BiographyBrahmagupta Biography

Brahmagupta Biography

Brahmagupta (c. 598 – c. 668 CE) was an Indian mathematician and astronomer. He wrote two significant works: the Brāhmasphuṭasiddhānta (BSS) in 628 CE, which is a theoretical text, and the Khaṇḍakhādyaka in 665 CE, a more practical guide.

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    In 628 CE, Brahmagupta first described gravity as an attractive force, using the Sanskrit term “gurutvākarṣaṇam (गुरुत्वाकर्षणम्)” to explain it. He is also credited with the first clear description of the quadratic formula in his main work, the Brāhmasphuṭasiddhānta.

    Also Check: Aryabhatta Biography

    Who is Brahmagupta?

    Brahmagupta was an ancient Indian mathematician and astronomer who lived from 598 to 668 CE. He resided in Bhillamāla in Gurjaradesa, which is now Bhinmal in Rajasthan, India. Born to Jishnugupta and a follower of Hinduism, Brahmagupta spent most of his life in this region.

    Brahmagupta is considered one of the most influential mathematicians of his era. His contributions span algebra, arithmetic, and geometry. He is best known for his works, “Brahmasphutasiddhanta” and “Khandakhadyaka,” comprehensive treatises on mathematics and astronomy.

    Brahmagupta Biography

    Brahmagupta was the first mathematician to develop formulas for the area of a cyclic quadrilateral, now known as the Brahmagupta formula. He also provided guidelines for calculating with zero. His works, written in Sanskrit verse, have had a lasting impact on the field of mathematics.

    Brahmagupta Biography

    Bhillamala was the capital of Gurjaradesa, a region in what is now southern Jaipur and north Gujarat. It was an important center for arithmetic and astronomical research. During this period, Brahmagupta became a prominent astronomer of the Brahmaraksha tradition, one of India’s four major astronomical schools. Brahmagupta mathematician, introduced a lot of new ideas and information into his work.

    Brahmagupta books, divided into 24 sections and containing 1008 Arya poems, covers various mathematical topics such as arithmetic, trigonometry, geometry, and algorithms. Many of these concepts are credited to Brahmagupta himself. Brahmagupta studied the writings of notable scholars like Aryabhata I, Pradyumna, Latadeva, Varahamihira, Srisena, Simha, and Vijayanandan, along with Vishnuchandra and the five traditional Indian astrological Siddhantas. His work, including the famous Brahmagupta formula, has made significant contributions to mathematics.

    Brahmagupta Biography: Early life

    Brahmagupta was born in 598 CE. He lived in Bhillamala, now Bhinmal, in Rajasthan, during the reign of the Chavda dynasty ruler, Vyagrahamukha. Brahmagupta, known as a Bhillamalacharya or the teacher from Bhillamala, was dedicated to discovering new concepts. Bhillamala was the capital of Gurjaradesa, a significant region in West India, which included parts of modern southern Rajasthan and northern Gujarat. It was also a center for mathematics and astronomy studies.

    Brahmagupta studied the five classic Siddhantas of Indian astronomy and the works of other astronomers like Aryabhata I, Latadeva, Pradyumna, Varahamihira, Simha, Srisena, Vijayanandin, and Vishnuchandra. At the age of 30, Brahmagupta authored the Brahmasphutasiddhanta, a revised version of the Siddhanta of the Brahmapaksha school of astronomy.

    Brahmagupta book contains significant teachings in mathematics, including algebra, geometry, trigonometry, and algorithms, featuring new concepts credited to Brahmagupta himself. At 67, he wrote Khandakhadyaka, a practical guide to Indian astronomy for students. This Brahmagupta information highlights his contributions as a renowned Brahmagupta mathematician. The Brahmagupta formula, which he developed, remains a significant part of his legacy.

