Study MaterialsCBSE NotesClass 12 Political Science Notes Chapter 10 Challenges of Nation Building

Class 12 Political Science Notes Chapter 10 Challenges of Nation Building


Political Science Class 12 Notes Chapter 10 Challenges of Nation Building

Challenges for the New Nation

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    India became independent in August 1947 immediately after independence, there were three challenges
    in nation building

    • The first and the immediate challenge was to shape nation that was united, yet accommodative of the diversity existing in the society and eradication of poverty and unemployment.
    • The second challenge was to establish democracy.
    • The third challenge was to ensure the development and well-being of the entire society and not only of some sections.

    Partition: Displacement and Rehabilitation

    • On 14th to 15th August, 1947, two nation-states India and Pakistan came into existence. Lakhs of people from both sides lost their homes, lives and properties and became victim of communal violence.
    • On the basis of Muslim majority belt West and East Pakistan was created which were separated by a long expanse of Indian Territory.
    • Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan also known as ‘Frontier Gandhi’ was the undisputed leader of the North-West Frontier Province (NWFP). Despite his opposition NWFP was merged with Pakistan.
    • The portion of Punjab and Bengal caused the deepest trauma of partition.

    Consequences of Partition

    • The year 1947 was the year of one of the largest, most abrupt, unplanned and tragic transfer of population of human history as known.
    • Minorities on both sides of the border fled their home and secured temporary’ shelter in ‘refugee camps’.
    • Women were often abducted, raped, attacked and killed. They were forcefully converted to other , religion.
    • Political and administrative machinery failed on both sides.
    • There was huge loss of lives and property. Communal violence was on its culmination.

    Integration of Princely States

    • There were two types of provinces in British India—The British Indian Provinces (directly under the control of the British Government) and Princely states (governed by Indian princes).
    • Immediately after independence there were almost 565 princely states. Many of them joined Indian Union.
    • Travancore, Hyderabad, Kashmir and Manipur initially refused to join Indian Union.

    Government’s Approach

    • The then interim government took a firm steps against the possible division of India into small principalities of different sizes.
    • The government’s approach was guided by three considerations
      • The people of most of the princely states clearly wanted to become part of the Indian Union.
      • The government was prepared to be flexible in giving autonomy to some regions.
      • Consolidation of the territorial boundaries of the nation had assumed supreme importance.

    Instrument of Accession

    • The rulers of the most of the states signed a document called the ‘Instrument of Accession’ but accession of the Junagarh, Hyderabad, Kashmir and Manipur proved more difficult than the rest.
    • After initial resistance, in September 1948, Hyderabad was merged with Indian Union, by a military operation.
    • The Government of India succeeded in pressurising the Maharaja of Manipur into signing a Merger Agreement in September, 1949. The government did so without consulting the popularly elected Legislative Assembly of Manipur.

    Reorganisation of States

    • During national movement Indian National Congress recognised the demand of state reorganisation on linguistic basis.
    • After Independence, this idea was postponed because the memory of partition was still fresh and the fate of the Princely states had not been decided.
    • After a long movement, in December 1952 Andhra Pradesh was created on linguistic basis.
    • Creation of this state gave impetus to reorganise states on linguistic basis. As a result, Government of India appointed States Reorganisation Commission in 1953.
    • This commission accepted that the boundaries of the state should reflect the boundaries of different languages.
    • On the basis of its report the Nstates Reorganisation Act was passed in 1956. This led to the creation of 14 States and 6 Union Territories.


    1. The first speech of the first Prime Minister of India, Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru at the hour of midnight on 14-15 August 1947 was known as famous “tryst with destiny” speech while addressing a special session of the Constituent Assembly.

    2. Immediately after independence, there were many challenges in independent India that needed a solution i.e. a challenge to shape a nation as a united country, to develop democratic practices and to ensure development and well-being by evolving effective policies for economic development and eradication of poverty and unemployment.

    3. On partition of India, two nation theory was propounded by Muhammad Ali Jinnah to create
    a separate state for Muslims, resulted in Partition as India and Pakistan giving birth to many difficulties like problem of east and west, merging of NWFP, problems with provinces of Punjab and Bengal and the principle of religious majorities.

    4. The partition of 1947 was most abrupt and unplanned which created and spread communal riots dividing country into various community zones, social sufferings to shelter in refugee camps, killing of women and separation of family members, except, it divided financial assets, employees and created conflicts between Hindus and Muslims.

    5. British India was divided into British Indian provinces and princely states. Princely states enjoyed some form of control over their internal affairs under British supremacy.

    6. After independence, integration of princely states into Indian Union became a great challenge due to problems like announcement by British to end paramountly over the states’ freedom to join either India or Pakistan. And the problems arose in Travancore, Hyderabad, Bhopal to further divide India.

    7. The government’s approach was based on three considerations i.e. will of integration of people of princely states, a flexible approach to accommodate plurality and demands of region and concern about integrity of India with peaceful negotiations in a firm diplomatic manner by Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel. Only four states’ accession was difficult i.e. Junagarh, Hyderabad, Kashmir and Manipur.

    8. Hyderabad was the largest princely state under the rule of Nizam who was not argued to be integrated. But the society protested against the rule of Nizam. The central government had to interfere against Razakars and in September 1948. Nizam’s forces were controlled with the accession of Hyderabad.

    9. Bodhachandra Singh, Maharaja of Manipur, made it a constitutional monarchy and became first state to hold elections under Universal Adult Franchises. But on sharp differences over merger of Manipur, the government of India pressurised Maharaja into signing an agreement in September 1949.

    10. In the early years of reorganisation of states was felt linguistic states may foster separatism and create a pressure. Hence linguistic states were formed to change the nature of democratic policies which accepted the regional and linguistic claims and provided a uniform base to the plural nature of democracy.

    11. The State Reorganisation Commission was formed in 1953 by central government to redraw the boundaries of the states on the basis to reflect boundaries of state on behalf of different languages and led to creation of 14 states and six union territories by giving uniform basis to state boundaries.


    1. Two Nations Theory: It was propounded by Muhammad Ali Jinnah to create a separate state for Muslims.
    2. British Indian Provinces: The Indian provinces which were directly under the British government before independence.
    3. Princely States: States ruled by Princes who enjoyed some form of control over their states internal affairs under the British supremacy.
    4. Razakars: A para-military force of Nizam was sent to respond people’s movement which had no bounds.
    5. Nizam: Ruler of Hyderabad was titled as Nizam who was world’s richest person.
    6. State Reorganisation Commission: It was appointed in 1953 to look into the matter to redraw the boundaries of states.

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