HomeSocial ScienceNew Kings and Kingdoms Class 7 Extra Questions History Chapter 2

New Kings and Kingdoms Class 7 Extra Questions History Chapter 2

New Kings and Kingdoms Class 7 Extra Questions Social Science History Chapter 2

NCERT Extra Questions for Class 7 Social Science History Chapter 2 New Kings and Kingdoms

Prelude

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    Question 1.
    Which new dynasties emerged after the 7th century in subcontinent?
    Answer:
    Many new dynasties emerged after the 7th century like:

    • Guijara-Pratiharas
    • Rashtrakutas
    • Palas
    • Cholas
    • Chahamanas or Chauhan

    The Emergence of New Dynasties

    Question 1.
    Who were samantas? What service did they provide to the existing kings?
    Answer:

    • Samantas were big landlords or warrior-chiefs in different regions of the subcontinent.
    • Existing kings considered them as their subordinates.
    • Services Provided by the Samantas:
    • Samantas brought gifts for their kings or overlords.
    • They remained present at their courts or functions organized by them.
    • They provided them with military support.

    Question 2.
    What happened when Samantas gained power?
    Answer:

    • When Samantas gained power and wealth, they declared themselves to be maka-samanta, maha-mandaleshvara (the great lord of a ‘circle’ or region).
    • Sometimes they asserted their independence from their overlords.
    • Examples:
    • In the mid-eighth century Dantidurga, a Rashtrakuta chief, overthrew his Chalukya overlord and performed a ritual called hiranya-garbha meaning the golden womb.

    Question 3.
    How did the Rashtrakutas gained power and independent?
    Answer:
    Rashtrakutas became powerful in the following manner:

    • Rashtrakutas were subordinates to the Chalukyas of Karnataka.
    • In the mid-eighth century Dantidurga, a Rashtrakuta chief, overthrew his Chalukyan overlord.
    • He performed a ritual called Hiranya-garbha with the help of Brahmanas.
    • This ritual was, then, considered to lead the rebirth of the sacrificer as Kshatriya, even if he was not Kshatriya by birth.

    Question 4.
    Give another example of samantas establishing their kihgdoms.
    Answer:

    • Some other samantas from risk taking families used their military skills to
      carve out kingdoms.
    • Kadamba Mayurasharman and the Gurjara-Pratihara Harichandra were Brahmanas.
    • They gave up their traditional professions and took to arms.
    • They successfully established kingdoms in Karnataka and Rajasthan respectively.

    Administration in the Kingdoms

    Question 1.
    What titles did the new kings adopt?
    Answer:

    • Many of the new kings adopted high-sounding titles.
    • These titles were Maharaja-adhiraja meaning great king, Overlord of kings, Tribhuvana-chakravartin meaning lord of the three worlds and so on.
    • However, in spite of such claims, they often shared power with their samantas as well as with associations of peasants, traders and Brahmanas.

    Question 2.
    From where did resources come to these states?
    Answer:

    • In each of these states, resources came from the producers like peasants, cattle- keepers and artisans.
    • They were often persuaded or compelled to surrender a part of their production.
    • Sometimes these were claimed as ‘rent’ due to a lord claiming his ownership of the land.
    • Revenue was also collected from traders.

    Question 3.
    What do inscriptions of the Cholas refer to as four hundred taxes?
    Answer:

    • The inscriptions of the Cholas who ruled in Tamil Nadu refer to more than 400 terrhs for different kinds of taxes.
    • The most frequently mentioned tax is Vetti, taken not in cash but in the form of forced labour, and Kadamai, or land revenue.
    • Other taxes were also charged.
    • Taxes on thatching the houses.
    • The use of a ladder to climb palm trees.
    • A cess on succession to family property, etc.

    Question 4.
    How were resources used in the period 7th to 12th centuries?
    Answer:
    The resources were used in the following ways:

    • To finance the king’s establishment.
    • In the construction of temples and forts.
    • To fight wars, which were in turn expected to lead to the acquisition of wealth in the form of plunder.
    • To access to land as well as trade routes.

    Question 5.
    Who collected the revenue?
    Answer:

    • The functionaries for collecting revenue were generally recruited from influential families.
    • Their positions were often hereditary.
    • This was true about the army as well.
    • In many cases, close relatives of the king held these positions.

