Study MaterialsCBSE NotesCBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 10 Social Science SA2 Delhi-2013

CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 10 Social Science SA2 Delhi-2013

CBSE Previous Year Question Papers Class 10 Social Science SA2 Delhi-2013

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    • The Question Paper has 30 questions in all. All questions are
    • Marks are indicated against each question.
    • Questions from serial number 1 to 8 are Very Short Answer questions. Each question carries one mark.
    • Questions from serial number 9 to 20 are 3 mark Answers of these questions should not exceed 80 words each.
    • Questions from serial number 21 to 28 are 5 marks Answers of these questions should not exceed 100 words each.
    • Question number 29 and 30 are map questions of 3 mark each from History and Geography both. After completion, attach the map inside your answer book.

    SET I

    Question.1. Name two main ‘Satyagraha’ movements organized by Mahatma Gandhi successfully in favour of peasants in 1916 and 1917.

    1. Indigo Planters Movement in Champaran, Bihar in 1916.
    2. Peasants Satyagraha Movement was organized in Kheda district in Gujarat in 1917 to support peasants in the demand for relaxation of revenue collection.

    Question.2. Which port in India is the biggest with a spacious natural and well sheltered harbour?
    Answer. Mumbai

    Question.3. What is a pressure group? Give an example.
    Answer. Pressure groups are organizations that attempt to influence government policies. They could do so by forming an organization and undertaking activities to promote their interest or their viewpoint. These organizations are formed when people with common occupation, interest, aspirations or opinions come together in order to achieve a common objective.
    A few examples are: BAMCEF (Backward and Minorities Community Employees’ Federation), FEDECOR—a Bolivian organization, RWAs, AITUC.

    Question.4. Give a reason why a multi-party system has evolved in India?
    Answer. A multi-party system evolved in India because of the social and geographical diversity of the country. This diversity cannot be absorbed by 2 or 3 parties alone.

    Question.5. Give two dissimilarities of popular struggles in Nepal and Bolivia?

    1. The movement in Nepal was to establish democracy. The struggle in Bolivia involved claims on an elected, democratic government.
    2. The struggle in Nepal was about the foundation of the country’s politics. The struggle in Bolivia was about one specific policy.

    Question.6.What is the main informal source of credit for rural households in India?
    Answer.Money lenders are the main source of informal credit for rural households.

    Question.7.Name an important barrier on foreign trade.
    Answer.Tax on imports is an important barrier on foreign trade.

    Question.8.Mention two ways in which consumer ignorance can cause their exploitation?

    1. Consumers may not be careful in looking at the quality of the products or guarantee of the products and services. They do not bother about the warranty card.
    2. They may not bother to buy quality marked products (such as ISI, Agmark).
    3. They may not bother to take the cash memo without which they cannot make complaints or get redressal. (any two)

    Question.9.How had the First World War created a new economic situation in India? Explain with three examples.
    Answer.The First World Warxreated a dramatically new economic situation in India:

    1. Manchester imports into India declined as the British mills were busy with war production to meet the needs of the army paving the way for the Indian mills to supply for the huge home market.
    2. As the war prolonged, Indian factories were called upon to supply war needs. As a result new factories were set up, new workers were employed and everyone was made to work longer hours.
    3. Cotton production collapsed and exports of cotton cloth from Britain fell dramatically after the war, as it was unable to modernize and compete with US, Germany, Japan. Hence within colonies like India, local industrialists gradually consolidated their position capturing the home market.

    Question.10.How was Rowlatt Act opposed by the people in India? Explain with examples.
    Answer. Gandhiji, who had formed a Satyagraha Sabha earlier, called for a countrywide protest against the proposed Rowlatt Act. Throughout the country, 6 April 1919 was observed as a National Humiliation Day. Gandhiji wanted a non-violent civil disobedience against such unjust laws. Hartals (Strikes) and rallies were organized in various cities. Workers went on strike in railway workshops. Shops closed down. The movement was non-violent but proved to be effective.

