CBSE Short Answer Questions
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Resource and Development
Q. 1. What is a Resource? Give two examples.
Ans. Resource refers to everything in our environment that can be used to meet our requirements, as long as it is technologically accessible, economically possible, and culturally acceptable. Coal, water, air, minerals, and so on are some examples.
Q. 2. What is the importance of natural resource? Why is it necessary to conserve them? [CBSE 2013]
Ans. Any country’s development is dependent on its resources. Fossil fuels, for example, are necessary for energy generation, while mineral resources are necessary for industrial development.
Necessary to conserve resources because:
(i) Their illogical use and excessive utilisation have led to socio-economic and environmental concerns.
(ii) The formation of natural resources takes millions of years.
(iii) Natural resources are non-renewable and are only available in finite quantities.
Q. 3. What are the ways to classify resources?
Ans. (i) On the basis of origin – biotic and abiotic.
(ii) On the basis of exhaustibility – renewable and non-renewable.
(iii) On the basis of ownership-individual, community, national and international.
(iv) On the basis of the state of development- potential, developed, and stock.
Q. 4. What is the role of humans in resource development? [CBSE 2014]
Explain the role of humans in resource development. [CBSE Sept. 2010, 2011],
Ans. (i) Human activities determine the availability of resources.
(ii) Humans use technology to engage with nature and construct institutions to help them prosper economically.
(iii) Humans convert things found in our surroundings into resources and use them.
(iv) A river, for example, is a natural resource that is turned into a resource when its water is exploited for irrigation or power generation.
Q. 5. What are renewable resources? Give two examples.
Ans. Renewable or replenishable resources are those that can be replenished or reproduced by physical, chemical, or mechanical processes. Solar and wind energy, water, forests, and wildlife, to name a few. Renewable resource can also be classified into two categories: continuous and flow.
Q. 6. What are non-renewable resources? Give two examples.
Ans. These take place over a long period of geological time. The creation of these resources takes millions of years. Some resources, such as metals, are recyclable, whereas others, such as fossil fuels, cannot be recycled and must be used up. Coal and bauxite, for example.
Q. 7. What are individual resources? Give two examples.
Ans. Individual resources are resources that are owned by private individuals. Individual resources include plots, fields, a house, a car, a book, and so on.
Q. 8. What are community-owned resources? Give two examples.
Ans. Community resources are those resources that are available to all members of the community. Community resources include village ponds, public parks, playgrounds, and so on.
Q. 9. What are national resources? Give two examples.
Ans. National resources refer to all resources that are under the control of a state or union government. Because the government has the power to take even private property, all resources inside political boundaries are considered national resources. Consider the Indian railway and the Bhakra dam.
Q.10. What are potential resources? Give two examples.
Ans. Resources discovered in a region but not exploited owing to a lack of capital or other factors. For example, the western portions of India, particularly Rajasthan and Gujarat, offer a lot of potential for wind and solar energy development, but they haven’t been effectively exploited yet.
Q.11. What are developed resources? Give two examples.
Ans. These are resources that have been assessed and their quality and quantity decided in order to be used. The development of resources is determined by technology and the degree to which they are feasible. India, for example, has a total of 2,47,847 million tonnes of coal reserves.
Q. 12. What is stock? Give two examples.
Ans. These are materials found in the environment that have the potential to meet human requirements but cannot be utilised because humans lack the technology to transform them into a usable form. Water (H20), for example, is a composite of two inflammable gases, hydrogen and oxygen, but humans lack the technology to harness it as a source of energy.
Q. 13. What are reserves? Explain with examples.
Ans. Reserves are a subset of the stock that can be put to use with the help of existing technical “know-how,” but has yet to be done so. These can be put to good use in the future. River water can be utilised to generate hydroelectric power, but it is only employed to a limited extent at the moment. As a result, the water in dams, forests, and other bodies of water is a reserve that can be used in the future.
