HomeSocial ScienceThe Delhi Sultans Class 7 Extra Questions History Chapter 3

The Delhi Sultans Class 7 Extra Questions History Chapter 3

The Delhi Sultans Class 7 Extra Questions Social Science History Chapter 3

NCERT Extra Questions for Class 7 Social Science History Chapter 3 The Delhi Sultans

Prelude

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    Question 1.
    Why was there no mention of Delhi till 12th century?
    Answer:
    From 7th to 12th century many regions like Kaveri delta became the centre of large kingdoms. There was no mention of Delhi as it became important only during the 12th century.

    Question 2.
    Under which dynasty did Delhi become the capital? When did it become an important commercial centre?
    Answer:

    • Delhi first became the capital of a kingdom under the Tomara Rajputs.
    • They were defeated in the middle of the twelfth century by the Chauhans (‘Chahamanas) of Ajmer.
    • It was under the Tomaras and Chauhans, Delhi became an important commercial centre.
    • Many rich Jaina merchants lived in the city and constructed several temples.
    • Coins minted here, called Dehliuial, had a wide circulation.

    Question 3.
    The transformation of Delhi into a capital that controlled vast areas of the subcontinent started with the foundation of the Delhi Sultanate in the beginning of the thirteenth century. Take a look at Table 1 again and identify the five dynasties that together made the Delhi Sultanate.
    Answer:

    • Early Turkish Slaves or Ilbari Rulers – 1206-1290
    • Khalji Dynasty – 1290-1320
    • Tughluq Dynasty – 1320-1414
    • Sayyid Dynasty – 1414-1451
    • Lodi Dynasty – 1451-1526

    Question 4.
    The Delhi Sultans built many cities in the area that we now know as Delhi. Map 1 shows the location of Dehli-i Kuhna, Siri and Jahanpanah. Now locate them on the map.
    Answer:
    Please see the map on page 48 and the shaded portion (squares). (see Map 1)

    Question 5.
    Name the Rajput dynasties that ruled during 12th century.
    Answer:
    Ananga Pala of Tomar dynasty and Prithiviraj Chauhan of Chauhan dynasty were important Rajput rulers during the 12th century.

    Question 6.
    Name the rulers of slave dynasty.
    Answer:
    Qutbuddin Aybak – military general of Muhammad Ghori established the Slave dynasty. He was followed by Iltutmish and Raziyya, the first woman Sultan and Balban.

    Question 7.
    Name the important rulers of other dynasties that ruled over Delhi.
    Answer:
    Khalji Dynasty – Jalaluddin and Alauddin Khalji
    Tughluq Dynasty – Ghiyasuddin, Muhammad and Firuz Shah Tughlaq
    Sayyid Dynasty – Khizr Khan
    Lodi Dynasty – Bahlul Lodi.

    Finding Out about the Delhi Sultans

    Question 1.
    What are sources of information about Delhi Sultans?
    Answer:

    • Inscriptions, coins and architecture provide a lot of information.
    • Tarikh (singular) / Tawarikh (plural) or histories written in Persian, the language of administration under the Delhi Sultans provide valuable information about them.

    Question 2.
    Who wrote tawarikh? What did they write? ”
    Answer:
    The authors of tawarikh were learned men.

    • They included secretaries, administrators, poets and courtiers.
    • They recounted events and advised rulers on governance.
    • They emphasised the importance of just rule.

    Major features of writers of history

    • The authors of tawarikh lived in cities (mainly Delhi) and hardly ever in villages.
    • They often wrote their histories for Sultans in the hope of rich rewards.
    • These authors advised rulers on the need to preserve an “ideal” social order based on birthright and gender distinctions.
    • Their ideas were not shared by everybody.

    Question 3.
    Give an account of Raziyya.
    Answer:

    • In 1236 Sultan Iltutmish’s daughter, Raziyya, became Sultan. The chronicler of the age called Minhaj-i Siraj said that she was more able and qualified than all her brothers.
    • He was not comfortable having her as ruler.
    • The nobles were also not happy at her attempts to rule independently.
    • She was removed from the throne in 1240.