    Question.11.Explain the process of unification of Italy.
    Answer. Italy too had a long history of political fragmentation. Italians were scattered over dynastic states and the multinationals Hamsburg Empire. Italy was divided into seven states. Italian language did not have one common form.
    Guiseppe Mazzini had played an important role in the unification of Italy. He formed a secret society called ‘Young Italy’ in Marseilles, to spread his goals. He believed Italy could not continue to be a patchwork of small states and had to be forged into a single unified republic. During 1830s, Mazzini sought to put together a coherent programme for a unitary Italian Republic. As uprisings in 1831 and 1848 had failed, the mantle now fell on Sardinia-Piedmon t under its ruler Emmanuel II to unify Italy.
    Under Chief Minister Cavour, Sardinia-Piedmont succeeded in defeating the Austrian forces in 1859. Even Garibaldi joined the fray. In 1860, they marched towards South Italy and the Kingdom of the two Sicilies, and with the help of the local peasants, drove out the Spanish rulers. In 1861, Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed as King of United Italy.
    Explain any three steps taken by the French to develop cultivation in the Mekong Delta.

    1. The French began by building canals and draining lands in Mekong delta to increase cultivation. The vast system of irrigation works was built mainly with forced labour .
    2. The rice production increased which allowed the export of rice to the international market.
    3. Vietnam exported two-thirds of its rice production and by 1931 had become the third largest exporter of rice in the world.
    4. An efficient system of transport was built for trade. Rail and port facilities were set up to serve this sector.
    5. To reduce rural poverty and increase agricultural productivity, it was necessary to carry out land reforms as the Japanese had done in the 1890. (any three)

    Question.12. Differentiate between metallic and non-metallic minerals with examples.

    Question.13. Why is road transport more useful than rail transport in India? Give reasons.

    1. Construction of roads is easier and cheaper as compared to railways.
    2. Roads provide door to door service, thus the cost of loading and unloading is much
      lower as compared to railways which generally leave the people and goods at the destined railway stations.
    3. Roads can negotiate higher gradients of slope and, as such, can traverse through mountainous terrain. But railways cannot negotiate steep gradients.
    4. Road transport is economical in transportation of few persons and relatively smaller
      amount of goods over short distances. (any three)

    Question.14. “Agriculture and industry move hand in hand.” Analyze the statement with three examples.
    Answer. Agriculture and industry in India move hand in hand:

    1. Agro-industries in India have boosted agriculture by raising its productivity.
    2. Industries depend on agriculture for their raw materials, e.g., cotton textile industry,
    3. Industries provide many agricultural inputs like irrigation pumps, fertilizers, insecticides, PVC pipes, machines and tools etc. to the farmers.
    4. Manufacturing industries have assisted agriculturists to increase their production and also made the production processes very efficient.
    5. Development of different modes of transport by industrial sector has not only helped farmers to obtain agricultural inputs but has also helped them trade their products.
      (any three)

    Question.15. “An ideal government would not only keep itself aivay from corruption but also make fighting corruption and black money a top priority”. Justify the statement by highlighting the values attached to it.
    Answer. The values attached to the above statement signify the following practices and institutions:

    • Regular free and fair elections, open public debate on major policies and legislation and citizens’ right to information about the government and its functions.
    • An ideal government in a democracy follows procedures and is accountable to the people.
    • A citizen has the right and the means to examine the process of decision making. This is known as transparency.
    • An ideal government is attentive and responsive to the needs and expectations of the people and is largely free of corruption as it is a legitimate government. It is peoples’ own government.

    Question.16. Name the national political party which gets inspiration from India’s ancient culture and values. Mention four features of that party.
    Answer. Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) founded in 1980 draws inspiration from India’s ancient culture and values.

    1. Cultural Nationalism (Hindutva) is an important element in its conception of Indian nationhood and polities.
    2. Wants full territorial and political integration of Jammu and Kashmir with India.
    3. A uniform civil code for all people living in the country irrespective of religion and ban on religious conversions.
    4. Earlier limited to north and west and to urban areas, the party expanded support in . the south, east, the north-east and rural areas.

    Question.17. “Legal constitutional changes by themselves cannot overcome challenges to democracy”. Justify the statement with an example.
    Answer. As legal constitutional changes by themselves cannot overcome challenges to democracy, democratic reforms need to be carried out mainly by political activists, parties, movements and politically conscious citizens.

