Table of Contents

**Specific Gravity Formula**

**Introduction:**

Specific gravity is a measurement that compares the density of a substance to the density of a reference substance, usually water. It provides a relative indication of how dense or light a substance is compared to water. The specific gravity is calculated by dividing the density of the substance by the density of water. It is a dimensionless quantity and does not have any units. Specific gravity is commonly used in various industries and applications, such as determining the purity of liquids, evaluating the buoyancy of objects, and assessing the concentration of solutions. It plays a crucial role in understanding the physical properties and behavior of different substances.

**Definition and Formula of Specific Gravity:**

Specific gravity or Relative density is the ratio of the density (mass of a unit volume) of a substance to the density of the given reference material. Generally, the reference material is water.

The relative density/specific gravity formula is:

**Unit of specific gravity:**

Specific gravity is a dimensionless quantity and does not have any units. It is simply a ratio of densities, so it is expressed as a number without any accompanying units

**Characteristics of Specific Gravity:**

The characteristics of specific gravity are:

- It has no units as it is a ratio of two similar quantities.
- It is constant only under given conditions. It is pressure and temperature-dependent. The same substance can have different relative densities under different pressures or temperatures.
- It can never be zero.

**Applications of Specific Gravity:**

The relative density or specific gravity helps us to find if,

- The object is denser than water.
- The object will float or sink in water. If the relative density of a substance is greater than one, then it will sink. And if it is lesser than one, it will float.