HomeScienceCrop Production and Management Class 8 Extra Questions Science Chapter 1

Crop Production and Management Class 8 Extra Questions Science Chapter 1

Crop Production and Management Class 8 Extra Questions Science Chapter 1

Crop Production and Management Class 8 Extra Questions Very Short Answer Questions

Question 1.
What is the name of the undesirable plants that grow among the crops?
Answer:
Weeds

Question 2.
Name one weed.
Answer:
Wild oat

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    Question 3.
    Name the methods applied for weeding.
    Answer:

    • Manual method
    • Chemical method
    • Biological method

    Question 4.
    Name the chemicals that are used to remove weeds.
    Answer:
    Weedicides

    Question 5.
    Name a tool which is used for removing weeds and for loosening soil.
    Answer:
    Hoe

    Question 6.
    What is the process of loosening and turning of the soil called?
    Answer:
    Tilling or ploughing

    Question 7.
    What are the substances which are added to the soil in the form of nutrients called?
    Answer:
    Manure and fertilisers

    Question 8.
    What is the process of supplying water to crops at different intervals is called?
    Answer:
    Irrigation

    Question 9.
    What are the sources of irrigation?
    Answer:
    Wells, tubewells, ponds, lakes, etc.

    Question 10.
    What is the process of separation of grain from chaff called?
    Answer:
    Winnowing

    Question 11.
    Name two crops belonging to rabi crop.
    Answer:
    Pea, gram

    Question 12.
    Name the ideal months for the harvesting of rabi crops.
    Answer:
    March/April

    Question 13.
    Name two kharif crops.
    Answer:
    Soybean, groundnut

    Question 14.
    Name the ideal months for sowing kharif crops.
    Answer:
    June/July

    Question 15.
    Name any two fertilisers.
    Answer:
    NPK, Diammonium phosphate

    Crop Production and Management Class 8 Extra Questions Short Answer Questions

    Question 1.
    What is a crop?
    Answer:
    Crop is the term used to describe a plant that is grown in a field on a large scale. For example, cereal crops, wheat crops.

    Question 2.
    What do you mean by produce?
    Answer:
    The products obtained from the crops are called produce.

    Question 3.
    What do you mean by the term agricultural practice?
    Answer:
    Agricultural practices are those practices which involve the necessary steps to be taken during production of crops.

    Question 4.
    Explain the term levelling.
    Answer:
    Levelling is the process of breaking down the larger lumps of soil, and then levelling them by using a leveller.

    Question 5.
    What are the advantages of levelling?
    Answer:
    Following are the advantages of levelling:

    • Levelling helps to prevent soil erosion caused by wind or air.
    • It helps in sowing the seeds uniformly, and thus helps the plants to grow uniformly too.
    • It helps in proper irrigation by allowing the water to get distributed uniformly throughout the soil.

    Question 6.
    What is a plough?
    Answer:
    A plough is an equipment for ploughing. It is mainly made of a wooden shaft called a plough-shaft, at-tached to a triangular iron blade called ploughshare.

    Question 7.
    What is a cultivator?
    Answer:
    Cultivator is a farm implement used for stirring and pulverizing the soil for planting crops.

    Question 8.
    Explain the term transplantation.
    Answer:
    Some of the crops are first grown in the nurseries and then transferred to the main field. This process is known as transplantation.

    Question 9.
    What are the advantages of manure?
    Answer:
    Following are some advantages of manure:

    • It enhances water-holding capacity of soil.
    • It improves soil quality.
    • It promotes the growth of soil friendly microbes.
    • It is renewable, biodegradable and eco-friendly.

    Question 10.
    What are weedicides? Give some examples.
    Answer:
    Weedicides are the chemicals that are used to remove weeds. Some commonly used weedicides are 2, 4-D and metachlor.

    Crop Production and Management Class 8 Extra Questions Long Answer Questions

    Question 1.
    What do you mean by the term crop? Explain briefly the types of crops.
    Answer:
    Crop is the term used to describe a plant that is grown in a field on a large scale. For example, cereal crops, pulses and fruit crops.
    The crops grown in India can be classified as kharif and rabi.
    Kharif crops are sown in the rainy season by June/July and are harvested by September/October. Thus they are also known as summer season crops. For example, rice, maize, etc.
    Rabi crops are sown in the winter season in October or November and are harvested by March/April. Thus, they are also called winter season crops. For example, mustard, wheat, potato, etc.