    1. Any legal change must carefully look at what results it will have on politics. Generally, laws, that seek a ban on something are rather counter-productive; for example, many states have debarred people who have more than two children from contesting Panchayat elections. This has resulted in denial of democratic opportunity to many poor women, which was not intended. The best laws are those which empower people to carry out democratic reforms; for example, the Right to Information Act which acts as a watchdog of democracy by controlling corruption.
    2. Democratic reforms are to be brought about principally through political parties. The most important concern should be to increase and improve the quality of political participation by ordinary citizens.
    3. Any proposal for political reforms should think not only about what is a good solution, but also about who will implement it and how. Measures that rely on democratic movements, citizens organizations and media are likely to succeed.

    Question.18. How do Multinational Companies manage to keep the cost of production of their goods low? Explain with examples.

    1. MNCs set up offices and factories for production in regions where they can get cheap labour and other resources. Example, Countries like China, Bangladesh and India. They also provide with the advantage of cheap manufacturing locations.
    2. MNCs also need close-by markets for their manufacturing goods. Mexico and Eastern Europe are useful for their closeness to the markets in the US and Europe.
    3. Besides these, MNCs also require skilled engineers and IT personnel and a large number of English speaking people who are able to provide customer care services (India possibly tops in this area).
    4. All these factors help MNCs in saving costs of production by 50-60%.

    Question.19. How is money used as a medium of exchange? Explain with examples.
    Answer. Money as a medium of exchange is used in the sale and purchase of goods and sendees. Anyone can get commodities in the exchange of money. Money removed the problem of barter system. Money offers freedom of choice and its owner can use it at the article, place, time and the way he likes.

    Question.20. How do we participate in the market as producers and consumers? Explain with three examples.
    Answer. We participate in the market both as producers and consumers.

    1. As producers of goods and services we could be working in any of the sectors like agriculture, industry or services.
      For example, a farmer who sells wheat to a flour mill. The man at the mill grinds the wheat and sells the flour to a biscuit company. The biscuit company uses flour, sugar and oil to make packets of biscuits. It sells the biscuits in the market to the consumer. Biscuits are the final goods, i.e., the goods that reach the consumer and people as consumers buy.
    2. We as producers in the market could be made to sell the produce to the moneylender at a low rate in return for a timely loan.
      For example, in case of small farmers; the failure of crops often makes loan repayment impossible. They have to sell a part of their land to repay the loans.
    3. As consumers we participate in the market when we purchase goods and services that we need. As individual consumers we often find ourselves in a weak position. Whenever there is a complaint regarding a good or service that had been bought, the seller tries to shift all the responsibility on to the buyer.
      For example, a long battle had to be fought with court cases to make cigarette manufacturing companies accept that their product could cause cancer.

    Question.21. How did culture play an important role in creating the idea of the ‘nation’ in Europe?
    Explain with examples.
    Answer. Culture, music, dance and religion played an important role in the growth of nationalism.

    1. Role of culture was important in creating the idea of the nation. Art, poetry, music etc. helped in developing and expressing nationalist feelings. Romanticism was a cultural movement that led to the development of nationalist sentiment. Romantic artists and poets criticized the glorification of reason and science and instead focussed on emotions and intuition.
    2. Artists in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries portrayed nations as female figures. The female form, that was chosen to personify the nation, did not stand for any particular woman in real life. Rather it sought to give the abstract idea of the nation in concrete form. That is, the female figure became the allegory of the nation. In France, she was named Marianne—a popular Christian name and in Germany, Germania.
    3. Language too played an important role in developing nationalist sentiments. After Russian occupation, the Polish language was forced out of schools and Russian language was imposed everywhere. In 1831, an armed rebellion against Russian rule took place which was ultimately crushed. Following this, many members of the clergy in Poland began to use language as a weapon of national resistance.
    4. Romantics such as the German philosopher Herder claimed that true German culture was to be discovered among the common people das volk. It was through folk songs, folk poetry and folk dances that the true spirit of the nation was popularized.