    Prashastis and Land Grants

    Question 1.
    What were prashastis?
    Answer:

    • Prashastis were the certificates which contained details that might not be literally true.
    • They told how rulers wanted to depict themselves—as valiant, victorious warriors.
    • These were composed by learned Brahmanas, who occasionally helped in the administration.

    Question 2.
    How were Brahmanas rewarded?
    Answer:
    Kings often rewarded Brahmanas with grants of land.

    • These were recorded on copper plates.
    • The plates were given to those who received the land.

    Question 3.
    Describe the ‘achievements’ of Nagabhatta.
    Answer:

    • Many rulers described their achievements in prashastis.
    • One prashasti; written in Sanskrit and found in Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, describes the exploits of Nagabhatta, a Pratihara king.

    It follows like this:

    • This king of Andhra, Saindhava {Sind), Vidarbha (part of Maharashtra) and Kalinga (part of Orissa) fell before him even as he was a prince.
    • He won a victory over Chakrayudha (the ruler of Kanauj). He defeated the king of Vanga (part of Bengal), Anarta (part of Gujarat), Malava (part of Madhya Pradesh), Kirata (forest people), Turushka (Turks), Vatsa, Matsya (both kingdoms in north India).

    Question 4.
    What was unusual about Kalhana’s writing?
    Answer:

    • Unusual thing for the twelfth century was a long Sanskrit poem.
    • It contained the history of kings who ruled over Kashmir.
    • It was composed by an author named Kalhana.
    • He used a variety of sources. They included the following:
      1. Inscriptions
      2. Documents
      3. Eyewitness accounts
      4. Earlier histories.
    • Unlike the writers of prashastis, he was often critical about rulers and their policies.

    Question 5.
    What was given with the land?
    Answer:
    The following were given with the land:

    • Boundaries made of embankments and thorny bushes.
    • Fruit bearing trees
    • Gardens and orchards
    • Wells
    • Open spaces
    • Pasture lands
    • Platforms
    • Beehives
    • Ditches
    • Rivers
    • Silt laden lands
    • Granaries
    • Fish ponds
    • Deep lakes.

    Question 6.
    What were the rights of the people who received land grants during Chola rule?
    Answer:
    Those who received land grants could collect taxes from it in different forms.

    • As judicial fines.
    • On betel leaves, woven cloth and vehicles.
    • They could build buildings with baked bricks having upper stories.
    • Get wells dug and canals constructed.
    • Plant trees, thorny bushes.
    • Stop water wastage and build embankments.

    Warfare for Wealth

    Question 1.
    How did new rulers gain power?
    Answer:
    All the ruling dynasties were based in a specific region.

    • At the same time, they tried to control other areas.
    • One particularly prized area was the city of Kanauj in the Ganga valley.
    • For centuries, rulers belonging to the Guijara-Pratihara, Rashtrakuta and Pala dynasties fought for control over Kanauj.
    • As there were three ‘parties’ in this long drawn conflict, historians often describe it as the “tripartite struggle”.
    • Rulers also tried to demonstrate their power and resources by building large temples.
    • When they attacked one another’s kingdoms; they often chose to target temples, which were sometimes extremely rich.

    Question 2.
    Who was Mahmud Ghazni? How did he expand his kingdom?
    Answer:

    • One of the best known of such rulers is Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni, Afghanistan.
    • He ruled from 997 to 1030 A.D.
    • He extended control over parts of Central Asia, Iran and the north-western part of the subcontinent.
    • He Raided the subcontinent almost every year—his targets were wealthy temples including Somnath, Gujarat.
    • He used most of the wealth to create a splendid capital city at Ghazni.
    • He was interested in finding out more about the people he conquered.
    • He entrusted a scholar named al-Biruni to write an account of the subcontinent.
    • This Arabic work, known as the Kitab al-Hind, remains an important source for historians.
    • He consulted Sanskrit scholars to prepare this account.

    Question 3.
    Describe the other kings who engaged themselves in warfare.
    Answer:

    • Other kings who engaged themselves in warfare were the Chahamanas.
    • They were later known as the Chauhans.
    • They ruled over the region around Delhi and Ajmer.
    • They attempted to expand their control to the west and the east, where they were opposed by the Chalukyas of Gujarat and the Gahadavalas of western Uttar Pradesh.
    • The best-known Chahamana ruler was Prithviraja III (1168-1192).
    • He defeated Afghan ruler named Sultan Muhammad Ghori in 1191.
    • He lost to him in the very next year, in 1192.

