Class 11 History Notes Chapter 9 The Industrial Revolution
- Industrial revolution started in England and spread in different parts of the world gradually.
- The term ‘Industrial Revolution’ was used by European scholars-Georges Michelet in France and Fried-rich Engels in Germany.
- It was used for the first time in English by the philosopher and economist Arnold Toynbee to describe the changes that occurred in British industrial development between 1760 and 1820.
- The Industrial Revolution revolutionized the techniques and organization of production in the later half of the eighteenth century.
- England was both politically and economically a sound nation.
- Agricultural Revolution laid down the foundation of the Industrial Revolution.
- England had a huge domestic and international market under his control which helped in the growth of Industrial Revolution.
- England had a number of colonies in Asia, Africa and Europe. These helped in obtaining the raw material for industries.
- The onset of textile industry also helped in the emergence of Industrial Revolution.
- Abraham Darby brought about a revolution in the metallurgical industry.
- In the 1770’s, John Wilkinson made the first iron chairs and iron pipes of all sizes.
- Thomas Savery built a model of steam engine i.e. Miner’s friend in 1698.
- Another steam engine was built by Thomas New comen in 1712. The steam engine had been used only in coal mines until
- James Watt (1736-1819) developed his machine in 1769.
- In 1814, the railway engineer George Stephenson (1781-1848) constructed a locomotive called ‘The Blutcher’ that could pull a weight of 30 tons up a hill at 4 mph.
- The Mines and Collieries Act of 1842 banned children under 10 and women from working underground.
- The condition of workers was quite miserable. They became the victims of restlessness, epidemics and diseases.
- John Kay invented Flying Shuttle in 1733. By this invention the entire textile industry was revolutionized.
- James Hargreaves invented the spinning jenny.
- Richard Arkwright invented water frame in the year 1709.
- Industrial Revolution: Use of machinery in industries and its effects on the English societies.
- Iron-Smelting Kilns: Blast furnace.
- Stapler: A small device used for putting staples into paper, etc.
- Sepoy: Indian soldier in the service of the British.
- Vagrant: A person without a settled home or regular work.
- Carding: A process prior to spinning cotton or wool.
- Orient: The countries to the east of Mediterranean.
- Luddism: A movement led by the charismatic General, Ned Ludd.
|1712||Steam engine built by Thomas New comen.|
|1733||Flying shuttle was invented by John Kay.|
|1759||James Brindely constructed Worsely canal.|
|1760-1820||First Phase of Industrial Revolution.|
|1765||James Hargreaves invented spinning jenny.|
|1769||Water frame was invented by Richard Arkwright.|
|1779||Samuel Crompton invented mule.|
|1842||Mines Commission was set up.|
|1847||Ten Hours Bill was passed.|
|After 1850||Ilnd phases of Industrial Revolution.|