    Contribution of Brahmagupta in Mathematics

    Brahmagupta, an influential Indian mathematician, established the properties of the number zero, which were crucial for the advancement of mathematics and science. Here are some key contributions by Brahmagupta:

    • When we subtract a number from itself, we get zero.
    • Dividing any number by zero results in zero.
    • Zero divided by zero equals zero.
    • Brahmagupta developed a formula for solving quadratic problems.
    • He estimated the value of pi as 3.162, slightly higher than the true value of 3.14.
    • He calculated that the Earth is closer to the moon than to the sun.
    • He discovered a formula for finding the area of any four-sided shape with corners touching the interior of a circle, known as the Brahmagupta formula.
    • Brahmagupta determined that a year is 365 days, 6 hours, 12 minutes, and 9 seconds long.
    • He mentioned the concept of gravity, stating that bodies fall towards the Earth because it attracts them, similar to how water flows.
    • Brahmagupta invented rules for working with positive and negative numbers:
      • Adding a negative number to another negative number gives a negative result.
      • Subtracting a negative number from a positive number is like adding the two numbers.
      • Multiplying two negative numbers results in a positive number.

    Contributions Brahmagupta to Science and Astrology

    Brahmagupta, a renowned Indian mathematician, made significant contributions to science and astrology. He argued that the Earth and the universe are spherical, not flat. He was the first to use mathematics to predict the positions of planets and the timings of lunar and solar eclipses. These findings were major scientific advancements at the time. Brahmagupta also calculated the length of the solar year to be 365 days, 5 minutes, and 19 seconds, very close to the current measurement of 365 days, 5 hours, and 19 seconds. He mentioned gravity, explaining, “Bodies fall toward the Earth because it is in the Earth’s nature to attract them, just as water attracts objects.”

    Brahmasphutasiddhanta by Brahmagupta

    At 30, Brahmagupta wrote his most famous work, the Brahmasphutasiddhanta, in 628 AD. Brahmagupta book, meaning “The Correctly Established Doctrine of Brahma,” is divided into twenty-five chapters and contains 1008 Sanskrit verses. It includes many of his original studies and calculations.

    While much of the Brahmagupta books focuses on astronomy, it also covers a wide range of mathematical topics such as algorithms, trigonometry, geometry, and algebra. The book explains the importance of zero, rules for working with positive and negative numbers, and formulas for solving linear and quadratic equations. Brahmagupta also reinforced his belief that the Earth is spherical, countering the prevalent flat Earth theory of his time.

    Contributions Brahmagupta Astronomy

    Brahmagupta’s work in astronomy reached the Arabs through the Brahmasphutasiddhanta. In 770 AD, the Caliph of Baghdad, Al-Mansur, invited Kankah, a scholar from Ujjain, to explain Indian astronomical theories. Kankah used Brahmagupta’s book to teach the Hindu methods of mathematical astronomy. At the Caliph’s request, Muhammad al-Fazari translated Brahmagupta’s work into Arabic.

    Brahmagupta made many contributions to astronomy, including methods for calculating the positions of celestial bodies, their rise and set times, and the prediction of lunar and solar eclipses. He explained that the moon’s illumination varies based on its position relative to the sun, which can be calculated using the angle between them. Brahmagupta also challenged the Puranic belief in a flat Earth, observing instead that both the Earth and the sky are round and that the Earth is in motion.

    Achievements of Brahmagupta

    Brahmagupta, an Indian mathematician and astronomer, made significant contributions to mathematics and astronomy. Here are some key achievements of Brahmagupta:

    • Defining Zero: Brahmagupta defined the properties of zero, a critical development for mathematics and science. This had a profound impact on algebra and other mathematical fields.
    • Quadratic Equations: He discovered a formula to solve quadratic equations, now known as the Brahmagupta formula.
    • Trigonometry Formulas: Brahmagupta developed important trigonometric formulas, including those for sine and cosine.
    • Value of Pi: He calculated the value of pi to be approximately 3.162, close to the actual value.
    • Area of Quadrilaterals: He found a formula to calculate the area of any four-sided figure whose corners touch the inside of a circle, another important Brahmagupta formula.
    • Length of a Year: Brahmagupta calculated the length of a year to be 365 days, 6 hours, 12 minutes, and 9 seconds.
    • Earth’s Shape and Circumference: He proved that the Earth is a sphere and calculated its circumference to be around 36,000 km (22,500 miles).
    • Astronomy: Brahmagupta made significant contributions to astronomy by developing methods for calculating the positions of planets and other celestial objects.

