapter illustrates all these reactions using simple examples and their respective chemical equations.

    Chapter 2 – Acids, Bases and Salts

    Class 10 Science Chapter 2 from NCERT covers acids, bases, and salts. It talks about how the sour and bitter tastes in food come from acids and bases. Acids taste sour and turn blue litmus paper red, while bases taste bitter and turn red litmus paper blue. The chapter dives into how acids and bases react, cancel each other out, and how they affect our daily lives. You’ll learn about their properties, their reactions with metals, carbonates, and hydrogen carbonates, as well as reactions between them. There are explanations with examples about reactions of metallic and non-metallic oxides too.

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    It also discusses what acids and bases share, like their ability to conduct electricity when in water. There are experiments showing how acids or bases behave in water and how strong they are, using universal indicators. The chapter highlights the importance of pH in our daily lives. Towards the end, it explains how salts are prepared, their properties, and their various uses.

    Chapter 3 – Metals and Non-metals

    In earlier lessons, students might have learned about things like metals and non-metals and how they’re different based on their properties. Now, in Chapter 3 of Class 10 Science, students will find out about what metals and non-metals are like physically. Metals are shiny, bendable, can be stretched into wires, and they’re good at letting heat and electricity pass through. Usually, metals are solid, except for mercury which is a liquid. We can tell what metals are like by looking at their abilities to bend, stretch, their strength, and more. By checking these properties, we can figure out which are metals and which are non-metals. Non-metals, like carbon, sulfur, and oxygen, can be solid or gas, but there’s also one liquid, bromine. When metals react with stuff like oxygen, water, or acids, they make chemical reactions. These reactions depend on how reactive the metal is. The most reactive is potassium and the least reactive is gold. When metals give away electrons to non-metals, they form compounds called ionic compounds or electrovalent compounds. These compounds have certain qualities like how they act, how they melt, dissolve, or conduct electricity. To use metals, they need to be taken out from their ores and made better, which is called metallurgy. A way to make metals better is by a process called electrolytic refining. Lastly, there’s talk about how metal can get damaged by corrosion and how to stop it from happening.

    Chapter 4 – Carbon and its Compounds

    In the last chapter, we talked about important compounds. Now, we’ll explore more interesting compounds and their qualities. Let’s focus on carbon, a very important element for us in its pure form and when it combines with other elements. Carbon is special because it’s the basis of life and many things we use. When atoms share electrons, they form covalent bonds. Carbon does this with itself and other elements like hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, and chlorine.

    Carbon compounds are split into two types: saturated and unsaturated. Saturated compounds have single bonds, while unsaturated ones have double or triple bonds. Some saturated compounds of carbon and hydrogen are methane, ethane, propane, butane, pentane, and hexane.

    This chapter also talks about carbon’s chemical traits and those of its compounds, like combustion, oxidation, addition, and substitution reactions. Ethanol and ethanoic acid are essential carbon compounds in our daily lives. We’ll learn about soap and detergents, their structures, properties, and how they differ. Detergents are mainly used in making shampoos and clothes cleaning products.

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    Chapter 5 – Periodic Classification of Elements

    In our 9th standard, we learned that everything around us is made up of elements, compounds, and mixtures. Elements are made of only one kind of atom. Long ago, people classified elements as metals and non-metals. Some scientists like Dobereiner and Newlands tried to group elements in different ways. Mendeleev made a table arranging elements by their masses and properties. He even guessed some new elements that hadn’t been discovered yet. Then, the modern periodic table was made. It arranges elements in columns called groups and rows called periods. Elements in this table have similar properties that repeat in a pattern. These properties include size, how they combine with other elements, and if they are like metals or non-metals. Valency, which tells how an element combines with others, depends on the outer electrons of an atom. Atomic size just means how big an atom is.

    Chapter 6 – Life Processes

    In the 10th-grade Science book by NCERT, they talk about how living things do different activities to survive. They’ve listed six such activities: moving, breathing, growing, reproducing, getting rid of waste, and eating. Eating involves several steps like taking in food, breaking it down, absorbing the good parts, moving it around the body, using it, and then getting rid of what’s not needed. They’ve also explained two types of eating: making food from scratch and consuming what others make. For humans, this process happens step by step: eating, breaking down food inside the body, moving it around, and using it for various purposes.

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    They’ve delved into how we breathe, focusing on how our lungs and other parts help us breathe. Breathing helps us extract energy from food breakdown, which, in turn, fuels other activities in our body. They’ve explained two ways of doing this: one with air and the other without it. Both plants and humans require specific things to grow well. For humans, there’s a system that helps move substances like air and food around our bodies. Plants, on the other hand, have special tubes to do this job.