    How were Vietnamese nationalists inspired by Japan and China to set up a democratic republic? Explain with examples.
    Answer. Influence of Japan. In 1907-08, around 300 students from Vietnam went to Japan to acquire modem education.

    1. The primary objective was to drive out the French from Vietnam, overthrow the puppet emperor and reestablish the Nguyen dynasty that had been deposed by the French. For this, they needed foreign help.
    2. Japan had modernized itself and had resisted colonisation by the West. It had defeated Russia in 1907 and proved its military strength. The Vietnamese nationalists looked for foreign amis and help and appealed to the Japanese as fellow Asians.
    3. Vietnamese students established a branch of Restoration Society in Tokyo but, in 1908, the Japanese Ministry of Interior clamped down on them. Many, including Phan Boi Chau, were deported and forced to seek exile in China and Thailand. Developments in China also inspired Vietnamese nationalists:
      In 1911, the long established monarchy in China was overthrown by a popular movement under Sun Yat Sen, and a republic was set up. Vietnamese students organized the Association for the Restoration of Vietnam.
      Now, the nature of the Anti-French independent movement changed. The objective of the Vietnamese now was to set up a democratic republic.

    Question.22. “Dalit participation was limited in the Civil Disobedience Movement”. Examine the statement.
    Answer. The abstract concept of ‘Swaraj’ did not move the nation’s ‘untouchables’, who from around the 1930s had begun to call themselves dalit or oppressed.
    The Congress had ignored the dalits, for the fear of offending the Sanatanis, the conservative high caste Hindus.
    Gandhiji persuaded upper castes to change their heart. He himself cleaned toilets to dignify the work of the bhangi. He called the untouchables, Harijans, organized satyagraha to secure them entry into temples and access to public wells, tanks and schools.
    The dalit leaders were keen on a different political solution. Political empowerment, they believed would resolve the problems of their social disability. They began demanding reserved seats in educational institutions and a separate electorate that would choose dalit members for the Legislative Council.

    Question.23. What is Road Density? Describe any four major problems faced by road transport in India.
    Answer. Road density is the length of a road per 100 sq. km of area.
    Problems faced by road transport in India:

    1. The road network is inadequate in proportion to the volume of traffic and passengers.
    2. About half of the roads are unmetalled which makes them useless during rainy season.
    3. The National Highways are inadequate and lack roadside amenities.
    4. The roadways are highly congested in cities.
    5. Most of the bridges and culverts are old and narrow.

    Question.24. Explain any five measures to control industrial pollution in India.
    Answer. Five measures to control industrial pollution:

    1. Particulate matter in the air can be reduced by fitting smoke stacks to factories with fabric filteis, electrostatic precipitators, etc.
    2. Equipments to control aerosol emissions can be used in industries, e.g., electrostatic precipitators, scrubbers and inertial separators. Smoke can be reduced by using oil or gas instead of coal in factories.
    3. Harvesting of rainwater to meet water requirements of industries and other domestic purposes.
    4. Treating hot water and effluents before releasing them in rivers and ponds.
    5. Machinery and equipment can be fitted with silencers.
    6. Noise absorbing material may be used apart from personal use of earplugs and
      earphones. (any five)

    Question.25. “Democracy is seen to be good in principle but felt to be not so good in practice.”
    Justify the statement.
    Answer. If we look at some of the democratic policies being implemented in more than one hundred countries of the world, democracy seems to be good. For example, having a formal Constitution, holding regular elections, guaranteeing the citizens certain rights, working for the welfare of the people etc. make us advocate that democracy is good.
    But if we look in terms of social situations, their economic achievements and varied cultures, we find a very big difference in most of the democracies. The vast economic disparities, social injustice based on discrimination, standard of life, sex discrimination, etc. create many doubts about the merits of democracy.
    Whenever some of our expectations are not met, we start blaming the idea of democracy. Since democracy is a form of government, it can only create conditions for achieving our goals if they are reasonable.

    Question.26. How far has India succeeded in overcoming the challenge of expansion before its democracy? Evaluate.
    Answer. Like most , of the established democracies of the world, India, too, faces the challenges of expansion.

