Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution Class 9 Important Questions Social Science History Chapter 2
Important Questions for Class 9 Social Science History Chapter 2 Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution
Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution Class 9 Important Questions Very Short Answer Type Questions
In the context of Russia, which group was the supporter of women’s Suffragette Movements?
Who was Karl Marx?
Karl Marx was a philosopher who favoured socialism. He believed that to free themselves from capitalist exploitation, workers had to construct a radically socialist society, where all the properties were socially controlled.
By whom was ‘Das Capital’ written?
Name the term that refers to ‘women’s right to vote’. HOTS
Who were the ‘greens’ and ‘whites’?
They were the group of people who were against the Bolshevik Revolution. They started a civil war. They were supported by the French, American, British and the Japanese troops as these countries were worried about the growth of socialism in Russia.
What was the basic idea of socialism?
Socialists were against private property, and saw it as the root of all social ills of the time.
What was the basic idea of a communist society?
All properties should be socially controlled.
Who built the cooperative called ‘New Harmony’?
Name the European nation where the first ever socialist government was formed.
What was the Russian Revolution?
The fall of monarchy in February 1917, and the events of October are normally called the Russian Revolution.
When was the Russian Social Democratic Workers Party founded, and by whom?
In 1898, by the socialists, who respected Marx’s ideas.
Who was ruling over Russia when the Russian Revolution took place?
Tsar Nicholas II.
What was the Second International?
It was an International body which was formed to coordinate the ideas of the socialists.
“The year 1904 was particularly bad for the Russian workers” Give reason.
In 1904 prices of essential goods rose very quickly and the real wages declined by 20%.
What was Duma?
It was an elected consultative Parliament of Russia.
Name the term that refers to the meaning of the word ‘Soviet’.
A Revolutionary Organization.
What was Bolsheviks?
It was a socialist party of Russia which was led by Lenin.
What was Mensheviks?
It was a break away group of Bolsheviks. It was also a socialist party like that of Bolshevik.
The wealthy farmers of Russia.
In the context of Russia what was ‘Kolkhoz’? HOTS
Kolkhoz were the collective farms, where all peasants were forced to cultivate from 1929.
Who started ‘Collectivization Programme’ in Russia?
Who headed the Communist Party of Russia after the death of Lenin?
Which incident of the Russian history is known as ‘Bloody Sunday’?
It was an incident in which more than 100 workers were killed and about 300 wounded. These workers were attacked by the police in 1905 when they reached the winter palace.
What was Lenin’s ’April Theses’?
In 1917, Lenin declared that the war be brought to an end, land be transferred to the peasants, and banks be nationalised. These three demands were Lenin’s ‘April Theses’.
What was the new name of St. Petersburg*?
Name a few countries that were part of central power during the First World War?
Germany, Austria and Turkey.
Name the term which was used for elected Consultative Parliament in Russia?
At the beginning of the 20 th century, where did the vast majority of Russian people worked? .
When did the First World War break out?
Why is 22nd,February celebrated as the International Women’s day?
Because on this day. women workers of Russia led a huge strike in the factories.
What were the Muslim reformers within the Russian Empire called?
To which place did industrialization bring men, women and children together?
Name any two Indian nationalists who talked of the significance of the French Revolution.
- Raja Ram Mohan Roy and
Name a few countries which were included in Russian Empire in 1914.
Finland, Lithuania and Latvia.
Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution Class 9 Important Questions Short Answer Type Questions
Describe the views of radicals.
The views of radicals are as follows:
- The group who wanted to bring about immediate social change in Russia was radicals.
- They wanted a government on the majority of country’s population.
- They were against private properties.
Who were liberals? What were their political and social views?
Liberals were not democrats. Explain.
Liberals : One of the groups which looked to change society were the liberals.
Political and Social Views of Liberals :
- Liberals wanted a nation which tolerated all religions.
- Liberals also opposed the uncontrolled power of dynastic rulers. They wanted to safeguard the rights of individuals against governments.
- They argued for a representative, elected parliamentary government, subject to laws interpreted by a well-trained judiciary that was independent of rulers and officials.
