Study MaterialsCBSE NotesClass 11 History Notes Chapter 9 The Industrial Revolution

Class 11 History Notes Chapter 9 The Industrial Revolution

Class 11 History Notes Chapter 9 The Industrial Revolution

  • Industrial revolution started in England and spread in different parts of the world gradually.
  • The term ‘Industrial Revolution’ was used by European scholars-Georges Michelet in France and Fried-rich Engels in Germany.
  • It was used for the first time in English by the philosopher and economist Arnold Toynbee to describe the changes that occurred in British industrial development between 1760 and 1820.
  • The Industrial Revolution revolutionized the techniques and organization of production in the later half of the eighteenth century.
  • England was both politically and economically a sound nation.
  • Agricultural Revolution laid down the foundation of the Industrial Revolution.
  • England had a huge domestic and international market under his control which helped in the growth of Industrial Revolution.
  • England had a number of colonies in Asia, Africa and Europe. These helped in obtaining the raw material for industries.
  • The onset of textile industry also helped in the emergence of Industrial Revolution.
  • Abraham Darby brought about a revolution in the metallurgical industry.
  • In the 1770’s, John Wilkinson made the first iron chairs and iron pipes of all sizes.
  • Thomas Savery built a model of steam engine i.e. Miner’s friend in 1698.
  • Another steam engine was built by Thomas New comen in 1712. The steam engine had been used only in coal mines until
  • James Watt (1736-1819) developed his machine in 1769.
  • In 1814, the railway engineer George Stephenson (1781-1848) constructed a locomotive called ‘The Blutcher’ that could pull a weight of 30 tons up a hill at 4 mph.
  • The Mines and Collieries Act of 1842 banned children under 10 and women from working underground.
  • The condition of workers was quite miserable. They became the victims of restlessness, epidemics and diseases.
  • John Kay invented Flying Shuttle in 1733. By this invention the entire textile industry was revolutionized.
  • James Hargreaves invented the spinning jenny.
  • Richard Arkwright invented water frame in the year 1709.

Important terms:

  • Industrial Revolution: Use of machinery in industries and its effects on the English societies.
  • Iron-Smelting Kilns: Blast furnace.
  • Stapler: A small device used for putting staples into paper, etc.
  • Sepoy: Indian soldier in the service of the British.
  • Vagrant: A person without a settled home or regular work.
  • Carding: A process prior to spinning cotton or wool.
  • Orient: The countries to the east of Mediterranean.
  • Luddism: A movement led by the charismatic General, Ned Ludd.
1712 Steam engine built by Thomas New comen.
1733 Flying shuttle was invented by John Kay.
1759 James Brindely constructed Worsely canal.
1760-1820 First Phase of Industrial Revolution.
1765 James Hargreaves invented spinning jenny.
1769 Water frame was invented by Richard Arkwright.
1779 Samuel Crompton invented mule.
1842 Mines Commission was set up.
1847 Ten Hours Bill was passed.
After 1850 Ilnd phases of Industrial Revolution.

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