    1. India applies basic principles of democracy across all the regions, different social groups and various institutions.
    2. Federal principles have been extended to all the units of the federation giving the right to make laws on the subjects in the state list.
    3. Local governments-both rural and urban have been ensured more powers.
    4. Reservation of seats has ensured the participation of women, the minority groups, SCs, STs and OBCs in the governance of the country.
    5. All the above points mean that less and less decisions are taken outside the arena of democratic control.

    Question.27. What are the various sources of credit in rural areas? Which one of them is the most dominant source of credit and why? 5
    Answer. Moneylender are the most dominant amongst sources of credit for rural households. They constitute an informal source of credit. They charge a very high rate of interest on loans as they do not require any collateral. They are the most convenient source of credit in the rural areas.
    Other sources of rural credit:

    1. Cooperative Societies are another major source of rural credit. They are a source of formal sector credit. Members of a Cooperative pool their resources for helping one another, e.g., Farmers’ Cooperatives, Weavers’ Cooperatives, etc. They offer cheap credit in rural areas for their members.

    Once these loans are repaid, another round of loans is offered:

    1. Agricultural traders, relatives and friends are other informal sources of rural credit. Some farmers borrow from agricultural traders who supply the farm inputs (such as seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, etc.) on credit at the beginning of the cropping season and repay the loans after the harvest.
    2. Commercial banks also give loans to rural households. However, not many rural households borrow from banks as they require proper documentation and collateral.

    Question.28. Why are rules and regulations required for the protection of the consumers, in the market place? Explain with examples.
    Answer. Rules and Regulations are required in the market place for the follozving reasons:

    1. Individual consumers often find themselves in a weak position, whenever there is a complaint regarding a good or service that had been bought. The seller tries to shift all the responsibilities on to the buyer as if the seller has no responsibility once a sale is completed.
    2. To check exploitation in the market place that happens in various ways. For example, unfair trade practices such as when shopkeepers weigh less than what they should ‘or’ when traders add charges that were not mentioned before or when adulterated goods are sold.
    3. Markets do not work in a fair manner when producers are few and powerful whereas consumers purchase in small amounts and are scattered. Large companies sometimes manipulate the market in various ways.
    4. False and incomplete information. Sellers easily mislead consumers by giving wrong information about a product, its price, quality, reliability, lifecycle, expiry date, durability, its effect on health, environment, safety and security’, maintenance cost involved and terms and conditions of purchase. Cosmetics, drugs and electronic goods are common examples where consumers face such problems.
      For example, At times false information is passed on through media to attract . consumers.
      Hence there is a need for rules and regulations to ensure protection of the consumers.

    Question.29. Identify and label the following on the map of India:
    (a) The place, where the Indian National Congress Session was held in December, 1920.
    (b) The place, where the ‘Movement of Indigo Planters’ was started.
    (c) The place where 22 policemen were burnt forcing Gandhiji to call off the Non-cooperation Movement
    Note: The following questions are for the BLIND CANDIDATES only, in lieu of Question No, 29.
    (1) Name the place where the Indian National Congress session was held in December, 1920.
    (2) Name the place where the ‘Movement of Indigo Planters’ was started.
    (3) Name the place where 22 policemen were burnt forcing Gandhiji to call off the Non-cooperation Movement.
    Answer. (1) Nagpur (2) Champarar. (3) Chauri Chaura

    Question.30. On the given political outline map of India:
    (a) Identify
    A. Nuclear Power Plant
    B. Major Sea Port
    (b) Locate and label
    (i) Bhadrawati—Iron and Steel Plant
    Note: The following questions are for the BLIND CANDIDATES only, in lieu of Question No. 30.
    (1) Name the nuclear plant located in Uttar Pradesh.
    (2) Name the iron and steel plant located in Chhattisgarh.
    (3) Which is the southernmost sea port of India?
    Answer. (1) Narora (2) Bhilai (3) Tuticorin

    SET II

    Except for the following questions, all the remaining questions have been asked in Set-I.
    Question.11. Explain the process of unification of Germany.
    Answer. Unification of Germany:
    In the 18th century, Germany was divided into a number of states. Some of these states ceased to exist during the Napoleonic wars. At the end of the war, there were still 39 independent states in Germany. Prussia was most powerful, dominated by big landlords known as Junkers.