    Question 2.
    What is ploughing or tilling? State its advantages.
    Answer:
    The process of loosening and turning of the soil is called tilling or ploughing. This is done by using a plough. Ploughs are made of wood or iron.
    Following are the advantages of ploughing or tilling:

    • Ploughing loosens the soil and makes it aerated.
    • It helps in mixing organic matter with the soil uniformly.
    • It initiates the growth of natural agents and microorganisms and thus, keeps the soil fertile.
    • It increases the water holding capacity of soil.
    • It helps in easy penetration of root into the soil.

    Question 3.
    Define the term agricultural practices and also state the important steps taken during crop production.
    Answer:
    Agricultural practices are those practices which involves the necessary steps to be taken during production of crops. There are number of steps of crop production which are to be done very carefully to ensure that crops get produced timely.
    Some of the most important steps taken during crop production are as under:

    • Soil preparation
    • Sowing
    • Adding manure and fertilisers
    • Irrigation
    • Weeding
    • Harvesting
    • Threshing and winnowing
    • Storage of grains

    Question 4.
    What is irrigation? Name the two main methods of irrigation and define them briefly.
    Answer:
    The artificial method of watering the plants for assisting in the growth of the plants is called irrigation. The two main methods of irrigation are:

    • Traditional method: The traditional method of irrigation is very less expensive and they often lead to wastage of water. Traditional method of irrigation involves chain pump, dhekli, moat (the pulley system) and rahat (lever system).
    • Modern method: Modern methods of irrigation are more inclined towards the use of diesel, bio¬gas, solar energy and electricity for lifting water.
      The two most important modern system of irrigation are:

      • Sprinkler irrigation system
      • Drip irrigation system

    Question 5.
    What do you mean by weeding? Why the process of weeding necessary? Name the methods applied for weeding.
    Answer:
    The undesirable plants that grow among the crops are called weeds. The process of removing these weeds is known as weeding. Weeds compete with the crop plants for nutrients and space. They grow much rapidly than the crop plant. So weeding is necessary.
    Methods applied for weeding are as follows:

    • Manual method: Manual method of removing weeds is the most time consuming method. In this system weeds are controlled by hand pulling, digging, shallow tillage, etc., by using certain implements like khurpi, hoe, etc.
    • Chemical method: In this method chemicals called, weedicides are used to remove weeds. For example, metachlor and 2, 4-D.
    • Biological control method: This method is the most commonly used method of weed control. It involves the use of some specific insects that destroy the growth of some specific weeds. For example, leafy spurge, a weed, is controlled by using flea beetles.

    Question 6.
    Write short note on the terms:

    • Storage
    • Harvesting

    Answer:

    • Storage: Storage of produce is an important task. If the crop grains are to be kept for longer time, they should be safe from moisture, insects, rats and microorganisms. Before storing, the grains are properly dried in the sun to reduce the moisture in them. This prevents the attack by insect pests, bacteria and fungi. Grains are stored by farmers in jute bags or metallic bins. However, large scale storage of grains is done in silos and granaries to protect them from pests like rats and insects.
    • Harvesting: After maturation of crop, harvesting is an important task. In harvesting, crops are pulled out or cut close to the ground. It usually takes 3 to 4 months for a cereal crop to mature. Harvesting in our country is either done manually by sickle or by machine called harvester.

    Crop Production and Management Class 8 Extra Questions Higher Order Thinking Skills

    Question 1.
    Why the depth at which seeds are planted is important?
    Answer:
    If the seed is planted too deep then it will not get enough sunlight to germinate. If the seed is planted too shallow then it will not get enough soil to support germination. The depth for sowing seed also depends upon the seed size.

    Question 2.
    Why sowing seeds with seed drill is better than broadcasting?
    Answer:
    Seed drill sows the seeds uniformly at proper distances and depths, whereas broadcasting of seeds scatter them non-uniformly on the ground surface which are susceptible to be picked up by birds.

    Question 3.
    How can nitrogen be replenished in soil naturally?
    Answer:
    Through crop rotation with a leguminous crop the nitrogen can be replenished in soil naturally. The leguminous plants, like peas, beans, soybeans, peanuts, etc., have nitrogen-fixing bacteria in their root nodules. The nitrogen-fixing bacteria, viz., Rhizobium, fixes atmospheric nitrogen (N2) into ammonium (NH4+) which is used by the plants.

    Question 4.
    Why is it advisable to wash fruits and vegetables before using them?
    Answer:
    Fruits and vegetables may contain many pesticides, used during the crop production practices, on them along with other germs and dust.