- However, they were not ‘democrats’. They did not believe in universal adult franchise, that is, the right of every citizen to vote. They felt men of property mainly should have the vote.
- They also did not want the vote for women.
Distinguish between the ideas of liberals and the radicals.
|(i) They argued for ,i representative, elected parliamentary government, but did not believp in universal adult franchise.||They also argued for a representative elected parliamentary government, but believed in universal adult franchise.|
|(ii) They felt men of property should have the right to vote.||They felt all citizens should have the right to vote|
|(iii) They were in favour of giving privileges to the rich or the men of property.||They opposed the privileges of the rich or the men of property.|
Who ruled Russia in 1914? How did he manage his empire? Explain.
Tsar Nicholas II was ruling over Russia, during the revolution.
- He was an autocrat.
- Though he created ‘Duma’ after the Revolution, but never cared for it.
- He was carrying the war against the wishes of the people.
- He worked under a monk called Rasputin.
Explain the views of different socialists and philosophers regarding the vision of the future or to transform the society.
- Robert Owen, a leading English manufacturer and a socialist sought to build a cooperative community called the New Harmony, in Indiana (USA).
- Louis Blanc of France wanted the government to encourage cooperatives and replace the capitalists.
- Karl Marx believed that to free themselves from capitalist exploitation, workers had to construct a radically socialist society, where all the properties were socially controlled.
- Friedrich Engels was also against capitalism.
Explain any three reasons which led to civil war between the Bolsheviks and the Russian army of non-Bolsheviks.
What conditions led to the Russian Civil War in 1918 – 1920? Give any four points.
- Impact of Land Redistribution Policy on Soldiers: When the Bolsheviks ordered land redistribution, the Russian army began to break up. Soldiers, mostly peasants, wished to go home for the redistribution and deserted.
- Opposition from Greens and Whites: Non-Bolshevik socialists, liberals and supporters of autocracy condemned the Bolshevik uprising. Their leaders moved to south Russia and organized troops to fight the Bolsheviks (the reds).’ During 1918 and 1919, the greens (Socialist Revolutionaries) and whites (pro-Tsarists) controlled most of the Russian empire.
- Outside Forces: The Greens and Whites were backed by French, American, British and Japanese troops. All these forces were worried at the growth of socialism in Russia.
- Use of Force: In many parts, Bolshevik colonists brutally massacred local nationalists in the name of defending socialism. In this situation, many were confused about what the Bolshevik government represented.
‘A communist society was the natural society of the future.’ Explain.
Explain the views of Karl Marx on capitalism.
Explain the thoughts and beliefs of Karl Marx which convinced the workers to enter into conflict with the capitalists.
- Marx was of the opinion that an industrial society was a ‘capitalist’ society.
- Capitalists earn profits because of workers.
- To increase his profits the capitalist uses two methods i.e., either by reducing wages or increasing the working hours.
- Marx believed that to free themselves from the capitalists, workers had to construct a radically socialist society where all the properties were socially controlled.
Explain the economic condition of the workers before the Russian Revolution.
- Most of the industries were the private property of the industrialists. Most of the workers were working for about 10 to 12 hours a day.
- They were paid very low wages.
- The working conditions were also very poor.
- Women workers made up about 31% of the factory labour, but they were paid less than men.
Mention four features of socialism.
- Socialists were against private property.
- Under socialism, the means of production are under the control of the government.
- Socialists regarded the private property as the root cause of all social evils.
- Socialism encourages cooperatives.
Mention any four features of the Russian economy at the beginning of the 20th century.
Describe the economic condition of Russia before 1905.
- The vast majority of Russia’s people were agriculturists. About 85 per cent of the Russian empire’s population earned their living from agriculture.
- Industry was found in pockets. Prominent industrial areas were St. Petersburg and Moscow. Craftsmen undertook much of the production, but large factories existed alongside craft workshops.
- Many factories were set up in the 1890s, when Russia’s railway network was extended, and foreign investment in industry increased. Coal production doubled and iron and steel output quadrupled.
