HomeSocial ScienceIndian Freedom Struggle

Indian Freedom Struggle

The Indian Freedom Struggle was a series of important events/movements with the goal of ending British rule in India, which was also called the British Raj and lasted until 1947. This movement was all about a mix of love for our country, the desire to get rid of the British rule, and dreams of making India a strong and independent nation with a government that treated everyone fairly, regardless of their religion.

    Fill Out the Form for Expert Academic Guidance!


    Live ClassesBooksTest SeriesSelf Learning

    Verify OTP Code (required)

    I agree to the terms and conditions and privacy policy.

    Important Personalities of Indian Freedom Struggle

    Mahatma Gandhi: India’s ‘Father of the Nation, ‘Mahatma Gandhi made a big impact. He led non-violent protests (Satyagraha) for India’s freedom. His Salt March, Quit India Movement, and other protests weakened British rule.

    Jawaharlal Nehru: Jawaharlal Nehru was a top leader in the Indian National Congress, close to Gandhi. His vision for a modern, secular India laid the foundation. He became the first Prime Minister, setting up a democratic and secular nation.

    Lal Bahadur Shastri: Lal Bahadur Shastri later became India’s Prime Minister, but he also fought for freedom. Inspired by Gandhi, he played a big role in the Quit India Movement.

    Dadabhai Naoroji: Known as the ‘Grand Old Man of India,’ Dadabhai Naoroji demanded self-rule early on. A founder of the Indian National Congress, his ideas about Britain taking India’s wealth helped the freedom movement.

    Raja Rammohan Roy: Often called ‘Father of Modern India,’ he focused on social and educational change. While not in the freedom fight directly, he worked against practices like Sati and supported women’s rights and education for a modern India.

    Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar: A big figure, Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar shaped India’s Constitution. He fought against untouchability (Dalits) and pushed for social justice and equality in independent India, addressing social issues in the freedom fight.

    Subhash Chandra Bose: A strong leader, Subhash Chandra Bose believed in armed struggle. He made the Indian National Army (INA) and joined forces with other countries in World War II against the British. His famous slogan, “Give me blood, and I shall give you freedom!” fired up Indian patriotism.

    Indian freedom struggle

    Events During Indian Freedom Struggle

    Below are the All events which took place in Indian freedom struggle

    Foundation of Indian National Congress – INC

    The Indian National Congress (INC) was formed on December 28, 1885, at the Gokuldas Tejpal Sanskrit College in Bombay. There were 72 delegates at the first meeting, and the first President was Womesh Chunder Bonnerjee from Calcutta.

    A retired English civil servant named A.O. Hume, with the help of prominent intellectuals, organized the first session of the Indian National Congress. It was the first modern nationalist movement in Asia and Africa within the British Empire.

    The INC’s main goals at the beginning were to create a nationwide democratic movement, raise political awareness among Indians, and spread anti-colonial nationalist ideas. It also aimed to be a platform for Indian voices and demand more representation in councils and Indianization of civil services.

    The formation of the INC marked a new era in Indian politics. It provided a united platform for Indians to express their concerns and work towards the common goal of self-governance and freedom from British rule. Over time, the INC played a vital role in India’s struggle for independence and later formed the government when India gained independence in 1947.

    Partition of Bengal 1905

    The Bengal Partition in 1905 was a big deal in India when the British were in charge. They split Bengal into two parts: one with mostly Muslims in the east and another with mostly Hindus in the west.

    This split was announced on July 20, 1905, by Lord Curzon, who was the top British guy in India at the time. They actually did the split on October 16, 1905. The reason they did this was because Bengal was the biggest province in India, covering a huge area of 189,000 square miles with 80 million people.

    But a lot of Indians didn’t like this split. They thought it was a way for the British to mess with Indian unity and stop Indian pride, especially in Bengal, where people were really into being Indian.

    People got really mad about it and started doing things like big protests, meetings, and refusing to buy British stuff, which they called “swadeshi.”

    Surprisingly, only six years later, in 1911, they decided to put Bengal back together again. But the split had already caused problems between Hindus and Muslims in Bengal, and those problems didn’t go away until the British left.