    A Closer Look: the Cholas

    From Uraiyur to Thanjavur

    Question 1.
    How did the Cholas rise to power?
    Answer:

    • A minor chiefly family known as the Muttaraiyar held power in the Kaveri delta.
    • The family was subordinate to the Pallava kings of Kanchipuram.
    • Vijayalaya belonged to the ancient chiefly family of the Cholas from Uraiyur.
    • He captured the Kaveri delta from the Muttaraiyar in the middle of the ninth century.
    • He built the town of Thanjavur and a temple for goddess Nishumbhasudini there.
    • The successors of Vijayalaya conquered neighbouring regions.
    • Thus the kingdom grew in size and power.
    • They won the Pandyan and the Pallava territories to the south and north and made these areas part of this kingdom.
    • Rajaraja I was considered the most powerful Chola ruler.
    • He became king in 985 A.D. and expanded control over most of these areas.
    • He also reorganised the administration of the empire.

    Question 2.
    Who were the best remembered Chola kings? Which regions or areas were attacked by Rajendra I?
    Answer:
    The’two best remembered Chola rulers were Rajaraja I and his son and successor Rajendra I.
    The great Chola ruler Rajendra I attacked the Ganga valley (North India), Sri Lanka ^ and some countries of South-East Asia, developing a powerful navy for these military expeditions.

    Splendid Temples and Bronze Sculpture

    Question 1.
    Describe the splendid temples and the bronze sculptures of the Cholas.
    Answer:
    Splendid temples and bronze sculptures of the Cholas:

    • Rajaraja and Rajendra built big temples of Thanjavur and Gangaikondacholapuram.
    • They are architectural and sculptural marvels.
    • Chola temples often became the centre of settlements around them.
    • These were centres of craft production.
    • Temples were also endowed with land by both rulers and others.
    • The produce of this land went to maintain all the specialists who worked at the temple and very often lived near it.
    • They included priests, garland makers, cooks, sweepers, musicians, dancers, etc.
    • In other words, temples were not only places of worship; but also the hub of economic, social and cultural life.
    • Amongst the crafts associated with temples, the making of bronze images was the most important.
    • Chola bronze images are amongst the finest in the world.
    • Most images were of deities, sometimes images were made of devotees also.

    Agriculture and Irrigation

    Question 1.
    Give an account of agriculture of the Cholas.
    Answer:
    Agriculture
    Many of the achievements of the Cholas were made possible through new developments in agriculture.
    The river Kaveri branches off into several small channels before falling into the Bay of Bengal.

    • These channels overflew frequently.
    • They deposited fertile soil on their banks. ‘
    • Water from the channels provide the necessary moisture for agriculture, particularly in the cultivation of rice.

    Although agriculture had developed earlier in other parts of Tamil Nadu, it was only from the fifth or sixth century that this area was opened up for large-scale cultivation.

    • Forests had to be cleared in some regions.
    • Land was levelled in the other areas.
    • In the Kaveri delta region embankments were built to prevent flooding.
    • Canals were constructed to carry water to the fields.

    In many areas two crops were grown in a year.

    Question 2.
    Describe the variety of irrigation methods used in the Tamil region.
    Answer:
    Large scale cultivation was developed in Tamil Nadu and in many cases artificial irrigation became necessary. A variety of methods were used:

    • Wells were dug
    • Huge tanks were constructed to collect rain water
    • Canals were constructed

    All this work required planning, organising labour and resources. Decisions were taken collectively on the usage of water. New rulers and people took active interest in these activities.

    The Administration of the Empire

    Question 1.
    Give an account of the administration of the Chola empire.
    Answer:
    The Administration of the Chola Empire

    • Settlements of peasants, known as ur, became prosperous with the spread of irrigation and agriculture.
    • Groups of villages formed larger units called nadu.
    • The village council and the nadu had several administrative functions including dispensing justice and collecting taxes.