    Question 5.
    What is biological control of pest? How is it beneficial?
    Answer:
    Method of controlling pests including insects, mites, weeds, etc., with the help of other living organisms are known as biological control of pest. The controlling agents are very much particular of their host pest. For example, lady bugs controls aphids, mites, scale insects, etc., which harm the crops. A wasp eats up bollworms or other caterpillars on cotton plant.
    Benefits of biocontrol agents are:

    • Less costly
    • Give protection to the crop throughout the crop period
    • Eco-friendly
    • Harmless to human beings and beneficial to flora and fauna

    Crop Production and Management Class 8 Extra Questions Value-Based Questions

    Question 1.
    Rajan felt worried about the condition of water scarcity in his village during the cropping season. He went to Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare of his area to get the solution of this problem. There he came to know about effective method of irrigation and drought resistant varieties of crop.
    He requested the head of department of the ministry to arrange some workshop on this topic to educate the farmers in these methods.

    • Name modern methods of irrigation that help us to use water economically.
    • What is drought resistant varieties of crop?
    • Can you name some crops that require less amount of water?
    • What value of Raj an is shown here?

    Answer:

    • Drip irrigation system and sprinkler method.
    • Crops that need very little amount of rainfall or irrigation to grow are called drought resistant varieties of crop.
    • Sorghum, pearl millet, chickpea, groundnut, etc.
    • Rajan is concerned, aware, sensitive and intelligent.

    Question 2.
    Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK), a constituent extension centre of Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, organised a farmer’s workshop on organic farming in vegetable cultivation at Kalayarkoil to commemorate the World Soil Day.
    (a) What is organic farming?
    (b) What is the advantage of organic farming?
    (c) What are the health benefits of organic farming?
    (d) What values of KVK are shown here?
    Answer:
    (a) Organic farming is a form of agriculture that relies on techniques such as crop rotation, green ma-nure, compost and biological pest control.
    (b) Advantages of organic farming are:

    • Do not use any harmful chemicals
    • Crops have better taste and nutrition
    • Eco-friendly
    • Cost effective

    (c) Organic farming uses all the natural ways to provide nutrients and to get rid of the pests. So it reduces the harmful effects of pesticides and fertilisers on human beings.
    (d) Krishi Vigyan Kendra shows concern about the growing use of pesticides, fertilisers, etc., and their adverse effect on human health. It is spreading awareness amongst farmers about eco-friendly ways of cultivating crops.

    Activities and Projects

    Question 1.
    Sow some seeds in the soil and arrange to water them by drip irrigation. Observe daily.

    • Do you think it can save water?
    • Note the changes in the seed.

    Answer:
    Yes, it can save water. The drip system is a better manager of water.
    We observe that seed begins to germinate.

    Question 2.
    Collect different types of seeds and put them in small bags. Attach these bags in a herbarium file and label them.
    Answer:
    Do it yourself.

    Question 3.
    Collect new agricultural machine pictures and paste in a file with their names and uses.
    Answer:
    Do it yourself.

    Question 4.
    Project Work
    Visit a farm, nursery or a garden nearby. Gather information about
    (i) importance of seed selection.
    (ii) method of irrigation.
    (iii) effect of extreme cold and extreme hot weather on the plants.
    (iv) effect of continuous rain on the plants.
    (v) fertilisers/manure used.
    Answer:
    (i) Good quality seeds are essential to grow a strong and healthy crop. Also type of fruit or final pro¬duce desire depends on seed selection.
    (ii)

    • Lift irrigation method
    • Tubewell method
    • Water wheel method Find other method yourself.

    (iii) In extreme cold weather, water inside the plants will freeze and cells will burst from the expansion of water. Ultimately the plants will die. In extreme hot weather, the plant will loose more water than it absorb. So plant will die of wilting.
    (iv) If plant grows in well drained field, there is no problem, as there is no water logging. In case if continuous rain causes water logging, the root system gets damaged, as the rain blocks the pores of soil and the root of plant will not be able to take proper oxygen. So it will cause death of the plant. The continuous rain may also affect the leaves as they get torn and damaged.
    (v) Do it yourself.