    Satyagraha Movement

    Satyagraha, a term introduced and developed by Mahatma Gandhi, is a unique way of peacefully resisting or opposing injustice. It’s all about sticking firmly to the truth and pursuing just causes without violence. Satyagraha is not just a political tool; it’s a mindset and a way of life aimed at righting wrongs and changing the minds of opponents. It’s a relentless quest for truth and a commitment to it, and it’s considered the most powerful and lasting method for addressing political, social, economic, and religious issues.

    Satyagraha played a vital role in the Indian Freedom Struggle, with Gandhi using it in various movements like the Civil Disobedience Movement and the Quit India Movement. It became a major weapon in India’s fight against British rule and has since been adopted in movements around the world.

    Non-Cooperation Movement of 1920

    The Non-Cooperation Movement of 1920 was an important peaceful protest led by Mahatma Gandhi on September 5, 1920, as part of India’s struggle for freedom. Its main aim was to persuade the British government to grant self-governance to India, and it stood out for its non-violent approach.

    Here are the key points about the Non-Cooperation Movement:

    1. Start: Mahatma Gandhi kick-started the movement during a Congress meeting in Calcutta in September 1920.
    2. Duration: This movement lasted from September 1920 to February 1922.
    3. Reasons: It emerged as a response to British actions like the Rowlatt Act and the economic exploitation of India under colonial rule. The hardships faced by common people and the impact of World War I also played a big role.
    4. Goals: The main goal was to challenge the British economic and power structure, making them pay attention to the demands for independence. Gandhi promised that self-governance (Swaraj) could be achieved within a year if the movement was fully followed.
    5. Participation: This was a significant step in the independence movement because it was the first time the Indian National Congress (INC) was willing to give up legal methods to achieve self-rule. While it gained a lot of support, it didn’t have unanimous backing across India.
    6. Challenges: The Non-Cooperation Movement faced limitations, including the merging of the Khilafat issue, which was religious, and its limited reach.

    The Non-Cooperation Movement was a strong and passionate response to British actions in India, playing a crucial role in the Indian Freedom Struggle.

    Quit India Movement 1942

    The Quit India Movement, also known as the Bharat Chhodo Andolan, was a crucial event in India’s fight for freedom. It started on August 8, 1942, when Mahatma Gandhi led it at a meeting of the All India Congress Committee in Bombay. The main goal was to make the British leave India right away.

    This movement sparked widespread actions like not obeying British rules, refusing to cooperate with them, and large protests against British leaders. Although it didn’t achieve its main goal, it had a big impact on India’s struggle for independence.

    The Quit India Movement led to many Congress leaders, including Gandhi, getting arrested. The British government used force to control the protests, which sadly resulted in the deaths of more than 10,000 people.

    Jallianwala Bagh Massacre 1919

    The Jallianwala Bagh tragedy occurred on April 13, 1919, in Amritsar, Punjab, when India was under British rule. This event was really sad and dark because it resulted in the deaths of more than 500 innocent people, including men, women, old folks, and kids, and left more than 1,500 others injured.

    What happened was that a big crowd gathered at Jallianwala Bagh, an open area near the Golden Temple, for the yearly Baisakhi fair, even though public gatherings were banned. General Dyer, a British military officer, ordered his soldiers to shoot at the unarmed crowd. This lasted for more than 10 minutes and turned into a terrible massacre. Many people were not just shot but also trampled to death by others trying to escape.

    This incident made a lot of people in India and around the world very angry. It fueled the Indian freedom movement and made people demand self-rule and freedom even more.

    Some important things to know about the Jallianwala Bagh tragedy are:

    • British rule: This massacre was one of the many cruel things that happened during the more than 200 years of British colonial rule in India.
    • Turning point: It changed the Indian freedom struggle a lot. People started demanding India’s independence more strongly, and the leaders had to change their strategies.
    • Reactions and results: Many Indians gave up the titles and awards given to them by the British in protest. People like Rabindranath Tagore even returned their awards.

    The Jallianwala Bagh tragedy reminds us of the terrible things that happened under British rule and why it’s important to remember such sad events so that they don’t happen again in the future.