- In the countiyside, peasants cultivated most of the land. But the nobility, the crown and the Orthodox Church owned large properties.
Explain any three views of the socialists about private property.
Views of socialists about private property are :
- They were against private property.
- They saw it as the root of all social ills.
- Individuals who owned the property were concerned about personal gain only.
- Those who make property productive are ignored by the owners of the property, (any three)
Mention any four features of the Russian society of the 20th century.
- The vast majority of Russia’s people were agriculturists. About 85 per cent of the Russian empire’s population earned their living from agriculture.
- Workers were a divided social group. Some had strong links with the villages from which they came. Others had settled in cities permanently.
- Women made up 31 per cent of the factory labour force by 1914, but they were paid less than men (between half and three-quarters of a man’s wage).
- In the countryside, peasants cultivated most of the land. But the nobility, the crown and the Orthodox Church owned large properties. Nobles got their power and position through their services to the Tsar, not through local popularity.
What were the differences between the Russian peasants and the other peasants of Europe?
How were the peasants of Russia different from rest of Europe?
- Russia’s people were agriculturists. About 85 per cent of the Russian empire’s population earned their living from agriculture. This proportion was higher than in most European countries. For instance, in France and Germany the proportion was between 40 per cent and 50 per cent.
- In Russia, peasants wanted the land of the nobles to be given to them. They had no respect for them, whereas in other parts of Europe, the nobles were respected.
- Russian farmers pooled their land together periodically, and their commune divided it according to the needs of the individual families. This never happened in other parts of Europe.
What were the main demands of April Theses?
Explain the Lenin’s ‘April Theses’.
Describe the three major demands of Bolshevik during 1917.
Main demands of April Theses were :
- Lenin returned to Russia from exile and felt that it was time for Soviets to take over power. He declared that war be brought to an end, land be transferred to the peasants and banks nationalized. He also argued to rename Bolshevik Party as Communist Party.
- Started planning on uprising against government with the support of army.
- Military Revolutionary Committee was planned to seize the power and bring the city under control.
Why did ‘the Kerenskii Government’ in Russia fall?
Why did the Kerenskii Government become unpopular in Russia? .
- Lenin: In April 1917, the Bolshevik leader Lenin returned to Russia from his exile. He put forward the ‘April Theses’ due to which he got full support from the Russian workers. Bolsheviks supporters in the army, factories and peasants were brought together under one umbrella under his leadership.
- Trade Unions and Other Organisations: After the February revolution, workers were free to form associations and unions. So trade unions grew in number.
- Conflict between Bolsheviks and the Government: Regular conflicts between Bolsheviks and the government weakened the government. Bolsheviks were supported by Soviet army and factory workers.
- Non-fulfilment of Demands: The Provisional Government failed to meet any of the demands of theworkers and the common people.
Describe the events that led to 1905 Revolution of Russia.
Write A note on the Bloody Sunday incident.
Which incident came to be known as Bloody Sunday? What were its consequences? V3Q
- The year 1904 was a particularly bad one for Russian workers. Prices of essential goods rose so quickly that the real wages declined by 20%.
- When four members of the Assembly of Russian workers were dismissed, the workers became agitated.
- In January 1905, a large number of peaceful workers led by Father Gapon reached the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg to present a petition to the Tsar.
- The workers were attacked by the police. Over 100 workers were killed, and about 300 wounded. Since the incident took place on Sunday, it is known as the ‘Bloody Sunday
Consequences: Tsar underpressure from the masses was forced to announce his manifesto which led to the formation of Duma.
Explain the mqjor events that were responsible for the Russian Revolution of 1905.
Why were there revolutionary disturbances iii Russia in 1905?
What were the demands of the revolutionaries?
- Autocratic Rule: Russia was under the autocratic rule of the Tsars. The Tsar Nicholas II was an inefficient and corrupt ruler.
- Role of Liberals and Socialists: Both Liberals and Socialists were against the dynastic rule. They worked with peasants and workers to demand a constitution. They were being supported by Jadidists.
