NCERT Extra Questions for Class 6 Social Science History Chapter 9 Vital Villages, Thriving Towns
What was being done by Prabhakar?
Prabhakar sat watching the smiths at the local shop.
Which things and steps helped in increasing production to the man?
Answer: New tools and transplantation increased production. Irrigation was also used. Irrigation works that were built during this time (before 600 B.C.) included canals, wells, tanks and artificial lakes.
What are Jatakas?
The Jatakas were stories that were probably composed by ordinary people and then written down and preserved by Buddhist monks.
Explain the meaning of the term: Tamil-Brahmi inscriptions.
Several pieces of pottery have inscriptions in the early Brahmi script, which was used to write Tamil. These are called Tamil-Brahmi inscriptions.
Vital Villages, Thriving Towns Class 6 Extra Questions Short Answer Type
Discuss the scene of a smith’s shop.
- At shop of the smith we can see a small bench on which tools are laid out, ready for sale.
- We can also see a bright fire burning and two men heating and beating metal rods into shape.
- It is generally very hot and noisy and yet it is fascinating to watch what is happening.
Discuss in a short paragraph ‘Iron Tools and Agriculture’.
- We generally take the use of iron for granted today. In fact different types of things made of iron (as well as steel) are a part of our daily lives.
- The use of iron began in Indian subcontinent around 3000 years ago.
- Some of the largest collections of iron tools and weapons were found in the megalithic burials.
- There is evidence for the growing use of iron tools. These included axes for clearing the land and the ploughshare was useful for increasing agricultural production.
What do you mean by the term Sangam literature? Why are these called Sangam?
1. Meaning. Some of the earliest works in Tamil are known as Sangam literature. I These texts were composed around 2300 years ago.
2. Cause of being called Sangam. These texts are called Sangam because they were composed and compiled in assemblies (known as Sangam) of poets that were held in the city of Madurai.
What do you understand by the term ‘Punch marked coins’? Explain in brief.
Early coins. Archaeologists have found several thousands of coins belonging to this early ancient period of ancient India. The earliest coins which were in use for about 500 years were Punch marked coins. They have been given this name because the designs were punched on to the metal, silver or copper.
Coins were used as medium of exchange. But we should remember that coins were not only means of exchange. Other articles such as paddy, salt and some animals were also used as means of exchange.
Discuss the Northern Black Polished Ware or NBP Ware of the early centuries of the ancient India.
- We have archaeological evidences for crafts of ancient India. These include extremely fine pottery, known as the Northern Black Polished Ware (or NBP Ware in short form).
- The Northern Black Polished Ware gets its name from the fact that it is generally found in the northern part of the subcontinent. It is usually black in colour and has a fine sheen (illustration).
- We can see and can give as an example of the Rampurwa Bull in this regard. This was part of a Mauryan pillar and has now been placed in Rashtrapati Bhawan (New Delhi). It is a good example of the skill of the sculptures of the time.
Explain in brief the role or functions of the Shrenis (guilds) in the Mauryan Age.
- Many crafts persons and merchants now formed associations known as Shrenis.
- Shrenis of crafts persons provided training, procured raw material and distributed the finished product.
- Shrenis of merchants organized trade.
- Shrenis also served as banks, where rich men and women deposited money. This was invested and part of the interest was returned or used to support religious institutions such as monasteries.
Write important historical events related with the following’ dates:
- About 3000 years ago
- About 2500 years ago
- About 2000 years ago
- Between 2000 and 1900 years ago
|1. About 3000 years ago||Beginning of the use of iron in the subcontinent.|
|2. About 2500 years ago||Increase in the use of iron, cities, Punch marked coins.|
|3. About 2000 years ago||Beginning of the composition of Sangam literature.|
|4. Between 2000 and 1900 years ago||Settlement in Arikamedu.|
Vital Villages, Thriving Towns Class 6 Extra Questions Long Answer Type
Who lived in the villages in the subcontinent before and during the age of the Buddha?
Inhabitants in the Villages
1. There were at least three different kinds of people living in most of the villages in the southern and northern parts of the subcontinent.
2. (a) In the Tamil region, large landowners were known as Vellalar,
(b) Ordinary ploughmen were known as Uzhavar, and
(c) Landless labourers including slaves, were known as Kadaisiyar and Adimai.
3. (a) In the northern part of India, the village headman was known as the Grama bhojaka. Usually, men from the same family held the positions for generations. In other words, the post was hereditary. The Gramabhojaka was often the largest landowner. Generally, he had slaves and hired workers to cultivate the land.
Besides, as he was powerful, the king often used him to collect taxes from the village. He also functioned as a judge and sometimes as a policeman.
(b) Apart from the gramabhojaka, there were other independent farmers, known as
Grihapatis, most of whom were smaller landowners.
