Table of Contents

## Introduction to Central Tendency

centre tendency is a key notion in statistics that helps us comprehend the centre or typical value of a dataset. It enables us to condense enormous volumes of data into a single representative number, making it easier to analyse and compare various data sets. Because it gives useful insights into the general distribution of data, central tendency is vital for researchers, analysts, and decision-makers in a variety of domains.

### Definition of central tendency

The statistical metric that captures the centre or average value of a dataset is known as central tendency. It is a metric that data points tend to cluster around. When dealing with a large number of observations, the idea of central tendency helps us to discover a balance or a centre point in the data.

### Measures of central tendency:

Central tendency measures are numerical indicators that are used to determine the centre or average of a dataset. These measurements assist us in understanding the data’s typical or primary value. The following are the three basic measurements of central tendency:.

Mean, median and Mode with examples

#### Mean:

The **mean**, also known as the arithmetic mean, is calculated by adding up all the values in a dataset and then dividing the sum by the number of data points. The formula for the mean is:

Mean = (Sum of all values) / (Number of data points)

Example:

Consider a dataset of exam scores: 75, 80, 90, 65, and 85.

Mean = (75 + 80 + 90 + 65 + 85) / 5 = 79

#### Median:

The **median** is the middle value of a dataset when the data points are arranged in ascending or descending order. If there is an even number of data points, the median is calculated as the average of the two middle values.

Example:

Consider a dataset of exam scores: 75, 80, 90, 65, 85, and 70.

Arranged in ascending order: 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90.

Median = (75 + 80) / 2 = 77.5

#### Mode:

The **mode** is the value that appears most frequently in a dataset. A dataset may have one mode (unimodal), more than one mode (multimodal), or no mode at all (no mode).

Example:

Consider a dataset of exam scores: 75, 80, 90, 65, 85, 80, and 70.

The mode is 80 as it appears twice, while other values appear only once.

### Relation between the mean, median and mode

In a moderately skewed distribution, the mean, median, and mode have a relationship that may be written as:

**3(Mean – Median) = Mean – Mode**

According to this connection, the difference between the mean and mode is around three times the difference between the mean and median. However, this relationship is only valid for particular datasets with modest skewness and may not be applicable in other circumstances.

### Measures of central tendency and dispersion

measurements of central tendency, such as **mean, median, and mode**, complement measurements of dispersion, such as range, variance, and standard deviation. Dispersion measurements assess the spread or variability of data points around the central value, whereas central tendency helps us identify the centre of the data.

## Frequently asked questions on Measures of central tendency

### What are the four types of central tendency?

The four forms of central tendency measurements are mean, median, mode, and midrange. These statistical measurements give a single representative value around which data points tend to cluster, revealing information about the dataset's centre and usual value.

### What is 1 measure of central tendency?

The mean is one measure of central tendency. The mean is computed by adding up all of the values in a dataset and then dividing the total by the number of data points. It represents the average value and is sensitive to data outliers.

### What is the formula for central tendency?

Three basic measurements are commonly used to describe central tendency: mean, median, and mode. The following are the formulae for each measure: Mean is defined as (sum of all values) / (number of data points). Median is the median value when an odd number of data points are sorted in ascending or descending order. Median = (Middle value + Next middle value) / 2 for an even number of data points. Mode: The most often occurring value in the collection. One mode (unimodal), numerous modes (multimodal), or no mode (no repeated values) may exist.

### Which central tendency is best?

The optimum measure of central tendency is determined by the qualities of the data and the context of the investigation. For data with a symmetric distribution and no severe outliers, the mean is adequate. It is typically used for data with interval or ratio scales. The median is appropriate for skewed distributions or datasets including outliers. It is resistant to extreme values and is commonly used for ordinal data. Individual values represent different categories in categorical or nominal data, hence the mode is relevant.

### What is the central tendency with an example?

The central tendency is a metric that indicates a dataset's usual or centre value. To demonstrate the notion of central tendency, consider the following example: Consider the following test scores: 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95, 100, 100, 100, 100. (70 + 75 + 80 + 85 + 90 + 95 + 100 + 100 + 100 + 100 + 100) / 10 = 90 Because there are ten data points, the median is the average of the fifth and sixth values (in descending order): (90 + 95) / 2 = 92.5 is the median. The mode is the most common value in the dataset, which is 100, and it appears four times.

### What is the mean, median, mode

The mean of a dataset is the arithmetic average derived by summing all values and dividing by the total number of data points. The median is the middle value in an ascending or descending order dataset, or the average of two middle values in an even-sized dataset. The mode is the most frequent value in a dataset, signifying the most common observation.

### Why is median is better than mean?

Because it is less impacted by severe outliers, skewed distributions, or non-normal data, the median is frequently favoured over the mean. It is excellent for skewed datasets because it gives a more robust measure of central tendency by reflecting the intermediate value and avoids distortion from extreme values.

### What are the uses of mode?

The mode has a variety of applications in statistics and data analysis. It aids in the identification of the most frequent value in a dataset, making it useful for dealing with categorical data, imputing missing values, examining data distribution, quality control, and pattern spotting in huge datasets

### Why is the mode important?

The mode is significant because it determines the most common value in a dataset, revealing core trends and data patterns. It may be used to handle categorical data, fill in missing values, analyse data distribution, regulate quality, and make educated judgements based on common occurrences.