- Strike of the Workers: The year 1904 was a bad year forythe Russian workers. Prices of essential goods rose so quickly that real wages declined by 20%. So there was a strike by the workers. They
demanded reduction in working hours, an increase in wages and improvement in the working conditions.
- Bloody Sunday : The incident of Bloody Sunday in which more than 100 workers were killed became the turning point. It led to an all Russia strike. Lawyers, doctors, engineers and others demanded constituent assembly.
What is meant by ‘October revolution’?
- It was the revolution which occurred in October 1917. It was led by Petrograd Soviet and the Bolshevik Party under the leadership of Lenin.
- A military Revolutionary Committee was appointed by the Soviet under Leon Trotskii to organise the seizure.
- The uprising began on 24th October. Though Prime Minister Kerenskii resisted but the seizure was complete within a day.
- The Bolshevik Party was renamed the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik).
- In November 1917, the Bolsheviks conducted the elections to the Constituent Assembly, but they failed to gain majority support. In January 1918, the assembly rejected Bolshevik measures and Lenin dismissed the assembly.
- In the years that followed, Bolsheviks took full control over the government and Russia became one party state.
Explain any three major effects of the Russian Revolution of October 1917 on Russian economy.
- No Private Property: Private property in the means of production was abolished. Land and other means of production were declared the property of the entire nation. Labour was made compulsory for all and economic exploitation by capitalists and landlords came to an end.
- Nationalisation of Industries: The control of industries was given to the workers. All the banks, insurance companies, large industries, mines, water transports and railways were nationalised.
- Centralised Planning: A process cf centralised planning was introduced. Officials assessed how the economy could work and set targets for a five-year period. On this basis they made the Five Year Plans.
How did Russia’s participation in the World War-I become a cause for the fall of Tsar? Explain.
Explain any four reasons why Russian people wanted the Tsar to withdraw from the First World War.
- Loss of Soldiers: In the First World War, Russia lost more than 7 million soldiers. So there was a discontent among the masses.
- Destruction of Crops: The war led to the destruction of crops, homes and industries. So over 3 million people became refugees.
- Impact on Industries: Russian industry was dependent on other countries, and was cut off from other suppliers of industrial goods.
- Shortage of Workers: There was shortage of workers as most of the workers were sent to the army.
Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution Class 9 Important Questions Long Answer Type Questions
What are the main objectives of Liberals in Russia?
The mam objectives of Liberals are as follows:
- They expected a nation which tolerated all the religions.
- They opposed the uncontrolled powers of dynastic rules.
- They wanted to safeguard the right to individual against government.
- They did not believe in universal adult franchise as they were not democrats.
- Liberals argued for a representative elected by the government. They were subjected to laws interrupted by a well-trained judiciary that was independent of rulers and officials.
- In the parts of Europe, where independent nation states did not yet exist. For example, Germany, Italy, Poland-men and women combined their demands for constitutionalism with national unification.
- They took advantage of the growing unrest and to push their demands for a creation of a constitution with freedom of press and freedom of association.
Explain any five differences between the peasants of Russia and peasants of Europe.
|Peasants of Europe||Peasants of Russia|
|(i) They formed unions and fought for better wages and good living conditions.||They had no proper unions and associations initially. It came up much later.|
|(ii) The workers were united in their demands for political rights and reduction in work hours.||The workers were not united. They were divided on the basis of occupation.|
|(iii) The workers’ associations had close ties with the political parties and themselves formed political parties. For example, the labour Party in Britain.||The workers’ associations were considered as illegal and were suppressed.|
|(iv) In France, during the French Revolution in Brittany peasants had the respect for nobles and fought for them.||But in Russia, the peasants had no regards for the nobility and often revolted against them.|
|(v) The peasants in Europe had political rights and enjoyed them.||The peasants did not enjoy any political rights.|
How far the economic and social conditions of Russia were responsible for the Russian Revolution? Explain by giving examples.
Describe the circumstances which were responsible for the Russian Revolution.