    1. Nationalist feelings were widespread among middle class Germans who had tried to unite the different regions of the German federation into a nation-state governed by an elected Parliament.
    2. In May 1848, a large number of political associations came together to vote for an All German National Assembly. Their representatives met at Frankfurt and the Frankfurt Assembly proposed the unification of Germany as a constitutional monarchy under the King of Prussia as emperor.
    3. The King of Prussia rejected the offer and the liberal initiative of nation building was repressed by combined forces of the monarchy, the military and the “Junkers’.
    4. Then on, Prussia under its Chief Minister Otto von Bismarck led the movement for unification of Germany. Bismarck carried out this process with the help of the Prussian army and the bureaucracy. He fought three wars over seven years with Denmark, Austria and France. Prussia was victorious in all these wars and the process of unification was completed as a result of Prussia’s victory over France.
    5. Consequently, on 18th January 1871, an assembly comprising of princes of German states, representatives of the army, important Prussian ministers and Bismarck gathered in the Palace of Versailles and proclaimed the Prussian King, Kaiser William, the new German Emperor.

    Explain the contribution of Ho Chi Minh in the freedom movement of Vietnam.
    Answer. Ho Chi Minh was one of the greatest teachers, who fought for the freedom and unification
    of Vietnam.

    1. He started organizing the Communist and Nationalist movements soon after the end of the First World War.
    2. In 1930, he brought together competing nationalist groups to establish Vietnamese Communist Party. He was inspired by the militant demonstration of the European Communist Parties.
    3. In 1940, Japanese occupied Vietnam. So the nationalists now had to fight against the Japanese as well as French. A league called ‘Viet Minh’ was formed to fight with Japanese and Ho Chi Minh became its Chairman.
    4. After the US intervention in Vietnam, he supported the NLF (National Liberation
      Front) with resources and army to fight against the mighty US army.
      In his honour, the capital city of Saigon is now named as Ho Chi Minh city.

    Question.12. Differentiate between ferrous,and non-ferrous minerals with examples.
    Answer. Ferrous minerals:

    1. Ferrous minerals account for about three fourths of the total value of the production of metallic minerals.
    2. They provide a strong base for the development of metallurgical industries.
    3. India exports substantial quantities of ferrous minerals to Japan and South Korea after meeting her internal demands.

    Non-ferrous minerals:

    1. India’s reserves and production of non-ferrous minerals is not very satisfactory.
    2. Non-ferrous minerals include copper, bauxite, lead, zinc and gold.
    3. They provide a strong base for the development of metallurgical, engineering and electrical industries.
    4. Non- ferrous minerals like copper and bauxite are mainly found in Madhya Pradesh and Odisha respectively.

    Question.16. Name the national political party which espouses secularism and welfare of weaker
    sections and minorities. Mention any four features of that party.
    Answer. Party which espouses secularism and welfare of weaker sections and minorities is Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP).

    1. Formed in 1984 under the leadership of Shri Kanshi Ram, seeks to represent and secure power for the Bahujan Samaj which includes the dalits, adivasis, OBCs and religious minorities.
    2. Draws inspiration from the teachings of Sahu Maharaj, Mahatma Phule and Babasaheb Ambedkar.
    3. Stands for the cause of securing the interests and welfare of dalits and oppressed people.
    4. It has its main base in the State of Uttar Pradesh and presence in neighbouring States like Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Delhi and Punjab.

    Question.19. What are the modern forms of money? Why is the ‘rupee’ widely accepted as a medium of exchange? Explain two reasons.
    Answer. Modem forms of money currency in India include paper notes and coins which are known as Rupees and Paise.