    The achievements of Brahmagupta had a lasting influence on the study of mathematics and science in India and around the world. As a renowned Brahmagupta mathematician, his work continues to be celebrated for its impact on various scientific fields.

    Why is Zero Important?

    Brahmagupta, a pioneering Indian mathematician, introduced principles for mathematical operations involving zero and negative numbers in his book, Brahmasphutasiddhanta. This work was the first to define how zero and negative integers should be used in calculations. Zero is a crucial concept in mathematics and is fundamental to our number system.

    Here are some reasons why zero is important:

    • Arithmetic Operations: Zero plays a key role in arithmetic. Adding or subtracting zero from a number leaves the number unchanged. Multiplying any number by zero results in zero. Dividing by zero is undefined, emphasizing its unique role in mathematics.
    • Placeholder: Zero acts as a placeholder in our number system, allowing us to represent numbers of different sizes. For example, without zero, writing the number 102 would be impossible.
    • Calculus and Infinities: Zero is important in studying infinities. It serves as a starting point for the concept of “approaching zero,” which is essential in calculus for defining limits and derivatives.
    • Symbolic Representation: Zero is also crucial in symbolic representation, where it is used as a placeholder, a coefficient, and a starting point for various mathematical functions.

    Brahmagupta mathematician laid the foundation for these concepts with his Brahmagupta formula, highlighting the significance of zero in mathematics.

    Brahmagupta Death

    It is believed that Brahmagupta died between 660 and 670 CE, with many sources suggesting he lived until 668 CE. Brahmagupta is considered one of the greatest Indian mathematicians of all time. His contributions to mathematics and science have had a significant impact, establishing fundamental rules that help solve many mathematical problems today. The period around Brahmagupta death marks the end of a remarkable era of scientific advancement.

    FAQs on Brahmagupta Biography

    Where was Brahmagupta born and when?

    Brahmagupta was born in 597 AD in the town of Bhinmal, Rajasthan.

    What is Brahmagupta's other name?

    Brahmagupta was referred to by Bhaskara II, his successor at Ujjain, as the 'ganak-chakra-churamani,' meaning the gem of the circle of mathematicians.

    What was Brahmagupta's occupation?

    Brahmagupta was the superintendent of the observatory in Ujjain, a major center for ancient Indian mathematical astrology. Among Brahmagupta's books, the most well-known is the Brahmasphutasiddhanta, which covers both astronomy and mathematics.

    What did Brahmagupta discover?

    In chapter eighteen of his Brahmasphutasiddhanta, he provided a solution for the general linear equation. He also offered two equivalent solutions for the general quadratic equation. The Brahmasphutasiddhanta is the first book to outline rules for arithmetic operations involving zero and negative numbers. His most famous geometric result is the Brahmagupta formula for calculating the area of cyclic quadrilaterals.

    When did Brahmagupta die?

    Brahmagupta passed away in 668 AD.

    What were Brahmagupta's contributions to mathematics?

    He provided solutions for general linear and quadratic equations. His book, Brahmasphutasiddhanta, introduced rules for using zero and negative numbers in arithmetic. He is renowned for his geometric work, especially the Brahmagupta formula for cyclic quadrilaterals. Brahmagupta's work also touched on the concept of gravity, explaining that bodies fall towards the Earth due to its attraction, similar to how water flows.

    Who Invented Zero Aryabhatta or Brahmagupta?

    Aryabhata, a renowned Indian mathematician and astronomer from the 5th century AD, made important contributions to the development of mathematical ideas, including the concept of zero. While Brahmagupta later formalized the mathematical rules for zero, Aryabhata's work provided the foundation for these advancements.

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