Q. 14. “Planning of resources is very important for a country like India”. Justify by giving three reasons.
Ans. (i)The availability of resources in India is extremely diverse. Many locations have a wealth of one sort of resource but a scarcity of another.
(ii) Mineral and coal deposits abound in Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, and Madhya Pradesh, but infrastructure development is lacking.
(iii) While states like Punjab, Haryana, and Uttar Pradesh have abundant soil, they are mineral-deficient.
Q. 15. ‘The availability of resources is the only condition for the development of any region’. What is your opinion on the statement ? Explain.
Mention any three necessary conditions for the development of resources.
Ans. (i) Only when resources are accompanied by adequate technological advancements and institutional changes can they contribute to progress.
(ii) High-quality human resources, such as skilled individuals who can convert natural resources into more usable forms, are required.
(iii) There is also a requirement for funds to create technology.
Q.16. Explain the relationship between nature, technology, and institutions.
Ans. Nature contains resources. These resources are converted into usable form with the help of technology. Human beings interact with nature through technology and create institutions to accelerate their economic development.
Q.17. ‘India has enormous diversity in the availability of resources.’ Explain.
“India is rich in certain types of resources but deficient in some other resources.” Support your answer with examples. [CBSE Sept. 2012, 2014]
Ans. (i) The states of Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, and Madhya Pradesh are rich in mineral resources but lack industrialisation.
(ii) Arunachal Pradesh has an abundance of water resources but lacks in infrastructural development. The state of Rajasthan is very well endowed with solar and wind energy but lacks water resources. The cold desert area of Ladakh is relatively isolated from the rest of the country due to a lack of means of transportation and communication.
(iii) Most of the North-Eastern states are rich in natural vegetation but lacks fertile soil.
Q.18. Study the following data carefully and answer the questions that follow :
LAND FEATURES OF INDIA
Land Features Area Covered (in percentage)
(i) Plains 43%
(ii) Mountains 30%
(iii) Plateaus 27%
(i) Name the land feature which occupies the highest surface area of India.
(ii) Give two advantages of the above land feature.
Ans. (i) The plains account for 43% of India’s total surface area.
(ii) (a) Crop growing is an option on the plains.
(a) Human habitation is possible in the plains due to favourable climatic conditions.
Q.19. HOW over-irrigation and mining lead to land degradation?
How is over-irrigation responsible for land degradation? Which states of India face this problem? [CBSE 2013]
Ans. Over-irrigation and mining lead to land degradation as :
(i) Over-irrigation is responsible for land degradation due to waterlogging which leads to an increase in salinity and alkalinity in the soil. Waterlogging is a major issue in Punjab, Haryana, UR
(ii) The mineral processing like grinding of limestone for cement industry calcite and soapstone for ceramic industry generates huge quantities of dust in the atmosphere. It retards the process of infiltration of water into the soil after it settles down on the land.
Q.20. Explain the major factors which are responsible for the formation of soil. [CBSE 2009 (O), Sept. 2011]
Explain any three factors responsible for the formation of soil. [CBSE 2013]
Ans. (i) Soil formation is influenced by elements such as relief, parent rock or bedrock, climate, flora, and other types of life, as well as time.
(ii) Various natural forces, including temperature changes, running water, wind, and glaciers, decomposer activity, and so on, all contribute to the development of soil.
(iii) Both chemical and organic changes in the soil are equally essential.
(iv) Organic (humus) and inorganic materials coexist in soil.
Q.21. Mention the criteria on the basis of which Indian soils can be classified.
Ans. (i) Factors responsible for soil formation.
(vi) Chemical and Physical properties.
Q.22. Explain the distribution of alluvial soils.
Ans. (i) (i) This is India’s most widely distributed and important soil.
(ii)These soils also stretch along a limited corridor in Rajasthan and Gujarat.
(iii)Alluvial soil can also be found in the eastern coastal plains, especially in the Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, and Kaveri river deltas.
Q.23. With reference to alluvial soil answer the following questions-
(i) How is it classified on the basis of its age?
