India Climate Vegetation and Wildlife Class 6 Extra Questions Social Science Geography Chapter 8
NCERT Extra Questions for Class 6 Social Science Geography Chapter 8 India Climate Vegetation and Wildlife
India Climate Vegetation and Wildlife Class 6 Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type
Define weather and climate.
- Weather is the condition of atmosphere of a place at a particular time.
- Climate is the average weather over a long period of time.
Why is it said that agriculture in India is dependent on monsoon?
Agriculture in India is dependent on monsoon because:
- good monsoons mean adequate rain and bountiful crops.
- weak monsoons mean scanty rains and bountiless crops.
India Climate Vegetation and Wildlife Class 6 Extra Questions Short Answer Type
What is the climate of India? How has this name been given to the climate?
- The climate of India is broadly Monsoon climate.
- Monsoon has been derived from the Arabic word ‘mausim’ which means seasons.
- India is located in the tropical zone, hence most of the rain is brought by monsoon winds.
Why do we experience regional differences in the climate of India?
The climate of a place is decided by the following factors:
- distance from sea
Hence, we experience regional differences in the climate of India.
- Jaisalmer and Bikaner in the Rajasthan Desert are very hot, on the other hand Drass and Kargil in Jammu and Kashmir are freezing cold, due to difference in altitude and location.
- Places at the coast like Mumbai and Kolkata experience moderate climate.
- They are neither too hot nor too cold.
- These places are very humid.
- Mawsynram in Meghalaya receives the world’s highest rainfall, on the other hand it might not rain at all in Jaisalmer in Rajasthan, in a particular year.
State the seasons which have been recognised in India. Also mention their periods.
Broadly, four major seasons are recognised in India.
|1. Cold Weather season (Winter)||December to February.|
|2. Hot Weather season (Summer)||March to May|
|3. Southwest Monsoon season (Rainy)||June to September|
|4. Season of Retreating Monsoon||October and November|
Describe major features of the Tropical Deciduous Forests.
Tropical Deciduous Forests.
Tropical Deciduous Forests are also called monsoon forests.
- They are less dense.
- They shed their leaves at a particular time of the year.
- Important trees of these forests are sal, teak, peepal, neem and shisham.
- Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Orissa and parts of Maharashtra abound in these forests.
Give an account of the features of Thom Forests.
- Thorn forests are found in dry areas of the country.
- Their leaves are in the form of spines to reduce loss of water.
- Cactus, khair, babool, keekar are their important trees.
- They are found in the states of Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana, Eastern slopes of Western Ghats and Gujarat.
Explain major features of Mangrove Forests.
- Mangrove forests thrive in saline water.
- They are found in Sunderbans in West Bengal and in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
- Sundari is a well-known species of trees of these forests. The delta of Ganga, Brahmaputra has been named Sundarbans after the Sundari trees.
Why are forests necessary?
Forests are necessary because of the following reasons:
- Forests are very useful for us.
- They perform various functions.
- Plants release oxygen that we breathe and absorb carbondioxide which we exhale.
- The roots of the plants bind the soil which results in control of soil erosion.
- Forests provide us timber for furniture, fuel wood, fodder, medicinal plants and herbs, lac, honey, gum, etc.
- Forests are natural habitat of wildlife.
Why has natural vegetation been destroyed? What should we do to check this trend?
- Natural vegetation has been destroyed to a large extent because of reckless cutting of trees.
- We should do the following to check this trend.
- We should plant trees in a big way.
- We should also protect the existing ones.
- We should make people aware about the importance of trees.
- We should have special programmes like Van Mahotsav to involve more people in making our earth green.
Give an account of some important migratory birds.
- Some birds migrate to our country in winter season every year.
- They are Pelican, Siberian crane, Flamingo, Pintail Duck, Curlew. Siberian cranes migrate from Siberia.
- They arrive in December. They stay till early March.
- Then they return to their native region.
What has been done in order to protect wildlife?
- In order to protect wildlife numerous national parks, sanctuaries and biosphere reserves have been setup.
- Government of India has also started Project Tiger and Project Elephant to protect these endangered species.
How can you contribute in conserving wildlife?
We can contribute in conserving wildlife in the following manner:
- We can refuse to buy things made from the parts of the bodies of animals, like their bones, horns, skins and feathers.
- We should observe wildlife week in the first week of October.
It will help in creating awareness about conserving the habitats of the animal kingdom.
India Climate Vegetation and Wildlife Class 6 Extra Questions Long Answer Type
Distinguish between a national park and a sanctuary.