    Question 4.
    Did Raziyya share Minhaj-i Siraj views about women rulers?
    Answer:

    • Mirihaj expressed that women were subordinate to men. But due to her qualities she (Rajiyya) gained and rose to the throne of Delhi.
    • Minhaj-i Siraj thought that the Queen’s rule went against the ideal social order created by God.
    • Raziyya did not share these ideas and on her inscriptions and coins Raziyya mentioned that she was the daughter of Sultan Iltutmish.
    • It was difficult for women to be a ruler because women were considered the weaker sex. This was in contrast to Queen Rudramadzir who changed her name (from Rudramadevi) and pretended to be a man.

    Question 5.
    Were there any other women rulers?
    Answer:

    • Another woman ruler Rudramadevi of Warangal (1262-1289) changed her name on the inscriptions and pretended to be a man.
    • Another queen was Didda of Kashmir (980-1003). Her title was an affectionate term coming from didi, given by her subjects.

    From Garrison Town to Empire: The Expansion of the Delhi Sultanate

    Question 1.
    Why did the Delhi Sultans not expand their frontiers in the earlier phase of their rule?
    Answer:

    • In the early thirteenth century the control of the Delhi Sultans did not go beyond heavily fortified towns occupied by garrisons.
    • The Sultans seldom controlled the hinterland of the cities.
    • They were solely dependent upon tribute or plunder for supplies.
    • Controlling garrison towns in distant Bengal and Sind from Delhi was extremely difficult.
    • Rebellion, war and bad weather could snap fragile communication routes.
    • The state was also challenged by Mongol invasions from Afghanistan.
    • The governors rebelled frequently at any sign of the Sultan’s weakness.
    • The Sultanate barely survived these challenges/ ‘

    Question 2.
    How did the territories of Delhi Sultanate expand from garrison town to empire? Explain the first phase of expansion.
    Answer:
    The expansion occurred during the reigns of Ghiyasuddin Balban, Alauddin Khalji and Muhammad Tughluq.

    First Expansion:
    The campaigns along the “internal frontier” of the Sultanate aimed at consolidating the hinterlands of the garrison towns. During these campaigns forests were cleared in the Ganga-Yamuna doab.

    • The hunter-gatherers and pastoralists were expelled from their habitat.
    • These lands were given to peasants and agriculture was encouraged.
    • New fortresses and towns were set up to protect trade routes and to promote regional trade.

    Question 3.
    Explain the second and third phase of expansion?
    Answer:
    Second Expansion:
    The second expansion occurred along the “external frontier” of the Sultanate.

    • Military expeditions into southern India started during the reign of Alauddin Khalji.
    • It culminated with Muhammad-bin-Tughluq.
    • In their campaigns, Sultanate armies captured elephants, horses and slaves and carried away precious metals.

    Third Expansion:
    By the end of Muhammad-bin-Tughluq’s reign, 150 years after humble beginnings, the armies of the Delhi Sultanate had marched across a large part of the subcontinent.

    • They had defeated rival armies and seized cities.
    • The Sultanate collected taxes from the peasantry and dispensed justice in its
      realm. But their control was not complete and effective over this vast territory.

    Question 4.
    What is called a masjid? How is it used?
    Answer:

    • A mosque is called a masjid in Arabic.
    • Literally it is a place where a Muslim prostrates in reverence to Allah.
    • In a “congregational mosque” (masjid-i jami or jama masjid) Muslims read their prayers {namaz) together.
    • Members of the congregation choose the most respected, learned male as their leader {imam) for the rituals of prayer.
    • He also delivers the sermon {khutba) during the Friday prayer.
    • During prayer, Muslims stand facing Mecca. In India this is to the west. This is called the qibla.
    • The Delhi Sultans built several mosques in cities all over the subcontinent.

    Question 5.
    Why did the Delhi Sultans build mosques all over the subcontinent?
    Answer:
    Delhi Sultans built several mosques in different cities. They wanted to show themselves as protectors of Islam and Muslims. Mosques helped in creating a sense of community sharing common belief and code of conduct. It was important as the Muslims i came from variety of backgrounds.

    A Closer look: Administration and Consolidation Under the Khaljis and Tughluqs

    Question 1.
    How was the administration consolidated under Delhi Sultanate?
    Answer:
    Delhi Sultans required reliable governors and administrators. Rulers especially, Iltutmish favoured special slaves called ‘bandagan’ for this purpose. They did not appoint aristocrats or landed chiefs as governors.