    1. It is accepted as a medium of exchange because the currency is authorized by the Government of India.
    2. In India, the Reserve Bank of India issues currency notes on behalf of the Central Government. As per Indian law, no other individual or organization is allowed to issue currency.
    3. The law legalizes the use of mpee as a medium of payment that cannot be refused in settling transactions in India.
    4. No individual in India can legally refuse a payment made in rupees.
      Therefore, the rupee is widely accepted as a medium of exchange. (any tzoo)

    Question.22. “Some of the Muslim political organizations in India, were lukewarm in their response to the ‘Civil Disobedient Movement’.” Examine the statement.
    Answer. Muslim response was lukewarm to the Civil Disobedience Movement as a large section of Muslims felt alienated from the Congress.

    1. The Congress members were seen as associates of Hindu religious nationalist groups like Hindu Mahasabha.
    2. After the Non-cooperation Movement, relations between Hindus and Muslims worsened as each community organized religious processions, provoking Hindu- Muslim communal clashes and riots.
    3. The important differences were over the question of representation in the future Assemblies that were to be elected.
    4. When Civil Disobedience Movement started, there was an atmosphere of suspicion and distrust between communities. Muslims feared that they would be submerged under the domination of a Hindu majority in Independent India.

    Question.24. How do industries pollute environment? Explain with five examples.
    Answer. The five types of industrial pollution are:
    (1) Air pollution (2) Water pollution
    (3) Land pollution (4) Noise pollution and
    (5) Thermal pollution.

    1. Air pollution. Smoke is emitted by chemical and paper factories, brick kilns, refineries and smelting plants, and burning of fossil fuels in factories that ignore pollution norms. Air-borne particulate materials contain both solid and liquid particles like dust, sprays, mist and smoke.
    2. Water pollution. Major water pollutants are dyes, detergents, acids and salts. Heavy metals like lead and mercury, pesticides and fertilizers and synthetic chemicals with carbon, plastics and rubber etc. discharged in the water bodies without treatment pollute these water bodies.
    3. Noise pollution. The generators, compressors, machines, furnaces, looms, exhaust fans, etc. used by industries create a lot of noise. Noise can raise blood pressure and can have physiological effects as well.
    4. Land pollution. Land and water pollution are closely related. Dumping of industrial wastes especially glass, harmful chemicals, industrial effluents, packing, salts and garbage renders the soil useless.
    5. Thermal pollution. Wastes from nuclear power plants, nuclear and weapon production facilities cause cancer and birth defects.


    Except for the following questions, all the remaining questions have been asked in Set-I and Set-II
    Question.11. How has Britain come into existence? Explain.
    Answer. In Britain, the formation of the nation state was the consequence of a long drawn out process. There was no British nation before the 18th century. The people who inhabited British Isles were of ethnic groups like English, Irish, Scot or Welsh. In 1688, English Parliament wrested control from the monarchy. The Act of Union (1707) between England and Scotland led to creation of ‘United Kingdom of Great Britain’. The English now dominated Scotland’s culture and its political institutions. The Catholic people of Scottish Highlands were forbidden to speak their Gaelic language and a large number of them were forced out of their homelands. .
    Ireland met the same fate, the English supported the Protestants of Ireland and increased their domination over this largely Catholic nation. In 1801, Ireland was forcibly incorporated into the United Kingdom. A new ‘British nation’ with symbols like British flag (Union Jack), National Anthem (God Save Our Noble King) and the English language became the forbearer of English culture and the older nations became subservient partners in this Union.
    Explain the views of Phan Chu Trinh as a nationalist.
    Answer. Phan Chu Trinh was intensely hostile to the monarchy. He wished to overthrow the monarchy and create a democratic Republic for Vietnam.

    1. He was greatly influenced by the western ideas of democracy and did not want a wholesale rejection of the western civilization.
    2. He accepted the French revolutionary ideal of liberty but charged the French for not abiding by the ideal.
    3. He demanded that the French set up legal and educational institutions, and develop agriculture and industries in Vietnam.

    Question.12..Differentiate between conventional and non-conventional sources of energy with examples.

    Question.19. What is collateral? Why do lenders ask for collateral while lending? Explain.
    Answer. Collateral is an asset that the borrower owns (land, building, vehicle, livestock, land documents, deposits with banks etc.) which stands as a security against the money borrowed. In case the borrower fails to repay the loan, the lender has the right to sell the asset or collateral to recover the loan money. Most lenders ask for collateral while lending as a security against their own funds.