(c) And then there were men and women such as the dasa karmakara, who did not own land and had to earn a living working on the field of others.
4. In the most villages there were also some crafts persons such as the blacksmith, potter, carpenter and weaver.
How do we find out about early cities of subcontinent?
We find out about early cities of the subcontinent through the following:
- Stories or collection of ancient stories,
- Description of travellers and sailors,
- Sculpture, and
1. Stories. The Jatakas were stories that were probably composed by ordinary people and then written down and preserved by Buddhist monks. The Jatakas throw sufficient light on the lives of the people who used to like these.
2. Travellers and sailors. Another way of finding out about early cities is from the accounts of sailors and travellers who visited them. One of the most detailed accounts that has been found was by an unknown Greek sailor. He described all the ports he visited.
3. Sculptures. We can use other kinds of evidences to find out about life in some of these early cities. Sculptures carved scenes depicting peoples’ lives in towns and villages, as well as in the forests. Many of these sculptures were used to decorate railings, pillars and gateways of buildings that were visited by people. For example, we can see Sanchi, for a site with stupas, in Madhya Pradesh. This place shows us some beautiful scenes in that city.
4. Archaeologists. In many early cities, archaeologists have found rows of pots or ceramic rings arranged one on top of the other. We have been pointed out some ring wells by the archaeologists in early cities. These (ring wells) seem to have been used as toilets in some cases, and as drains and garbage dumps. These ring wells are usually found in individual houses. We have hardly any remains of palaces, markets or of homes of ordinary people. Perhaps some remain to be discovered by archaeologists. Others made of wood, mud brick and thatch, may not have survived.
Describe functions performed in early cities like Mathura.
Generally, some cities were considered important for a variety of reasons (or variety of functions performed in them). Let us look at the example of Mathura.
- It has been an important settlement for more than 2500 years.
- Farmers and herders from adjoining areas provided food for people in the city, which was located at the cross roads of two major routes of communication, from the northwest to north and east and from north to south.
- There were fortifications around the city and several shrines.
- Mathura was also a centre where some extremely fine sculpture was produced.
- Around 2000 years ago Mathura became the second capital of the Kushanas (remember their first capital was Purshpur or modern Peshawar in Pakistan).
- Mathura was also a religious centre – there were Buddhist monasteries. Jain shrines and it was an important centre for worship of Lord Krishna.
Several inscriptions on surfaces such as stone, slabs, statues, have been found in Mathura. Generally, these are short inscriptions, recording gifts made by men and women to monasteries and shrines. These were made by kings and queens, officers, merchants and crafts persons who lived in the city. For example, inscriptions from Mathura mention goldsmiths, blacksmiths, weavers, basket makers, garland makers, perfumers.
Explain in short the main features of Arikamedu settlement.
- This is located in Pondicherry. Between 2200 and 1900 years ago, this site was a coastal settlement.
- A massive brick structure, which may have been a warehouse, was found at the site.
- Other finds (of Arikamedu) include pottery from the Mediterranean region, such as amphorae (tall double-handled jars that contained liquids such as wine or oil) and stamped red-glazed pottery, known as Arretine Ware, which was named after a city in Italy (or ancient Roman Empire). This was made by pressing which was made locally though Roman designs were used.
- Roman lamps, glassware and gems have also been found at the site (i.e., Arikamedu).
- Small tanks have been found that were probably dyeing vats, used to dye cloth.
- There is plenty of evidence for the making of beads from semi-precious stones and glass.
Vital Villages, Thriving Towns Class 6 Extra Questions Multiple Choice Questions
Choose the correct answer:
When did the use of iron begin in subcontinents?
(a) Around 3,000 years ago
(b) Around 6,000 years ago
(c) Around 9,000 years ago
(d) Around 12,000 years ago
Around 3,000 years ago
What was the method of irrigation in ancient time?
(d) All of these
All of these
In which region landowners were known as Vellalars?
(a) Maharashtra region
(b) Punjab region
(c) Tamil region
(d) None of these
Who were grama bhojaka?
(a) Village head men
(b) Ordinary people of village
(c) Educated persons
(d) illiterate persons
Village head men
People who had no land of their own and worked for others were
(a) Independent farmers
(b) Dasa Saramakaras
What was the only resource of poor man in the story clever poor man?
(a) Dead rats
(b) Dead dogs
(c) Dead goats
(d) None of these
Where was ring well found?
Why were the sculptures used by the ancient cities?
(a) To decorate railings, pillars etc.
(b) To decorate cities
(c) None of these
(d) Both (a) and (b)
Both (a) and (b)
Where was salt produced plentifully along?
What was ring well used for?
(b) Washing cloths
Why was Mathura famous for?
(a) Religious centre
(b) Forested area
(d) All of these