    Bandagans were trained for important political offices. They depended totally on their masters therefore, the Sultan could trust them.

    The Khaljis and Tughluqs continued this tradition and raised people from humble birth to high positions. They were appointed as generals and governors. All this led to an element of political instability.

    Question 2.
    What advice was given to the Delhi Sultans about the slaves?
    Answer:
    The Delhi Sultans were advised:

    • A slave, whom one has brought up and promoted, must be looked after.
    • The kingdom needed a whole lifetime and good luck to find a worthy and experienced slave.
    • Wise men have said that a worthy and experienced slave is better than a son.

    Question 3.
    How did accession of a new monarch see conflicts between old and new nobility?
    Answer:

    • Slaves and clients were loyal to their masters and patrons.
    • They were not so to their heirs.
    • New Sultans had their own servants.
    • The result was that the accession of a new monarch often saw conflict between the old and the new nobility.
    • The patronage of these slaves by the Delhi Sultans also shocked many elites.
    • The authors of Persian tawarikh criticised the Delhi Sultans for appointing the “Low and base-born” to high offices.

    The Delhi Sultans Class 7 Extra Questions History Chapter 3 - 1

    Question 4.
    Why did Barani criticised Sultan Md. Tughluq.
    Answer:
    Ziyauddin Barani Criticised Sultan for his loss of political judgement and incapacity to rule. He was not in favour of certain administrative appointments made by Md. Tughluq like Aziz Khummar, a wine distiller, Firuz Hajjam, a barber, Manka Tabbakh, a cook, Ladha and Pira, gardener.

    Question 5.
    Give an account of iqtadars or muqtis.
    Answer:
    The Khalji and Tughluq monarchs appointed military commanders as governors of territories of varying sizes.

    These lands were called iqta and their holder was called iqtadar or muqti.

    • Muqtis led military campaigns and maintained law and order in their iqtas.
    • In exchange for their military services; the muqtis collected the revenues of their assignments as salary.
    • They also paid their soldiers from these revenues.

    Control over muqtis was most effective if their office was not inheritable and if they were assigned iqtas for a short period of time before being shifted.

    • These harsh conditions of service were rigorously imposed during the reigns of Alauddin Khalji and Muhammad-bin-Tughluq.
    • Accountants were appointed by the state to check the amount of revenue collected by the muqtis.
    • Care was taken that the muqti collected only the taxes prescribed by the state.
    • They could not keep soldiers beyond the required number.

    Question 6.
    How were the authorities of muqtis eroded?
    Answer:

    • Delhi Sultans brought the hinterland of the cities under their control.
    • They forced the landed chieftains, the Samantas and rich landlords to accept their authority.

    Under Alauddin Khalji the state brought the assessment and collection of land revenue under its own control.

    • The rights of the local chieftains to levy taxes were cancelled.
    • They were also forced to pay taxes.
    • The Sultan’s administrators measured the land and kept careful accounts.
    • Some of the old chieftains and landlords served the Sultanate as revenue collectors and assessors.

    Question 7.
    Which kinds of taxes were there during Delhi Sultanate?
    Answer:
    Three kinds of taxes were there during Delhi Sultanate. These were:

    1. Kharaj: It was a tax on cultivation. It was about 50 per cent of total produce of the land of a peasant.
    2. Tax on the cattles and
    3. Tax on houses.

    Question 8.
    How did large parts of the subcontinent remain outside the control of Delhi Sultanate?
    Answer:

    • Large parts of the subcontinent remained outside the control of the Delhi Sultans.
    • It was difficult to control distant provinces like Bengal from Delhi.
    • Soon after annexing southern India, the entire region became independent.
    • Gangetic plain had forested areas.
    • Sultanate forces could not penetrate them.
    • Local chieftains established their rule in these regions.
    • Alauddin Khalji and Muhammad-bin-Tughluq could force their control in these areas but only for a short time.

    Question 9.
    How did the Mongols force the Delhi Sultans to mobilise a big army?
    Answer:

    • The Mongols under Genghis Khan invaded Transoxiana in north-east Iran in 1219.
    • Delhi Sultanate faced their onslaught soon after.
    • Mongol attacks on the Delhi Sultanate increased during the reign of Alauddin Khalji and in the early years of Muhammad-bin-Tughluq’s rule.
    • This forced the two rulers to mobilise a large standing army in Delhi which posed a huge administrative challenge.