    Rowlatt Act 1919

    The Rowlatt Act of March 1919 allowed the British government in India to arrest and detain people without trial if they were suspected of terrorism or opposing British rule. This law sparked strong opposition from Indian leaders and the public, leading to the Rowlatt Satyagraha protest organized by Mahatma Gandhi.

    The act was a response to India’s growing nationalist movement and was recommended by the Rowlatt Committee, chaired by British judge Sir Sidney Rowlatt. Indian members of the Imperial Legislative Council voted against it, and it ultimately resulted in the tragic Jallianwala Bagh Massacre, where unarmed Indians were fired upon by the British army.

    Overall, the Rowlatt Act and its consequences marked a turning point in India’s struggle for independence, fostering a stronger sense of national identity and intensifying the fight for self-rule.

    Simon Commission 1927

    The The boycott of the Simon Commission, also called the Indian Statutory Commission, was a group of seven British Parliament members led by Sir John Simon. They were appointed in 1927 by the British government to study changes in how India was governed.

    The commission faced criticism in India because it had no Indian members, leading to boycotts by Indian political parties.

    Despite the boycott, the commission produced a report suggesting more power for Indian provinces but not a national government.

    Their work led to the Government of India Act in 1935, which established provincial self-governance and laid the foundation for the Indian Constitution.

    The Simon Commission’s arrival in India inspired the independence movement and contributed to India’s constitutional development.

    Civil Disobedience Movement 1930

    The Civil Disobedience Movement, also known as the Salt Satyagraha, was a big part of India’s fight for freedom. It was a peaceful protest led by Mahatma Gandhi against the British government’s tax on salt in India. This movement encouraged people to peacefully resist and not cooperate with unfair British laws and taxes.

    Many Indians joined this movement, and a lot of them were put in jail, which got a lot of attention worldwide. Even though it didn’t get India independence right away, it did make the British government weaker and moved India closer to becoming free in 1947.

    After the movement ended in 1939, the Indian National Congress asked for a group elected by the people to make India’s constitution. The Civil Disobedience Movement had a big impact on India’s fight for freedom, and its peaceful methods influenced the movement’s goals and how they did things.

    India Independence Act 1947

    The Indian Independence Act of 1947 was a law passed by the UK Parliament. It led to the creation of two new independent countries, India and Pakistan, starting from August 15, 1947, which was just under a month after the law was passed. This Act also divided the Bengal and Punjab regions between these two new nations. The Act came about after many years of movements and protests in India, which had begun in 1858 when the British took direct control over India following the Indian Mutiny. This rebellion happened because people were unhappy with the rule of the East India Company.

    In the 1920s, there were campaigns of noncooperation and civil disobedience that put pressure on the British to grant India independence. In 1930, the Indian National Congress made the Purna Swaraj resolution, demanding complete independence. After World War II, there was even more unrest in India, and this eventually convinced Britain to leave the country. The Indian Independence Act was a significant part of this process as it divided India and created two new independent nations.

    FAQs on Indian Freedom Struggle

    What is the Indian freedom struggle?

    The Indian freedom struggle refers to the series of events, movements, and efforts by Indian leaders and citizens to gain independence from British colonial rule, which was eventually achieved in 1947.

    What are the 7 major freedom movements?

    The seven major freedom movements in India include the Sepoy Mutiny of 1857, the Non-Cooperation Movement, Civil Disobedience Movement, Quit India Movement, Swadeshi Movement, Salt Satyagraha, and the Indian National Army movement.

    Who was the first freedom fighter?

    Mangal Pandey is often regarded as the first freedom fighter of India. His role in the Sepoy Mutiny of 1857 marked the beginning of the Indian rebellion against British rule.

    Who is the father of the freedom struggle?

    Mahatma Gandhi is widely recognized as the Father of the Indian Freedom Struggle. His non-violent resistance and leadership were pivotal in India's quest for independence.

    Who was the youngest freedom fighter in India?

    Baji Rout, who was martyred at the age of 12, is often cited as the youngest freedom fighter in India. He was killed while resisting British forces in Orissa during the freedom struggle.

    Chat on WhatsApp Call Infinity Learn

      Talk to our academic expert!


      Live ClassesBooksTest SeriesSelf Learning

      Verify OTP Code (required)

      I agree to the terms and conditions and privacy policy.