A National Park and A Sanctuary
A National Park
|1. A National park is a reserved area where wild animals are preserved in their natural setting.||1. A Sanctuary is a reserved area where endangered species are preserved and developed.|
|2. The purpose of setting up of national parks is to preserve natural vegetation, natural beauty and wildlife.||2. The purpose of a sanctuary is to preserve endangered animals and birds.|
|3. At present there are 83 national parks in the country.||3. Almost every state and union territory has sanctuaries. At present there are 447 sanctuaries in India.|
|4. Kanha, Corbett National Park are good examples of national parks.||4. Sariska Bird Sanctuary is a good example of a sanctuary.|
Describe the climatic conditions in the four major seasons.
Climatic conditions in four seasons:
Cold Weather Season or Winter:
- During the cold weather (winter) season, cool, dry winds blow from the North¬West to the South-East in N-W and North-West India and from N-E to S-W in the South India.
- Sun rays do not fall straight in the region north of the Tropic of Capricorn.
- It results in the low temperatures in northern India.
Hot Weather Season or Summer:
- The northward movement of the sun from the equator leads to a rise in temperature in India.
- Hot and dry winds called loo, blow during the day.
- Temperatures are at their high.
Southwest Monsoon Season or Rainy Season:
- This season is characterised by the onset and advance of monsoon.
- Wind blows from the Indian ocean towards the land.
- They are moisture laden. When this wind is hindered by the high mountain barriers of the north they ascend along their slopes, get condensed and cause rainfall all over the country.
Season of Retreating Monsoons or Autumn:
- Winds move and turn back from the mainland to the Indian ocean.
- This season is called the season of the retreating monsoons.
- Coastal areas of India, particularly Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh coasts receive rainfall in this season.
What is natural vegetation? Why are different types of vegetation found in India?
- Grasses, shrubs and trees, which grow on their own without interference or help from human beings is called natural vegetation.
- Different types of natural vegetation are found over the globe due to different climatic conditions, among which the amount of rainfall is very important.
Climatic conditions vary in India from place to place, region to region. Hence India has a wide range of natural vegetation.
- Tropical evergreen forest
- Tropical deciduous forest
- Thorny forest
- Mountain vegetation and
- Mangrove forests.
Give main features of Tropical Rain Forests.
Tropical Rain Forests.
- Tropical Rain Forests occur in the areas of heavy rainfall.
- They are dense and even sunlight doesn’t reach the ground.
- Numerous species of trees are found in these forests. They shed their leaves at different times of the year. Hence, they always appear green and are also called evergreen forests.
- Mahogany, ebony and rosewood are important trees.
- These forests are found in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, parts of the north-eastern states and a narrow strip of the western slope of the Western Ghats.
State the major features of mountain vegetation. .
- A wide range of species is found on the mountains according to height.
- With increase in height up the mountains, temperature falls and rainfall decreases.
- At a height between 1500 metres and 2500 metres most of the trees have pointed leaves.
- These trees are called coniferous trees.
- Chir, Pine and Deodar are important trees found in mountain vegetation.
Give an account of the wildlife.
- Forests are homes of wildlife.
- There are about 80,000 species of animals and large varieties of reptiles, amphibians, mammals, birds, insects and worms.
- Tiger is our national animal.
- It is found in various parts of the country.
- Gir forest in Gujarat is the home of lions.
- Elephants and one-horned rhinoceroses live in the forests of Assam, Kerala and Karnataka.
- Camels and wild asses are found in the Thar desert and the Rann of Kutch.
- Wild goats, Snow leopards, lesser panda, bears, inhabit the Himalayan region.
- Numerous other animals are found in our country like, monkey, wolf, jackal, nilgai, cheetah, etc.
How is India rich in bird life? Explain the result of deforestation and hunting of birds.
- India is rich in bird life.
- Birds found in our area are crow, sparrow, pigeon, parrot, koel etc.
- Peacock is our national bird.
- Other birds are parrots, pigeons, mynah, geese, bulbul and ducks.
- Crow, goose, gursal, vulture and owl are major birds that are commonly found in our area.
- Deforestation and hunting have resulted in the disappearance of several species of wildlife of India.
- Many species have already become extinct.