    Question 2.
    Who exercised control in the affairs of ‘nadu’?
    Answer:

    • Rich peasants of the Vellala caste exercised considerable control over the affairs of tjie nadu under the supervision of the central Chola government.
    • The Chola kings gave some rich landowners titles like muvendavelan / araiyar {chief), etc. as markers of respect.
    • A velan or peasant is a person who serves three kings.
    • They were given important offices of the state at the centre.
    • Brahmanas often received land grants or brahmadeya. Hence, a large number of Brahmana settlements emerged in the Kaveri valley in the same way as in other parts of south India.

    Question 3.
    Who looked after the Brahmadeya*?
    Answer:
    Each brahmadeya. was looked after by an assembly or sabha of prominent Brahmana landholders.

    • These assemblies worked very efficiently.
    • Their decisions were recorded in detail in inscriptions, often on the stone walls of temples.
    • Associations of traders known as nagarams also occasionally performed administrative functions in towns.

    Question 4.
    What types of land are described in the inscriptions?
    Answer:
    Types of Land
    Chola inscriptions, mention several categories of land.

    1. Vellanvagai
      Land of non-Brahmana peasant proprietors.
    2. Brahmadeya
      Land gifted to Brahmanas.
    3. Shalabhoga
      Land for the maintenance of a school.
    4. Devadana, tirunamattukkani
      Land gifted to temples.
    5. Pallichchhandam
      Land donated to Jaina institutions.

    Question 5.
    How were sabhas organised?
    Answer:
    According to inscriptions from Uttaramerur in Chingleput district, Tamil Nadu, the sabhas were organised in the following manner:

    • The sabha had separate committees to look after irrigation works, gardens,
      temples, etc.
    • Names of eligible members of these committees were written on small tickets of palm leaf and kept in an earthenware pot.
    • A young was asked to pick the tickets, one by one for each committee.
    • The members who were picked up, formed the Sabha.

    Question 6.
    How did the Sabha work?
    Answer:
    The working of a sabha according to the Uttaramerur inscription is given below:

    • All those who wish to become members of the sabha should be owners of land from which land, revenue is collected.
    • They should have their own homes.
    • They should be between 35 and 70 years of age.
    • They should have knowledge of the Vedas.
    • They should be well-versed in administrative matters and honest in all dealings.
    • If anyone has been a member of any committee in the last three years, he cannot become a member of another committee.
    • Anyone who has not submitted his accounts, as well as those of his relatives, cannot contest the elections.

    Question 7.
    Describe the lives of ordinary men and women during the Chola empire.
    Answer:
    Chola empire Periyapuranam, a twelfth-century Tamil work, informs us about the f lives of ordinary men and women in the following manner:

    • On the outskirts of Adanur was a small hamlet of Pulaiyas, it is a name used for a social group considered “outcastes” by Brahmanas and Vellalas.
    • The hamlet was studded with small huts under old thatches and inhabited by agrarian labourers engaged in menial occupations.
    • The thresholds of the huts were covered with strips of leather, little chickens ” moved about in groups, dark children who wore bracelets of black iron were prancing about, carrying little puppies…. In the shade of the marudu (Arjuna) trees, a female labourer put her baby to sleep on a sheet of leather, there were mango trees from whose branches drums were hanging; and under the coconut ” palms, in little hollows on the ground, tiny-headed bitches lay after whelping. The red-crested cocks crowed before dawn calling the brawny Pulaiyar (plural) to their day’s work; and by day, under the shade of the Kanji tree spread the voice of the wavy-haired Pulaiya women singing as they were husking paddy…

    Multiple Choice Questions

    Prelude

    Question 1.
    Which new dynasty developed in eastern part of the country?
    (a) Cholas
    (b) Palas
    (c) Chahamanas
    (d) Rashtrakutas
    Answer:
    Palas

    The Emergence of New Dynasties

    Question 1.
    What was the other name of the great lord of a ‘circle’ or region?
    (a) Samantas
    (b) Subordinates
    (c) Maha-mandaleshvara
    (d) King
    Answer:
    Maha-mandaleshvara

    Question 2.
    Who were expected to bring gifts for their kings in 17th century?
    (a) Samantas
    (b) Overlords
    (c) Maha-samantas
    (d) Maha-mandaleshvara
    Answer:
    Samantas