(i) Agrarian Economy and Poor Condition of the Peasants: At the beginning of the 20th century, more than 85% of Russian population earned their living from agriculture. Most of the land was owned by rich people. Most of the peasants worked from dawn to dusk
with very low wages or share. Most of the peasants were against the rich and the nobles.
(ii) Poor Condition of Workers: Most of the industries were controlled by the private individuals. In craft units, and small workshops, the working day was sometimes 15 hours. Most of the workers were working and living in poor conditions. Most of the workers were ill-paid.
(iii) Unemployment: Unemployment rate was very high. The rich industrialists were exploiting the workers.
(iv) High Prices : Prices of essential goods rose so quickly that real wages declinedxby 20%.
(v) Condition of Women: Most of the women were working in small factories. Women made up about 31% of the factory labour force. They were paid less wages, and were forced to work for long hours. When they launched an agitation, they were fired at by the police.
Explain the views of the Socialists on private property with special emphasis on Karl Marx.
- Marx argued that industrial society was capitalist. Capitalists owned the capital invested in factories, and the profit of capitalists was produced by workers.
- The conditions of workers could not improve as long as this profit was accumulated by private capitalists.
- Workers had to overthrow capitalism and the rule of private property.
- Marx believed that to free themselves from capitalist exploitation, workers had to construct a radically socialist controlled. This would be a communist society. He was convinced that workers would triumph in their conflict with capitalists. A communist society was the natural society of the future.
What social changes were seen in the society after industrialisation?
How did industrialization change the lives of people in Europe? Explain.
- Working Class: Industrialisation brought men, women and children to factories. Work hours were often long and wages were poor.
- Problem of Unemployment and Poverty: Problem of unemployment and poverty was rare in the countryside but this became a common phenomenon with industrialisation. Unemployment was common, particularly during times of low demand for industrial goods.
- Problem of Housing and Sanitation: Large-scale migration to cities lead to housing and sanitation problem.
- Trade Unions: Workers in England and Germany began forming associations to fight for better living and working conditions. They set up funds to help members in times of distress and demanded a reduction of working hours and the right to vote. In Germany, these associations worked closely with the Social Democratic Party (SPD) and helped it win parliamentary seats. By 1905, socialists and trade unionists formed a Labour Party in Britain and a Socialist Party in France.
- Socialism: Trade unions and worker’s union lead to idea of socialism. The development of the idea of socialism changed the political scenario. These trade unions stared demanding share in political power.
Explain the collectivisation policy of Stalin.
What were the major changes Introduced in agriculture by Stalin? Explain.
- The collectivisation policy was introduced by Stalin who came to power after the death of Lenin.
- The main reason was the shortage of grain supplies.
- It was argued that grain shortage was partly due to the small size of the holding.
- After 1917, the land had been given over to peasants. These small-sized peasant farms could not be modernised. To develop modern farms, and run them along industrial lines with machinery, it was necessary to eliminate ‘kulaks’, take away land from peasants, and establish state-controlled large farms.
- From 1929, the government forced all peasants to cultivate in collective farms (kolkhoz). The bulk of land and implements were transferred to the ownership of collective farms. Peasants worked on the land, and the kolkhoz profit was shared.
- Enraged peasants resisted the authorities, and destroyed their livestock. Between 1929 and 1931, the number of cattle fell by one-third. Those who resisted collectivisation were severely punished. Many were deported and exiled.
- As they resisted collectivisation, peasants argued that they were not rich, and were not against socialism. They did not want to work in collective farms for a variety of reasons.
- Stalin’s government allowed some independent cultivation, but treated such cultivators unsympathetically.
- In spite of collectivisation, production did not increase immediately. In fact, the bad harvest of 1930-1933 led to one of the most devastating famines in Soviet history when over 4 million died.
Highlight any five changes brought by Lenin in Russia after October Revolution of 1917. HOTS
Role of Lenin in post 1917 Russian Revolution :
- A conflict between the provisional government and the Bolshevik grew in September, 1917. Lenin started planning an uprising against the government and began to organize his supporters from any secrets and factories.
- A military revolutionary committee under Lenin Trotski planned to seize power.