(if) Alluvial soil as a whole is very fertile. Give reasons.
Ans. (i) Bangar and Khadar are two types of alluvial soil based on their age.
(ii) Most of these soils have a sufficient amount of potash, phosphoric acid, and lime.
Q.24. Explain the distribution of black soil.
Ans. (i) The Deccan trap region, which spans the northwest Deccan plateau, is known for its black soil.
(ii) They span Maharashtra, Saurashtra, Malwa, Madhya Pradesh, and Chhattisgarh’s plateaus.
(iii) They can also be found in the Krishna and Godavari valleys.
Q.25. Which soil is considered ideal for growing cotton? How is the soil formed?
Ans. Black soil. These soils have been formed due to the weathering of the lava spread over large areas during volcanic activity in the Deccan Plateau and different climatic conditions.
Q.26. (I) Which soils develop on crystalline igneous rocks?
(ii) Why do the soils develop a reddish colour?
(iii) Name any two states where this soil is found.
Ans. (i) Red soil
(ii)Due to the diffusion of iron crystalline and metamorphic rocks, the soils take on a crimson hue.
(iii) Odisha and Chhattisgarh
Q.27. Mention the factors on which the land-use pattern of India depends upon. [CBSE Sept. 2012]
Ans. Land usage is influenced by both physical and human causes.
(i) Topography, climate, and soil types are all physical influences.
(ii) Human factors: density of population, technological capability, culture, and customs.
Q.28. (i) ‘Humus content of the laterite soil is very low.’ Explain by giving two reasons.
(ii) Mention any two crops associated with the soil.
Ans. (i) (a) The soil is created as a result of heavy leaching. As a result, strong rains wash away the soil’s nutrients.
(b) Soil is created in high-temperature environments. As a result, the majority of microorganisms, particularly decomposers like bacteria, are eliminated.
(ii) Tea and Coffee.
Q.29. (i) ‘The arid soil lacks humus and moisture.’ Explain.
(ii) Name any two states where this soil is formed.
Ans. (i) Arid soil is found in areas where the climate is dry. Evaporation occurs faster due to the dry climate and high temperatures, and the soil lacks humus and moisture.
(ii) Rajasthan and Gujarat
Q.30. What is soil erosion? Name any four states which have been affected by gully erosion.
Ans. The removal of dirt by natural factors such as wind and water is known as. Erosion of the soil Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, and Rajasthan are all states in India.
Q.31. HOW does the soil of the Ganga-Yamuna plain differ from that of central Maharashtra ?
Ans. The Ganga-Yamuna plain is characterised by alluvial soils, whereas central Maharashtra is characterised by black soils. Alluvial soils are formed by rivers depositing sediment in river valleys, flood plains, and deltas. Black soils are formed by lava flows from volcanic rocks.
Q.32. What are the causes of soil erosion in : (I) Shiwaliks or the Outer Himalayas.
(ii) North-Eastern parts of India.
(iii) Arid regions of India.
Ans. (i) Shiwaliks or the Outer Himalayas :
In steep locations, vegetation destruction is the primary source of soil erosion because when vegetation is eliminated, the soil surface loosens and is more easily removed by flowing water.
(i) Soil erosion is a problem in India’s north-eastern states, where heavy rainfall causes regular floods.
(iii) India’s arid regions: Wind is the most effective driver of soil erosion in deserts and dry regions with little or no vegetation, moving small sand particles away and depositing them in other areas, rendering both areas barren.
Q.33. What are the differences between the alluvial soil found in the upper course of rivers and that found in die lower courses?
Q.34. Which is the main cause of land degradation in Gujarat, Rajasthan, and Madhya Pradesh? How can it be checked? Explain.[CBSE 2012]
Ans. Large scale over-grazing has caused severe land degradation.
Measures to check :
(i)Aforestation and proper management of grazing.
(ii)Planting of shelter belts.
(iii)Stabilisation of sand dunes by growing thorny bushes.
(iv) Control on overgrazing.