    Question 3.
    When were Samantas declared Maha-samantas?
    (a) When they bring gifts for their kings
    (b) When they provide kings with military support
    (c) When they gain power and wealth
    (d) None of the above
    Answer:
    When they gain power and wealth

    Question 4.
    What is the literal meaning of hiranya-garbha?
    (a) Rashtrakutas
    (b) Dantidurga
    (c) Golden womb
    (d) Golden deer
    Answer:
    Golden womb

    Administration in the Kingdoms

    Question 1.
    From whom was the Revenue also collected?
    (a) Traders
    (b) Merchants
    (c) Peasants
    (d) Artisans
    Answer:
    Traders

    Question 2.
    What is Vetti?
    (a) Rent
    (b) Tax
    (c) Revenue
    (d) None of these
    Answer:
    Tax

    Question 3.
    What was the use of money collected from taxes?
    (a) To finance the kings’ establishment
    (b) Construction of temples and forts
    (c) To fight wars
    (d) All of these
    Answer:
    All of these

    Question 4.
    The functionaries for collecting revenue were recruited from
    (a) peasants
    (b) artisans
    (c) traders
    (d) influential families
    Answer:
    influential families

    Prashastis and Land Grants

    Question 1.
    Prashastis tell us how rulers wanted to depict themselves as
    (a) leader
    (b) valiant victorious warriors
    (c) achiever
    (d) all of these
    Answer:
    valiant victorious warriors

    Question 2.
    In which language was the prashasti found in Gwalior written?
    (a) Hindi
    (b) English
    (c) Sanskrit
    (d) Urdu
    Answer:
    Sanskrit

    Question 3.
    Who was Nagabhata?
    (a) Gupta ruler
    (b) Chakrayudha
    (c) Malava
    (d) Pratihara king
    Answer:
    Pratihara king

    Question 4.
    Brahmanas were rewarded by grants of land recorded on
    (a) copper plate
    (b) iron plate
    (c) silver plate
    (d) none of these
    Answer:
    copper plate

    Question 5.
    The person who received the land could collect taxes on
    (a) betel leaves
    (b) woven clothes
    (c) vehicles
    (d) all of these
    Answer:
    all of these

    Warfare for Wealth

    Question 1.
    Who invaded the Somnath temple in Gujarat?
    (a) Akbar
    (b) Muhammad Ghori
    (c) Mahmud Ghazni
    (d) None of them
    Answer:
    Mahmud Ghazni

    A Closer Look: the Cholas

    Question 1.
    Who ruled in Tamil Nadu?
    (a) Cholas
    (b) Chalukyas
    (c) Rashtrakutas
    (d) None of these
    Answer:
    Cholas

    From Uraiyur to Thanjavur

    Question 1
    Muttaraiyar held power in this delta region:
    (a) Kaveri
    (b) Krishna
    (c) Mahanadi
    (d) Godavari
    Answer:
    Kaveri

    Objective type questions

    Question 1.
    Fill in the blanks with appropriate words:
    1. ……………………….. defeated Md. Ghori.
    2. ………………………. wrote Kitab al-Hind.
    3. Gurjara-Pratiharas, ……………………. and ……………………… fought the Tripartite struggle.
    4. Temple at Thanjavur was for goddess …………………..
    5. Group of ur formed larger units called ……………………..
    6. Most of the Brahmadeya land was in ……………………………… valley.
    Answer:
    1. Prithviraja III
    2. al-Biruni
    3. Rashtrakutas, Palas
    4. Nishumbhasudini
    5. nadu
    6. Kaveri

    Question 2.
    State whether the given statements are true or false:
    1. Palas ruled over present state of Tamil Nadu.
    2. Kalhan composed a poem about rulers of Kashmir.
    3. Chahamanas rulers ruled over the regions around Delhi and Ajmer.
    4. In the mid of 8th century Dantidurga overthrew his Chola ruler.
    5. Land for maintenance of a school was called Pallichchhandam.
    6. Land gifted to temples was called devadana.
    Answer: .
    1. False
    2. True
    3. True
    4. False
    5. False
    6. True.

    Question 3.
    Match the contents of Column A with that of Column B:
    New Kings and Kingdoms Class 7 Extra Questions History Chapter 2 - 1
    Answer:
    1. (e)
    2. (a)
    3. (f)
    4. (d)
    5. (c)
    6. (b).

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