    When it comes to waste, humans eliminate it through their kidneys, while plants have their own distinct ways of discarding what they don’t need.

    Chapter 7 – Control and Coordination

    Class 10’s Chapter 7 covers how our body manages control and coordination. This involves the nervous system, which uses electrical signals for quick responses, like reflex actions. These responses can be voluntary or involuntary. Our senses provide info to the nervous system, which then tells our muscles what to do. Apart from this, there’s chemical coordination using hormones found in both plants and animals. These hormones travel within an organism to create specific effects in different parts. To ensure balance, there’s a feedback system that regulates how these hormones work.

    Chapter 8 – How do Organisms Reproduce

    Class 10 Chapter 7 covers how our body manages control and coordination. This involves the nervous system, which uses electrical signals for quick responses, like reflex actions. These responses can be voluntary or involuntary. Our senses provide info to the nervous system, which then tells our muscles what to do. Apart from this, there’s chemical coordination using hormones found in both plants and animals. These hormones travel within an organism to create specific effects in different parts. To ensure balance, there’s a feedback system that regulates how these hormones work.

    Chapter 9 – Heredity And Evolution

    In this chapter, we’ll explore Heredity and Evolution. Reproductive processes create new individuals that are alike but a bit different. Even in asexual reproduction, there’s some variation. In humans, traits come from both parents equally, affecting each trait with their DNA. Sex determination varies among species. Changes in non-reproductive tissues due to the environment aren’t passed on. Speciation can happen with variation and geographical separation. Organisms’ classifications reveal their evolutionary connections. Going back, we infer that life originated from non-living materials.

    Evolution’s evidence includes fossils, not just living species. Complex organs may evolve due to advantages at intermediate stages. Features adapt during evolution. It doesn’t move from lower to higher forms; complexity grows alongside simpler designs. Human evolution suggests we all come from one species originating in Africa, spreading across the globe gradually.

    Chapter 10 – Light Reflection and Refraction

    In the 10th-grade Science book, Chapter 10 of NCERT, we explore how light travels and changes direction. This helps us understand its behavior in nature. The chapter dives into how light reflects off curved mirrors and shifts direction while passing through different materials.

    We learn about various types of curved mirrors, like concave (curved inward) and convex (curved outward). Terms like the center of curvature, focal point, and pole of a mirror are introduced, and we use diagrams to visualize these concepts. This chapter also highlights practical uses of curved mirrors in our daily lives.

    The mirror formula helps us understand the link between the object’s distance from the mirror, where its image forms, and the mirror’s curvature.

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    Refraction occurs when light changes its path as it moves from one material to another, like from air to glass, due to differences in their speeds. We explore the concept of the refractive index, which tells us how much light slows down in a material compared to its speed in a vacuum.

    When light passes through materials like a rectangular glass slab, it bends at the entry and exit points. This bending helps us grasp how light behaves within the material. The lens formula helps us predict where an image will form when an object is placed in front of a lens and also assesses the lens’s strength.

    The strength of a lens is measured in diopters, and it’s the inverse of its focal length. This chapter guides us in understanding the fascinating behavior of light in various situations.

    Chapter 11 – The Human Eye and Colorful World

    “In the last part, we learned about light and what it does. Now, we’re going to talk about how light works in nature. We’ll explore things like rainbows, how light separates into colors, and why the sky looks blue. Our eyes are super important. They let us see all the amazing things and colors around us. Our eyes can focus on things far away or close up by changing shape. This is called ‘accommodation.’ The closest point we can see clearly without struggling is called the near point, usually about 25cm for most young adults. Sometimes our eyes have problems seeing clearly, like nearsightedness or farsightedness. We fix these with special lenses. As we get older, our eyes can’t adjust as well. When light spreads out into colors, it’s called dispersion. Light bouncing around in the sky is why it looks blue and why the Sun seems red during sunrise and sunset.

    Chapter 12 – Electricity

    Electricity is super important in our modern world. It’s a useful type of energy that we control and use in lots of places like homes, schools, hospitals, and industries. It’s all about the movement of something called charge. When a bunch of tiny particles called electrons move through something, like a wire, it makes electricity. We measure this flow of electricity in amps.

    To make these electrons move in a circuit, we need something like a battery. Batteries create a push for these electrons, which we measure as volts. There’s something called resistance that tries to slow down these electrons in a wire. It decides how strong the flow of electricity will be. Ohm’s law explains that the push of electricity (voltage) is connected to how much flows (current) through something.

