Study MaterialsNCERT Exemplar SolutionsClass 11BiologyNutrition In Living Organisms & Modes Of Nutrition

Nutrition In Living Organisms & Modes Of Nutrition

In its simplest form, nutrition is all about having a balanced diet on a regular basis. Eating right is essential for your body’s functioning. The food you consume provides the necessary nutrients for your brain, muscles, bones, nerves, skin, blood, and immune system to stay in good shape.

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    What is Nutrition?

    Nutrition is how living things eat food and use the good stuff in the food. Nutrition is when you eat food and your body changes it into energy and important stuff your body needs. When you eat, your body takes in the useful parts of the food. The important things in food are carbs, fat, protein, vitamins, minerals, and fiber.

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    Different Types of Nutrition Sources

    Carbohydrates or Carbs: Carbs are like the body’s fuel. They give you energy in the form of glucose, which is a simple sugar. Your body can use this energy right away, or it stores it in muscles and the liver for later. Carbs not only keep your mood stable but also help in building muscles, reducing muscle fatigue, and supporting your brain and body functions.

    Proteins: Think of proteins as your body’s builders. They’re made up of amino acids and play a crucial role in building, repairing, and maintaining your muscles and other body tissues. Proteins also help in preventing muscle loss, making you feel full, building lean muscle, boosting your metabolism, and keeping your bones strong.

    Fats: Fats act as a source of energy for your body. They also help in absorbing many important vitamins. Besides, fats are like bodyguards, protecting your vital organs and keeping your blood pressure and cholesterol levels in check.

    Vitamins: Vitamins are like tiny helpers that your body needs in small amounts to function properly and stay healthy. They ensure your muscles stay strong, support healthy aging, strengthen your bones, keep your heart healthy, and boost your immune system.

    Minerals: These are essential nutrients that play multiple roles in your body. Minerals help in building strong bones, muscles, and teeth. They also keep your brain sharp and assist in producing important hormones and enzymes.

    Fiber: Fiber is like the cleaner for your digestive system. It helps in digestion, controls cholesterol and blood sugar levels, and keeps your bowel movements regular.

    Water: Water is your body’s best friend. It does so much more than just quenching your thirst. It helps in absorbing essential vitamins and minerals, maintaining your body temperature, producing necessary bodily fluids, and flushing out waste products.


    Vitamin Sources

    Vitamin A (Retinol): Found in cheese, eggs, oily fish, sweet potatoes, dark leafy greens, milk, yoghurt, cantaloupe, mango, tomatoes, and black-eyed peas.

    Vitamin B1 (Thiamin): Can be found in nuts, whole grain bread, some fortified breakfast cereals, fish, beans, lentils, green peas, raisins, bananas, and oranges.

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    Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin): Present in milk, eggs, mushrooms, plain yoghurt, salmon, chicken breast, almonds, spinach, and fortified tofu.

    Vitamin B3 (Niacin): Available in tuna, salmon, peanuts, brown rice, avocado, mushrooms, whole wheat, potatoes, bananas, mangoes, legumes, red meat, and pumpkin seeds.

    Vitamin B4 (Adenine): Found in capsicum, raw honey, jojoba, whole grains, whole wheat bread, strawberries, hawthorne, ginger, apples, and cloves.

    Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic Acid): Can be found in avocados, salmon, guavas, grapefruit, whole milk, low-fat yoghurts, lentils, nuts, seeds, oats, and brown rice.

    Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine): Present in chickpeas, bananas, fish, oranges, cantaloupe, dark leafy greens, papayas, cauliflower, peas, spinach, and ladyfinger.

    Vitamin B7 (Biotin): Available in peas, beans, and lentils, nuts and seeds, broccoli, bananas, mushrooms, egg yolks, pork, avocados, raspberries, and cauliflower.

    Vitamin B8 (Inositol): Found in whole grains, brown rice, beans, nuts, wheat bran, cantaloupe, raisins, bananas, dried prunes, barley, oranges, oatmeal, and peas.

    Vitamin B9 (Folate): Present in dark green leafy vegetables, eggs, lettuce, grapefruit, seafood, lemons, whole grains, beans, peanuts, mangoes, oranges, and sweet corn.

    Also Check: Anaerobic Respiration

    Vitamin B10 or Vitamin Bx (Para Amino Benzoic Acid – PABA): Can be found in green leafy vegetables, yoghurt, mushrooms, whole grains, wheat germ, molasses, eggs, brewer’s yeast, cereals, rice, bran, potatoes, fish, and nuts.

    Vitamin B11 (Salicylic Acid): Available in egg yolk, potatoes, meat, green leafy vegetables, poultry, whole-wheat bread, and cheese.

    Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin): Found in cheese, meat, fortified soymilk, cereals, eggs, seafood, and fortified tofu, low-fat dairy, and fortified breakfast cereals.

    Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid): Present in cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, cabbage, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, white potatoes, bell peppers, citrus fruits like oranges, lemon, kiwi, grapefruit, strawberries, and tomatoes.

    Vitamin D (Calciferol): Can be found in whole eggs, oily fish like salmon and sardines, mushrooms, fortified milk, cereals, oatmeal, and yoghurt.

    Vitamin E (Tocopherol): Found in wheat germ oil, soybean oil, pumpkin, beet greens, peanuts, collard greens, spinach, almonds, and red bell pepper.

    Vitamin K1 (Phylloquinone) and Vitamin K2 (Menaquinone): Present in spinach, cabbage, milk, eggs, kale, broccoli, cheese, curds, natto, cereal grains, and vegetable oils.

    Mineral Sources

    Calcium: Milk, yogurt, cheese, spinach, kale, tofu, chickpeas, and fortified plant-based milk or juices.

    Potassium: Beans, avocado, kiwi, banana, beet greens, fish, nuts, spinach, and potatoes.

    Magnesium: Beans, nuts, seeds, whole grains, fish, chicken, melons, figs, papayas, and fortified cereals.

    Also Check: CBSE Syllabus for Class 10

    Type of Nutrition

    Autotrophic Mode: The way an organism makes its own food is called autotrophic nutrition.

    Heterotrophic Mode

    Animals and plants that can’t make their own food are called heterotrophs. They have to find food from other sources. In nature, heterotrophs usually eat other living things, like plants or other animals. This means they’re usually secondary or tertiary consumers in a food chain.

    Types of Heterotrophic Nutrition

    • Holozoic Nutrition: Holozoic nutrition is when an organism eats and digests both solid and liquid food inside its body. This happens in several steps: first, the organism takes in food (ingestion), then it breaks down the food into simpler substances (digestion). After that, it absorbs the useful parts of the food (absorption) and uses them for its own body functions (assimilation). Finally, any waste or leftover parts of the food are expelled from the body (excretion).For example, when you eat food, you’re practicing holozoic nutrition. Your body takes in the food, breaks it down in your stomach and intestines, absorbs the nutrients, and then gets rid of the waste.Many animals, including humans and other vertebrates, follow holozoic nutrition. Even some tiny, single-celled organisms like amoebas do it too.
    • Saprophytic Nutrition: Saprophytes are creatures that get their food from dead and rotting things. They play a big role in keeping nature tidy and putting important nutrients back into the environment. Examples of saprophytes include fungi and some bacteria. They’re the reason why bread and other foods go stale. Saprophytes produce special substances called enzymes. These enzymes help break down complex stuff into simpler parts that the saprophytes can eat easily.
    • Parasitic Nutrition: Organisms that live inside or on other organisms and get their food from the host are called parasites. Most parasites harm the health of their host; sometimes, they can even kill them. Both animals and plants can be hosts. Unlike commensalism, parasites cause harm to their hosts. Some examples of parasites are lice on a human head, the Cuscuta plant, and tapeworms.Cymothoa exigua is a strange parasite. It’s also called the tongue-eating louse, and that name fits because it’s found in the mouth of a marine fish called Lithognathus. It basically cuts off the fish’s tongue, stopping the blood supply and making the tongue fall off. Then, the louse attaches itself to what’s left of the tongue and becomes the fish’s new tongue.

    Nutrition FAQs

    What are the 7 types of nutrition?

    The seven types of nutrition are carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals, fiber, and water.

    What is nutrition in words?

    Nutrition refers to the process of providing or obtaining the food necessary for health and growth.

    Why is nutrition important?

    Nutrition is vital because it provides the body with essential nutrients needed for energy, growth, repair, and overall well-being.

    What is nutrition biology?

    Nutrition biology is the study of how living organisms acquire and utilize nutrients for survival, growth, and reproduction.

    What are 10 nutritious foods?

    Nutritious foods include fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins such as chicken or fish, nuts, seeds, legumes, dairy products, healthy fats like avocado or olive oil, and lean meats.

    What are the 5 main types of nutrition?

    The five main types of nutrition are autotrophic nutrition, heterotrophic nutrition, saprophytic nutrition, parasitic nutrition, and holozoic nutrition.

    What is nutrition for example?

    Nutrition for example involves consuming a balanced diet consisting of fruits, vegetables, grains, proteins, and fats to maintain good health and energy levels.

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