    Question.22. “Nationalism spreads when people begin to believe that they are all part of the same nation.” Justify the statement.
    Answer. History and fiction, folklore and songs, popular prints and symbols —all played an important role in creating a sense of collective belonging leading to the growth of nationalism.
    Image of Bharat Mata:

    1. With the growth of nationalism, the identity of the Indian nation came to be visually associated with the image of Bharat Mata (as it had happened in Germany and France: Germania in Germany and Marianne in France).
    2. This image was first created and popularized by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay. In 1870, he wrote Vande Mataram as a hymn to the motherland. This song was widely sung during the Swadeshi Movement.
    3. Moved by the Swadeshi Movement, Rabindranath Tagore painted the famous image of Bharat Mata. The identity of the Indian nation came to be visually associated with this image. She was portrayed as an ascetic figure—calm, composed, divine and spiritual.
    4. Later this image was painted by many other artists which acquired different forms. This image was circulated in popular prints and devotion to this mother figure was seen as a sign of nationalism.

    Icons and Symbols (Flag):

    1. During the Swadeshi Movement in Bengal, tricolour flag (red, green and yellow), ’ with eight lotuses (ctepicting eight provinces of British India), was designed.
    2. Gandhiji had designed the Swaraj flag by 1921—a tricolour (red, green and white) with a spinning wheel in the centre.
    3. Carrying the flag during marches became a symbol of defiance and a sense of collective belonging.

    Reinterpretation of History:

    1. The glorification of developments in ancient India in the fields of art and architecture, Science and Mathematics, religion and culture, law and philosophy, craft and trade had also helped in the growth of nationalism.
    2. These nationalist histories encouraged the readers to take pride in India’s great achievement in the past and struggle to change the miserable conditions (cultural and economic decline) of life under the British rule.

    Indian Folklore:

    1. Idea of nationalism also developed through a movement to revive Indian folklore.
    2. Folk tales were sung by bards in the villages, to give a true picture of traditional culture, which had been damaged by outside forces.
    3. In Bengal, Rabindranath Tagore himself began collecting ballads, nursery rhymes and myths to revive folk culture.
    4. In Madras, Natesa Sastri published a four volume collection of Tamil folk tales, “The Folklore of Southern India”.

    Question.24. How do industries pollute water? Suggest any four measures to control water pollution.

    1. Water pollution is caused by organic and inorganic industrial wastes and affluents discharged into rivers.
    2. Major water pollutants are dyes, detergents, acids and salts.
    3. Heavy metals like lead and mercury, pesticides and fertilizers and synthetic chemicals with carbon, plastics and rubber, etc. discharged in the water bodies without treatment, pollute these water bodies.
    4. Solid wastes, e.g., fly ash, phospho-gypsum and iron and steel slags, etc. wastes from nuclear power plants cause water pollution.
    5. Dumping of harmful chemicals and industrial effluents, etc. on the land causes rainwater to percolate. As a result, these pollutants contaminate ground water.

    Water pollution caused by industries can be controlled by:

    1. Minimizing the use of water for processing by reusing and recycling it in two or more successive stages..
    2. Harvesting of rainwater to meet water requirements of industries and other domestic purposes.
    3. Treating hot water and effluents before releasing them in rivers and ponds in the following ways:
      — Primary treatment by mechanical means such as screening, grinding, flocculation and sedimentation.
      — Secondary treatment by biological process.
      — Tertiary treatment by biological, chemical and physical processes. This involves recycling of waste water.

    Question.26. How do pressure groups and movements exert influence on politics? Explain any five points in this regard?
    Answer. Pressure groups and movements exert influence on politics in the following ways:

    1. Interest groups and movements do not directly engage in party politics but they seek to exert influence on political parties.
    2. They have a political position on major issues and take political stance without being a party.
    3. They try to gain public support and sympathy for their goals through campaigns, organizing meetings, filing petitions and influencing the media for attention.
    4. They organize protest activities like strikes, in order to force the government to take note of their demand.
    5. Business groups employ professionals/lobbyists or sponsor expensive
      advertisements. Some members from pressure groups participate in official bodies that offer advice to the government.


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