    Question 10.
    Who was Ibn Battuta? When did he come to India?
    Answer:
    Ibn Battuta was an African traveller. He came to India during the reign of Muhammad-bin-Tughluq. He came to India from Morocco (Africa).

    Question 11.
    describe how the chieftains arranged for their defence.
    Answer:

    • In Battuta, a fourteenth-century traveller from Morocco, Africa, explained that chieftains sometimes
    • Fortified themselves in mountains, in rocky, uneven and rugged places as well as in bamboo groves.
    • In India the bamboo was not hollow; it was big. Its several parts were so intertwined that even fire could not affect them, and they were on the whole very strong.
    • The chieftains lived in these forests which served them as ramparts.
    • Inside them were their cattle and their crops.
    • There was also water for them within, except rain water which collected there. Hence they could not be subdued except by powerful armies.

    Question 12.
    What was the impact of the Mongol invasions on the Delhi Sultanate?
    Answer:
    Mongol invasions during Alauddin Khalji and Md. Tughluq’s forced the two rulers to mobilise a large standing army. This posed a great administrative challenge.
    Delhi was attacked twice during Alauddin Khalji’s rule.

    • He raised a large standing army and new garrison town named Siri.
    • To feed the soldiers produce was collected as tax from lands between the Ganga and Yamuna. The tax was fixed at 50% of the yield.
    • Soldiers were paid in cash. They further purchased their supplies from merchants.
    • Prices were controlled. To do this market was surveyed. Merchant who did not sell at prescribed price were punished.

    Sultanate under Muhammad Tughluq’s was in the early years. Mongol army was defeated and Md. Tughluq was confident of his armed strength, resources and planned to attack Transoxiana.

    • He raised a large army and emptied Delhi-i-Kuhna, oldest of four cities of Delhi for soldiers. ,
    • Residents were sent to Daulatabad. „
    • Produce was collected as tax to feed the soldiers. This coincided with famine
    • Additional taxes’ were levied for maintaining the army.
    • Soldiers were paid in cash. He used ‘token’ currency made of cheap metal not gold or silver.
    • People saved their gold and silver and paid taxes with this ‘token’ currency. This could be counterfeited easily.

    Question 13.
    Who was more successful of the two rulers?
    Answer:
    Alauddin’s measures were successful. His reign was known for cheap prices and good supply of goods. He successfully withstood Mongol invasions.
    Md. Tughluq’s measures were a failure.

    • His Kashmir campaign was a disaster. He disbanded his troops and gave up the idea of invading Transoxiana.
    • People resented shifting to Daulatabad.
    • Increased taxes and famine in Ganga-Yamuna belt led to rebellion.
    • Token currency was called off.

    The important thing to remember is that Md. Tughluq was the first ruler who planned to capture Mongol territory. His measures were offensive unlike Alauddin’s defensive measures.

    The Sultanate in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries

    Question 1.
    Describe the Delhi Sultanate in the 15th and 16th centuries.
    Answer:
    The Delhi Sultanate in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries:

    • After the Tughluqs, the Sayyid and Lodi dynasties ruled from Delhi and Agra until 1526.
    • By then, Jaunpur, Bengal, Malwa, Gujarat, Rajasthan and the entire south India had independent rulers. They had established flourishing states and prosperous capitals.
    • This was also the period which saw the emergence of new ruling groups like the Afghans and the Rajputs.
    • Some of the states established in this period were small but powerful and extremely well administered.

    Question 2.
    Briefly write about Sher Shah Suri.
    Answer:
    Sher Shah Suri (1540-1545) started his career as the Manager of a small territory for his uncle in Bihar and eventually challenged and defeated the Mughal emperor Humayun (1530-1540, 1555-1556).

    • Sher Shah captured Delhi and established his own dynasty.
    • The Suri dynasty ruled for only fifteen years (1540-1555) but it introduced an administration that borrowed elements irom Alauddin Khalji and made them more efficient.
    • Sher Shah’s administration became the model for Akbar up-to-some extent.