- Uprising began on 4th October, 1917. The Prime Minister Karenski, with government troops tried to subdue the Bolshevik but failed.
- Under the guidance of Lenin, the military Revolutionary committee responded quickly and by nightfall the city was under the committee’s control.
- At a meeting all Russian Congress of Soviet in Petrograd, the majority approved the Bolshevik action. Russian Revolution brought Russia under communist control.
Who was Lenin? What was his contribution in the Russian Revolution?
Lenin was a socialist leader who was against the autocratic rule of Tsar. His contributions in the Russian Revolution were :
(i) April Theses: He put forward three demands i.e., the war be brought to an end, land be transferred to the peasants, and banks be nationalised; These three demands were Lenin’s April Theses. He also argued that the Bolshevik Party rename itself the Communist Party to indicate its new radical aims.
(ii) Provisional Government and Lenin: The Provisional Government which was established after the February Revolution of 1917 was controlled by landlords, industrialists and army officials. So Lenin was against the Provisional Government. He brought together different Soviets and prepared them for the Revolution.
(iii) Overthrow of the Provisional Government: It was under the leadership of Lenin that the Provisional Government was overthrown by the Soviets. On 16th October 1917. Lenin persuaded the Petrograd Soviet and the Bolshevik Party to agree to a socialist seizure of power. A Military Revolutionary Committee was appointed by the Soviets to organise the seizure.
(iv) Communist State: Lenin laid the foundation of Communist State. After the October Revolution the Bolshevik Party was renamed the Russian Communist Party.
Explain the Russian February Revolution 1917.
Petrograd had led the February Revolution that brought down the monarchy in February 1917. Explain. HOTS
(i) Grim Condition in the Petrograd: In the winter of 1917, conditions in the capital, Petrograd, were grim. In February 1917, food shortages were deeply felt in the workers’ quarters. The winter was very cold. There had been exceptional frost and heavy snow.
(ii) Women Lead the Strike: On 22 February, a lockout took place at a factory. The next day, workers in fifty factories called a strike in sympathy. In many factories, women led the way to strikes. This came to be called the International Women’s Day.
(iii) Violent Incidents: In the next few days the workers tried to persue the government to fulfill their demand but government called out the cavalry. The streets thronged with people raising slogans about bread, wages, better hours and democracy. However, the cavalry refused to fire on- the demonstrators. An officer was shot at the barracks of a regiment and three other regiments mutinied, voting to join the striking workers.
(iv) Formation of Soviet: By that evening, soldiers and striking workers had gathered to form a soviet or council in the same building as the Duma met. This was the Petrograd Soviet.
(v) Formation of Provisional Government: The very next day, a delegation went to see the Tsar. Military commanders advised him to abdicate. He followed their advice and abdicated on 2 March. Soviet leaders and Duma leaders formed a Provisional Government to run the country. Russia’s future would be decided by a constituent assembly, elected on the basis of universal adult suffrage.
Describe the importance of Battle of Stalingard in the Second World War.
Importance of Battle of Stalingard in the Second World War :
- The battle of Stalingard was fought between Russia and Germany on Russian territory.
- This battle is considered important because it marked the defeat of Germany and Hitler along with Nazi party.
- Hitler had signed a non-aggression treaty with Russia in August 1939 A.D. Since he did not have faith in Russia he considered Russia as a vital threat to Nazi Germany.
- Hitler also had imperial designs on the fertile Ukraine Basin and its mines.
- He also wanted to Europeanize the area of the Asian Steppe.
- Due to the above mentioned reasons, Hitler violated the Pact of 1939 and attacked Russia from three sides.
- This led to a battle in Stalingard near Moscow.
- The Germany failed to capture Stalingard due to lack of preparation of German soldiers against heavy rains and frosts in the month of October.
- This led to failure of Hitler’s campaign.
- In all, Hitler exposed the German. Western front to British aerial bonding. Eastern front was exposed to powerful Soviet Army. In this battle, Germany suffered a lot and Soviet hegemony was established over entire Eastern Europe.