    The longer the wire, the more the resistance, and the thicker the wire, the less resistance there is. When we put resistors in a line, one after the other, their total resistance adds up.

    When electricity flows through something that resists it, it uses up energy. We measure this energy in watts, and the total amount of energy used over time is measured in kilowatt-hours. That’s the same as using 1,000 watts of power for an hour

    Chapter 13 – Magnetic Effects of Electric Current

    This chapter dives into the fascinating world of magnets and electricity. We’ll explore how magnets generate magnetic fields and how electric currents create their own magnetic fields. Think of a compass—a small magnet that always points north with one end and south with the other. The space around a magnet, where its force can be felt, is called a magnetic field. We use lines to show this field.

    When electricity passes through a wire, it forms a magnetic field around the wire, shaped like circles. This field’s appearance depends on the wire’s shape. Ever heard of an electromagnet? It’s created by wrapping wire around an iron core. When a wire carrying current is in a magnetic field, it experiences a force, which is the key to how electric motors function—they turn electricity into movement.

    Electromagnetic induction is about producing an electric current in a coil when its surrounding magnetic field changes. This change can occur when a magnet moves close to the coil or when there’s a change in the nearby wire’s current flow. This process is essential in generators, which convert motion into electricity.

    Generators come in two main types: AC and DC. And let’s not forget fuses—they’re vital for protecting circuits from damage caused by excessive current or short circuits.

    Chapter 14 – Sources of Energy

    As we aim for a better life, our need for energy increases. To meet this demand, we focus on using energy more efficiently and seeking out new sources. This section delves into the various ways we obtain energy. Some methods are traditional, like coal, gas, and water-based power, each with their own advantages and drawbacks. We also explore advancements in these traditional methods, such as using plants and wind power more effectively.

    Moreover, we delve into alternative ways to harness energy, like tapping into the sun’s energy through solar panels, harnessing the power of waves and tides from the sea, and accessing the Earth’s heat through geothermal energy. Additionally, we discuss nuclear energy derived from atoms. The choice of energy sources depends on factors like accessibility, technological efficiency, and environmental impact.

    Interestingly, many of these energy sources trace their roots back to the Sun. Each energy option has its positives and negatives that are crucial to consider in making informed decisions.

    Chapter 15 – Our Environment

    “This section talks about how different parts of nature work together and how we affect nature. Everything in an environment depends on each other. Plants create energy from the sun for other living things. As energy moves through the food chain, some gets lost, so there aren’t too many levels in a food chain. We explain food chains using examples from forests, grasslands, and ponds. What people do can harm nature. Some chemicals we use, like CFCs, hurt the ozone layer. This layer shields us from the Sun’s harmful rays. The trash we make can break down naturally or not. Getting rid of our trash causes big problems for nature.

    Chapter 16 – Sustainable Management of Natural Resources

    In the last class, we studied things like soil, air, and water that nature gives us. They keep going around in a cycle. Now, in this lesson, we’ll focus on these things we have and how we’re using them. Our stuff, such as forests, animals, water, coal, and oil, should be used carefully so they don’t run out. If we follow “Refuse, Reduce, Reuse, Repurpose, and Recycle,” we can ease up on the environment. Managing forests means thinking about everyone involved. Making dams for water has effects on society, money, and nature. There are other ways instead of big dams that suit different places and let local people manage their own resources. Coal and oil won’t last forever, and burning them makes the air dirty. So, we should use them wisely.

    NCERT Chemical Reactions and Equations class 10 FAQs

    What is chemical reaction and equation Class 10 explain?

    Chemical reactions are changes where substances turn into new ones. Equations show these changes using symbols and formulas.

    What is a chemical reaction Class 10 PDF?

    It's a document summarizing chemical reactions, explaining them with examples and equations, usually in a digital book format.

    What is the main topic of class 10 science chapter 1?

    Chapter 1 often covers the basics of chemical reactions, equations, and understanding the changes in substances.

    What is chemical reaction and equation Class 10 notes?

    These notes outline the key concepts of chemical reactions, explaining how they occur and how to represent them using equations.

    What is a chemical equation in short notes?

    A chemical equation is a shorthand way to show a chemical reaction, using symbols and formulas to represent the substances involved and the changes that occur.

    What is chemical reaction answer for Class 10?

    It's an explanation of how substances change to form new ones, often described using equations and examples in the context of class 10 science.

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