    I. Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs)
    Choose the correct option.
    Question 1.
    The branch of science that deals with growing plants and raising livestock for human use is
    (a) agriculture
    (b) horticulture
    (c) pisciculture
    (d) animal husbandry

    Question 2.
    Products obtained from the crops are called
    (a) yield
    (b) produce
    (c) crop
    (d) fertilisers

    Question 3.
    The practice of growing two or more dissimilar crops in the same field one after another is
    (a) crop rotation
    (b) tilling
    (c) plantation
    (d) weeding

    Question 4.
    The unwanted plants that grow along with the crops are called
    (a) fertilisers
    (b) manure
    (c) weeds
    (d) kharif crops

    Question 5.
    The ideal months for harvesting kharif crop are
    (a) June/July
    (b) August/September
    (c) September/October
    (d) November/December

    Question 6.
    Which of the following is an example of rabi crop?
    (a) Potato
    (b) Onion
    (c) Jute
    (d) Pulses

    Question 7.
    The method of loosening the soil is called
    (a) harvesting
    (b) ploughing
    (c) levelling
    (d) threshing

    Question 8.
    Levelling of soil helps to prevent
    (a) soil erosion
    (b) cultivation
    (c) sowing
    (d) drought

    Question 9.
    Which of the following is not a kharif crop?
    (a) Paddy
    (b) Maize
    (c) Groundnut
    (d) Peas

    Question 10.
    Which of the following are agricultural implements?
    (a) Seed drills
    (b) Silos
    (c) Harrow
    (d) All of these

    Question 11.
    The process of beating out grains from the harvested wheat crop is called
    (a) beating
    (b) crushing
    (c) threshing
    (d) harvesting

    Question 12.
    Watering the crops is called
    (a) sowing
    (b) manuring
    (c) tilling
    (d) irrigation

    Question 13.
    Which of the following is not provided to the soil by a chemical fertiliser?
    (a) Nitrogen
    (b) Humus
    (c) Potassium
    (d) Phosphorus

    Question 14.
    The chemical substances rich in nutrients are called
    (a) fertilisers
    (b) weedicides
    (c) pesticides
    (d) herbicides

    Question 15.
    Compost is basically a
    (a) manure
    (b) fertiliser
    (c) pesticide
    Answer:
    1. (a)
    2. (b)
    3. (a)
    4. (c)
    5. (c)
    6. (a)
    7. (b)
    8. (a)
    9. (d)
    10. (d)
    11. (c)
    12. (d)
    13. (b)
    14. (a)

    II. Fill in the Blanks
    Fill in the blanks with suitable word/s.
    1. Plants of one kind grown at a one place on a large scale is called _______.
    2. _______ is a simple tool used for removing weeds and for loosening the soil.
    3. Propagation of ginger is usually done using _______.
    4. _______ improves the texture of the soil.
    5. Condition necessary to grow maize is _______.
    6. A common weed that grow among the crops is _______.
    7. _______ is the process of cutting and gathering the ripened crop.
    8. _______ crops are sown in winter season.
    9. Kharif crops are sown in _______ season.
    10. Products obtained from the crops are called _______.
    11. ’The process of removing weeds is called _______.
    12. _______ is the practice of growing two or more dissimilar crops in the same piece of land.
    13. Separation of grain from chaff with the aid of wind is called _______
    14. Leguminous plants fix _________ in the soil.
    15. Cod liver oil is rich in _______.
    Answer:
    1. crop
    2. Hoe
    3. stem
    4. Manure
    5. low temperature
    6. Amaranthus
    7. Harvesting
    8. Rabi
    9. rainy
    10. produce
    11. weeding
    12. Mixed cropping
    13. winnowing
    14. nitrogen
    15. Vitamin D

    III. Match the following
    Match the items given in column I suitably with those given in column II.
    Crop Production and Management Class 8 Extra Questions Science Chapter 1 1
    Answer:
    1. (g)
    2. (i)
    3. (h)
    4. (j)
    5. (e)
    6. (a)
    7. (d)
    8. (b)
    9. (f)
    10. (c)

    IV. True or False
    State whether the given statements are true or false.
    1. Rice is a kharif crop.
    2. Jute is a rabi crop.
    3. Storage of grains is not an agricultural practice.
    4. Process of levelling involves breaking down the larger lumps of soil.
    5. Levelling prevents soil erosion.
    6. The method of loosening the soil is called weeding.
    7. Putting some dried neem leaves in the drum containing grain prevents the attack by insect pests.
    8. The irrigation process destroys the soil.
    9. Kharif crops are grown during rainy season.
    10. Peas are not rabi crops.
    11. The first agricultural task is the preparation of soil.
    12. Combines are used for harvesting only.
    13. Loosening of soil allows the roots to breathe easily.
    14. Chemicals used to control rat and insects are known as pesticides.
    15. Drip irrigation system is the economical method of irrigation.
    Answer:
    1. True
    2. False
    3. False
    4. True
    5. True
    6. False
    7. True
    8. False
    9. True
    10. False
    11. True
    12. False
    13. True
    14. True
    15. True

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