Differentiate between the seasons of Advancing and Retreating Monsoon.
|A National Park||A Sanctuary|
|1. The season from June to September is of advancing monsoon. It is also named as SW monsoon.||1. The period from 2nd week of September to November-end is the period of retreating monsoon.|
|2. The monsoon winds blow from sea to land. Hence they are moisture laden and cause wide spread rainfall all over India||2. These monsoon winds begfct to withdraw from land. Hence they leave the land dry. They do not cause any rains over most parts of the country except the Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu coasts.|
|3. 385% to 90% of the annual rainfall occurs during the period of these monsoon winds.||3. Less than 5% of annual rainfall occurs during this period.|
|4. The two branches of this monsoon are the Arabian Sea branch and the Bay of Bengal branch. They cause rainfall all over India.
|4. Retreating monsoon winds after passing over the Bay of Bengal cause rains on the Orissa, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu coasts.|
Explain the factors that influence the climate of India.
The following factors influence the climate of India:
1. Tropic of Cancer. Tropic of Cancer (23°30′ N) passes through the middle of the country dividing it almost into two halves. Southern portion of India falls in the tropical zone while northern portion in the sub-tropical or temperature zone. During summer the entire country experiences high temperature. During winter southern portion remains warm, moderate while some parts of Himalayan region experiences temperature below freezing point. Hence our country lies in tropical zone and its climate is tropical.
2. The Himalayas. The Himalayas protect India from cold and chilly winds of the central India in winter. They cause the SW monsoon winds to shed their moisture all over India and thus provide rains to us. Had there been no Himalayas, India would have been a very hot and dry desert.
3. Peninsular Shape of South India. Due to peninsular shape of south India, Bay of Bengal and Arabian sea exert their moderating effect on the entire peninsula. Thus its climate is equable.
4. Relief. Relief also plays an important role in the climate of India. High mountains are cooler than plains. Due to cool climate of hilly regions in India several hill resorts have come into being such as Dharmshala, Shimla, Kullu, Manali, Mussoorie, Darjeeling in the Himalayas and Kodai Kanal and Udagamadalam (Ooty) on the Peninsular plateau.
Rainfall distribution is also attributed to relief. Windward sides of the mountains receive heavy rainfall while leeward side remains dry or receives very scanty rainfall. It is because of this reason that Mahabaleshwar receives 625 cm of rainfall while Pune only 63 cm of rainfall.
Why have certain species of animals become extinct in our country? What is being done to preserve wildlife?
Wildlife is very important for us. But we have depleted its habitat, the forests very fast. Moreover, we have hunted wild animals and poached them indiscriminately. The result is that many of these wildlife face the danger of their extinction. The major animals which face extinction are antelopes, lions, tigers, black bucks, bustards etc. Hence there is an urgent need to conserve them.
Measures taken to preserve wildlife:
- Hunting and poaching of wild animals have been banned.
- Strict and severe punishments are accorded to defaulters.
- National parks, zoos, sanctuaries and biosphere reserves have been set up more and more in number all over the country.
- We are well-maintaining the existing reserves.
- More and more birds and animals are being declared national birds and animals.
- Programmes like ‘project tiger’ and ‘project elephant’ have been taken in hand to preserve and conserve wildlife.
What are the major and minor forest products of India?
(1) Major Forest Products. The major forest products are as under:
- The major forest product is wood. It is used both as fuel and as timber.
- Coniferous forests of the Himalayan region supply us soft wood from pines, spruce, silver fir and deodar. They are used as timber. Silver fir and spruce are also used in making paper, match, newsprint and cellulose.
- Monsoon forests provide us sal and teak which are used as timber.
- Bamboos are used nowadays for making paper and newsprint.
- Rosewood is used for making furniture and decorative pieces of wood carvings.
- Sandalwood is used for decorative purposes with added advantage of its fine scent.
(2) Minor forest products. Minor forest products are as delineated as under:
- Lac (b) resins (c) gums (d) medicinal herbs (e) kattha (f) fodder (g) tendu leaves and (h) grass.
- Lac is the secretion of an insect which grows on sap of plash and kusum trees.
- Resins are obtained from pine trees. Turpentine is made of it.
- Khair trees provide kattha. It is made by boiling their chips.
Write in brief how and why India receives the bulk of its rainfall in the months from June to September.
By the end of May the north-west low pressure region becomes very much intense. This region attracts the south-east trade winds blowing from the Tropic of Capricorn to the equator in the south hemisphere. They are moisture laden and extend over the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian sea. Suddenly the upper air circulation catches them up over India and their direction is deflected from the south easterly into south westerly winds. These winds, hence, are known as south-west monsoon.