    Multiple Choice Questions

    Prelude

    Question 1.
    Which of the following was NOT the king of the Rajput Dynasty?
    (a) Tomaras
    (b) Ananga Pala
    (c) Prithviraj Chauhan
    (d) Bahlul Lodi
    Answer:
    Bahlul Lodi

    Question 2.
    Which ruler first established his capital at Delhi?
    (a) Chauhans ruler
    (b) Tomara Rajput ruler
    (c) Turkish ruler
    (d) Khalji dynasty
    Answer:
    Tomara Rajput ruler

    Question 3.
    Who was the first slave king of Delhi Sultanate?
    (a) Qutbuddin Aybak
    (b) Iltutmish
    (c) Raziyya Sultan
    (d) Alauddin Khalji
    Answer:
    Qutbuddin Aybak

    Question 4.
    Who was successor of Muhammad-bin Tughluq?
    (a) Ghiyasuddin Tughluq
    (b) Firuz Shah Tughluq
    (c) Ibn Battuta
    (d) None of these
    Answer:
    Firuz Shah Tughluq

    Finding Out about the Delhi Sultans

    Question 1.
    What was the language of administration under the Delhi Sultans?
    (a) Urdu
    (b) Persian
    (c) Hindi
    (d) English
    Answer:
    Persian

    From garrison town to empire: the expansion of the delhi sultanate

    Question 1.
    The position of standing facing Mecca during namaj is known as
    (a) Khutba
    (b) Qibla
    (c) Sijdah
    (d) Kharaj
    Answer:
    Qibla

    Question 2.
    In whose reign did the Sultanate reach its i farthest extent?
    (a) Tomara Rajput
    (B) Raziyya
    (c) Alauddin Khalji
    (d) Muhammad-bin Tughluq
    Answer:
    Muhammad-bin Tughluq

    Question 3.
    Who was Ulema?
    (a) A slave purchased for military service
    (b) A ruler
    (c) A scholar of Islamic learning
    (d) An invader
    Answer:
    A scholar of Islamic learning

    Question 4.
    A fortified settlement with soldiers was
    (a) hinterland
    (b) garrison town
    (c) jagir
    (d) none of these
    Answer:
    garrison town

    A Closer look: Administration and Consolidation under the Khaljis and Tughluqs

    Question 1.
    Which was NOT the kind of taxes during Delhi Sultanate?
    (a) Kharaj
    (b) Tax on cattles
    (c) Tax on houses
    (d) Bandagans
    Answer:
    Bandagans

    Question 2.
    Kharaj was a type of tax on
    (a) houses
    (b) cattle
    (c) trade
    (d) cultivation
    Answer:
    cultivation

    The Sultanate in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries

    Question 1.
    Which Mughal emperor followed Sher Shah Suri’s idea of administration?
    (a) Humayun
    (b) Akbar
    (c) Babur
    (d) Aurangzeb
    Answer:
    Akbar

    Objective Type Questions

    Question 1.
    Fill in the blanks with appropriate words:
    1. …………………. dynasty ruled Delhi before the Tughluqs.
    2. Tarikh or Tawarikh were written in ……………………
    3. ……………………….. was built by two rulers Qutbuddin Aybak and Iltutmish.
    4. ………………….. is a sermon during Friday prayer in the Mosque.
    5. Leader of the Namaz is …………………
    6. Raziyya Sultan ruled from ………………………. to 1240 AD.
    Answer:
    1. Khalji
    2. Persian
    3. Qutb Minar
    4 Khutba
    5. Imam
    6. 1236

    Question 2.
    State whether the given statements are true or false:
    1. Delhi became an important city under the rule of Tomaras and Chauhans.
    2. Minhaj-Siraj was in favour of Queen’s rule in Delhi.
    3. Delhi’s authority was challenged by Mongols’ invasions.
    4. The iqtadars were called Samantas.
    5. Jalaluddin established the Lodi dynasty.
    6. Dehli-i-Kuhna was oldest of four cities of Delhi and was established by Muhammad Bin Tughluq.
    Answer:
    1. True
    2. False
    3. True
    4. False
    5. False
    6. True.

    Question 3.
    Match the contents of Column A with that of Column B:
    The Delhi Sultans Class 7 Extra Questions History Chapter 3 - 2
    Answer:
    1. (b)
    2. (e)
    3. (d)
    4. (a)
    5. (c)

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