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Non-Cooperation Movement

Mahatma Gandhi led the Non-Cooperation Movement from 1920 to 1922, aiming to convince the British government to grant India self-rule, known as Swaraj. This type of Civil Disobedience movement, called Satyagraha, started in September 1920 and continued until February 1922, marking a significant step in India’s struggle for independence.

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    The Jallianwala Bagh Massacre in 1919 triggered the Non-Cooperation Movement. Gandhi, advocating for nonviolent resistance, encouraged actions like boycotts and non-cooperation with British authorities. This approach united people from diverse backgrounds against colonial rule, reshaping the fight for freedom.

    However, the Non-Cooperation Movement faced a setback in February 1922 due to the Chauri Chaura Incident, a violent turn during a peaceful protest. Resulting in Gandhi suspending the movement.

    Gandhiji’s Non-Cooperation Movement

    Mahatma Gandhi led the Non-Cooperation Movement and shared his ideas in a simple paper in March 1920. He wanted to stop untouchability, a bad practice. Gandhi suggested people should follow Swadeshi, like spinning and weaving at home. In 1921, he travelled around, talking about these ideas. He aimed to make everyone understand and support the movement. Gandhi believed in self-reliance and togetherness. His paper and talks tried to make people feel they could make a better India by not fighting and working together peacefully.

    Causes Of Non-Cooperation Movement

    Mahatma Gandhi led the Non-Cooperation Movement in 1920. There were many causes of the Non-Cooperation Movement.

    • Gandhi’s Influence: Mahatma Gandhi’s charismatic leadership and his philosophy of non-cooperation resonated with the masses.
    • Desire for Swaraj (Self-Rule): Indians wanted complete independence to govern themselves without British interference.
    • Peasant Discontent: Economic hardships faced by the agrarian community provided a platform for expressing grievances through the movement.
    • Boycott of Institutions: Indians were urged to boycott schools, courts, and government jobs as a form of non-cooperation.
    • Symbolic Acts: Returning honours from the British government symbolised defiance and rejection of colonial authority.
    • Mass Participation: The movement saw widespread involvement from different sections of society, gaining broad public support.
    • Jallianwala Bagh Massacre (1919): Angry about the brutal killing of unarmed Indians in Amritsar by British troops, people were motivated to resist colonial rule.
    • Failure of Jallianwala Bagh Inquiry: The Hunter Commission’s failure to hold General Dyer accountable for the massacre intensified resentment.
    • Rowlatt Act (1919): The British law allowing the arrest of Indians without trial sparked widespread opposition, adding to the discontent.
    • Khilafat Movement (1919-1924): Indian Muslims protested the mistreatment of the Caliph in Turkey by the British after World War I. Gandhi saw a chance for Hindu-Muslim unity and linked it to the independence movement.
    • Economic Exploitation: Heavy taxes, especially on salt, and economic exploitation by the British distressed Indians, especially peasants.

    Impact of Non-Cooperation Movement

    People from various regions contributed to leaders who supported the cause, gaining widespread cooperation. Businesspeople, seeing the benefits of the Swadeshi movement, supported it for nationalist reasons.

    Participation in the movement allowed peasants and the middle class to express their opposition to British rule. Women actively protested and joined the Non-Cooperation Movement. Even plantation workers, restricted from leaving tea gardens, supported the Gandhian movement.

    Moreover, many individuals relinquished titles and honors given by the British. People began to protest against British-run courts, schools, and institutions, showing a growing dissatisfaction with colonial rule. The Non-Cooperation Movement, thus, saw diverse participation, reflecting a united front against British authority.

    non-cooperation movement

    Why Gandhiji Decided To Withdraw The Non-Cooperation Movement

    Gandhiji made the decision to end the Non-Cooperation Movement in February 1922 after the Chauri Chaura incident. In Chauri Chaura, Uttar Pradesh, a violent clash between protesters and the police led to a mob setting fire to a police station, resulting in the tragic death of 22 policemen.

    Gandhiji believed that people were not prepared for a nonviolent revolt against the government following this incident. Even though some leaders, including Motilal Nehru and C R Das, were against suspending the movement solely due to isolated acts of violence, Gandhiji emphasized the importance of ahimsa (nonviolence) and halted the movement to maintain its commitment to peaceful resistance.

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    Significance of Non-Cooperation Movement Class 10

    Gandhi’s promise of Swaraj didn’t come true in a year, but the public, nonviolent protest against the government became a massive, widespread movement, involving lakhs of Indians. The British government was astonished by its size, causing a significant impact and showcasing the unity of Muslims and Hindus.

    The non-cooperation movement boosted support for the Congress Party and made people more aware of their political rights. Many willingly went to prison in support. The boycott of British goods during this time brought substantial profits to Indian merchants and mill owners, promoting Khadi.

    Fewer British pounds of sugar were imported, and Gandhi’s role as a popular leader was strengthened during this movement, highlighting its significant influence.

    Non-Cooperation Movement Short Note

    The Non-Cooperation Movement was an important part of India’s fight for freedom from 1920 to 1922, led by Mahatma Gandhi. It began because people wanted to say no to British rule without using violence and to have self-rule, which they called Swaraj.

    The movement started after bad events like the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre in 1919 and a strict law called the Rowlatt Act. The massacre, where British soldiers hurt many Indians, made people really mad, and the Rowlatt Act allowed the arresting of Indians without a fair trial, making more people against the British.

    The Khilafat Movement, along with not liking the Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms, added more fuel to the movement. Gandhi thought this was a chance for Hindus and Muslims to unite against British rule.

    During the movement, people were told not to use violence but to stop using British schools, things, and institutions. Many kinds of people, like business owners, farmers, women, and plantation workers, joined in.

    Sadly, the movement had to stop suddenly in 1922 after a fight in Chauri Chaura, where some policemen were killed. Gandhi, who believed strongly in not using violence, stopped the movement and said people weren’t ready for a nonviolent fight.

    Even though it ended early, the Non-Cooperation Movement had a big impact on India’s journey to freedom. It helped people understand politics more, showed that different groups could work together, and made Indian goods more popular. It also made people feel more connected to their country and more able to do things on their own.

    FAQs on Non-Cooperation Movement

    Why did Mahatma Gandhi lead the Non-Cooperation Movement?

    The Non-Cooperation Movement, orchestrated by Mahatma Gandhi from 1920 to 1922, aimed to secure self-rule (Swaraj) for India by urging people to resist British rule through nonviolent means like boycotts and non-cooperation with British institutions.

    Why did Mahatma Gandhi decide to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement in 1922?

    Gandhiji decided to suspend the movement after the Chauri Chaura incident in Uttar Pradesh, where a violent clash led to the death of 22 policemen. He believed that the people were not ready for a nonviolent revolt, emphasising the importance of ahimsa (nonviolence) and peaceful resistance.

    What were the causes of the Non-Cooperation Movement?

    The Non-Cooperation Movement was triggered by factors like the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre, economic exploitation, the Rowlatt Act, the Khilafat Movement, and Gandhi's charismatic leadership. Indians sought complete independence (Swaraj) and engaged in non-cooperation with British authorities.

    What was the conclusion of the non-cooperation movement?

    The non-cooperation movement concluded when Mahatma Gandhi withdrew it in 1922, due to a violent incident in Chauri Chaura, Uttar Pradesh.

    Who called off the non-cooperation movement?

    Mahatma Gandhi called off the non-cooperation movement in 1922, as he believed it needed to remain non-violent, but the Chauri Chaura incident led to its suspension.

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