Indian Peninsula deflects them into two branches, the Arabian Sea branch and the Bay of Bengal branch.
The Arabian Sea branch ascends the Western Ghats and sheds almost all its moisture. Here the rainfall is heavy. Then it descends the Ghats and gets hot. Thus on the eastern slopes rainfall is less, causing rain shadow area. Further eastwards rainfall goes on decreasing.
The northern sub branch of this branch enters India through the Bay of Khambat and passes over the Runn of Kutch and Rajasthan. No mountain acts as barrier in its path. Aravalli hills are parallel to these winds. Rajasthan is too hot to allow precipitation. Hence this region receives very scanty rainfall. The branch advances further and causes some rainfall over Delhi and adjoining regions mixing with the Bay of Bengal branch.
The Bay of Bengal branch first strikes the Arakanyoma in Myanmar and the Himalayas and causes heaviest rainfall of the world near Cherrapunji (in Meghalaya). Then the Himalayas deflect these winds westwards. They cause rainfall upto Punjab. The amount of rainfall decreases with advancing towards west and northwest.
These two branches over run the entire country in four to five weeks, say from the 1st week of June to the second week of July. Up to the end of September the south-west monsoon winds have their impact and the bulk of the annual rainfall occurs during this season.
Give reasons and explain.
- The temperatures are low in Northern India during winter season.
- Tropical rainforests are called evergreen forests.
- Many species of wildlife are facing extinction.
1. The temperatures are low in Northern India during winter season because of the following reasons:
- During winter the sun rays shine very slanting in north India.
- Being an expanse of land; it becomes very cold in winter, due to the fact that land gets cold when sun rays are slanting and hot when sun rays are vertical or perpendicular.
- Southern India is of peninsular shape. Effect of ocean does not allow temperatures to drop even during winter.
- On landmass terrestrial radiation is more speedy than receipt of temperature (insolation) during winter in north India.
2 Tropical Rain forests are called evergreen because of the following reasons:
- Trees do not shed their leaves simultaneously.
- Period of shedding leaves of the trees is different in each case. Hence, trees look evergreen.
3. Many species of wildlife are facing extinction because of the following reasons:
- The natural habitat of the wildlife, the forests has been destroyed considerably due to wreckless cutting of trees/forests.
- Hunting of animals/birds has been very rapid.
- Poachers have killed numerous wildlife animals.
- Climatic changes have also resulted in the extinction of many species of wildlife.
India Climate Vegetation and Wildlife Class 6 Extra Questions Multiple Choice Questions
Choose the correct answer:
Day to day changes in the atmosphere are known as?
(d) None of these
What is the duration of cold season in India?
(a) March to May
(b) October to November
(c) December to February
(d) All of these
December to February
During the winter season the sun rays
(a) fall directly
(b) don’t fall directly
(c) both (a) and (b)
(d) none of these
don’t fall directly
During the summer season
(a) temperature becomes very low
(b) temperature becomes very high
(c) heavy rainfalls
(d ) none of these
temperature becomes very high
What do moisture laden winds strike to cause rainfall?
(d) All of these
Agriculture in India is dependent on
(d) all of these
From which language is the word monsoon taken?
(d) None of these
What would happen if the monsoons are weak in a year?
(a) Water level will go-down
(b) Crops will be affected
(c) Summer will be longer
(d) All of these
All of these
Which state has freezing cold during the winter season in India?
(c) Madhya Pradesh
(d) Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
Which of the following is flowering plant?
(d) None of these
Due to which condition India has a wide range of natural vegetation?
(a) Climatic condition
(b) Rainy condition
(c) Summer condition
(d) Winter condition
Which of the following has Tropical Rain Forest?
(a) Western ghats forest
(b) Sahara desert
Western ghats forest
In which direction does the wind blow during south west monsoon season?
(a) Land to sea
(b) Sea to land
(c) Both (a) and (6)
(d) None of these
Sea to land
In which state are the cactus, khair, Babool, Keekar etc. found?
(c) Both (a) and (b)
(d) None of these
What are natural habitat of wildlife?
(d) All of these
During the night time, which gas is released by the plants?
(b) Carbon dioxide
What important programmes can we have to improve greenery of our earth?
(a) Annual day of a school
(b) Sport day of a school
(c) Van Mahotsava
(d) All of these
Forests are responsible for
(a) high temperature
(b) low temperature
(c) both (a) and (b)
(d) none of these
Mangrove forests are found in
(a) West Bengal
(d) None of these