Political Science Class 12 Notes Chapter 9 Globalisation
Concept of Globalisation
- Globalisation means the flows of ideas, capital, commodities and people across different parts of the world. It is a multidimensional concept. It has political, economic and cultural manifestations and these must be adequately distinguished.
- Globalisation need not always be positive. It can have negative consequences for the people.
- As a concept, globalisation fundamentally deals with flows. These flows can be ideas moving from one part of the world to another, commodities being traded across borders and so on.
- The crucial element is the worldwide inter connectedness which is created and sustained as a consequence of these constant flows.
Causes of Globalisation
- One important aspect of globalisation is that even though it is not caused by any single factor, technology remains a critical element.
- The ability of ideas, capital, commodities and people to move more easily from one part of the world to another has been made possible by technological advances.
- Interconnections is also an important aspect of globalisation. Any event taking place in one part of the world could have an impact on another part of the world.
Consequences of Globalisation
- Globalisation results in an erosion of state capacity i.e. by reducing the ability of government to do what they want to do.
- It gives way to a more minimalist state that performs certain core functions such as the maintenance of law and order, and the security of its citizens.
- In place of the state the market becomes the prime determinant of economic and social priorities.
- Globalisation does not always reduce state capacity. The primacy of the state continues to be unchallenged basis of political community.
- State capacity has received boost as a consequence of globalisation, with enhanced technologies available at the disnosal of the state to collect information about its citizens.
- In order to understand economic consequences of globalisation it is important to know that in economic globalisation involves many actors other than IMF, WTO.
- It involves greater economic flows among different countries of the world. Some of this is voluntary and some forced by international institutions and powerful countries.
- Globalisation has involved greater trade in commodities across the globe as it has reduced the imposing of restrictions on the imports of one country on another.
- Economic globalisation has created an intense division of opinion all over the world.
- According to some, economic globalisation is likely to benefit only a small section of the population.
- On the other hand advocates of economic globlisation argue that it generates greater economic growth and well-being for larger sections of the population.
- The consequences of globalisation can also be seen on our culture too and thus it is not confirmed only to the sphere of politics and economy.
- The process cultural globalisation poses a threat because it leads to the rise of a uniform culture or what is called cultural homogenisation.
- Cultural globalisation has both positive as well as negative effect on the world.
- While cultural homogenisation is an aspect of globalisation, the same process also generates precisely the opposite effect.
India and Globalisation
- Flows pertaining to the movement of capital, commodities, ideas and people go back several centuries in Indian History.
- During the British rule, India became an exporter of primary goods and raw materials and a consumer (importer) of finished goods.
- After independence, India decided to be a self-sufficient country rather than being dependent on others.
- In 1991, India embarked on a programme of economic reforms that has sought increasingly to de-regulate various sectors including trade and foreign investment.
Resistance to Globalisation
- Globlalisation has invited strong criticism all over the globe. For some globalisation represents a particular phase of global capitalism that makes the rich richer and the poor poorer.
- Culturally, they are worried that traditional culture will be harmed and people will lose their age-old values and ways.
- It is important to note here that anti-globalisation movements too participate in global networks, allying with those who feel like them in other countries.
- The World Social Forum (WSF) is a global platform bringing together human rights activists, environmentalists, labour, youth and women activists opposed to neo-liberal globalistion.
India and Resistance to Globalisation
- Resistance to globalisation in India has come from different quarters.
- There have been left wing protests to economic liberalisation voiced through political parties as well as through some forums.
- Resistance to globalisation has also come form the political right. This has taken the forum of objecting particularly to various cultural influences.
FACTS THAT MATTER
1. Globalisation is the integration of economy of a country in the process of free flow of trade and capital. It may also include ‘Brain drain’ across borders.
2. Globalisation increases the volume of trade in goods and services, inflows private foreign capital, increases foreign direct investment, creates new jobs, strengthens domestic economies, improves productive efficiency and healthy competition.
3. Globalisation may have negative impacts also as it failed to generate sufficient employment, modern methods of cultivation are not acquainted to less educated persons, it creates income inequality and exploits natural resources and labour force.
4. The globalisation is the result of historical factors, technological innovations, liberalisation of foreign trade and investment policies, and opening of multinational companies.
5. Globalisation consequences may be political, economical and cultural, politically stunts’ capacity has received a boost with enhanced technologies to collect information about its citizens.
6. Economic flows in various forums, like commodity, capital, people and ideas prompts rich countries to invest their money in countries other than their own. It also draws attention towards the role of JMF and WTO in determining economic policies across the world.
7. Cultural globalisation emerges and enlarges our choices and modify our culture without overwhelming the traditional norms i.e. burger can not be a substitute for masala dosa. Hence, it broadens our cultural outlook and promotes cultural homogenisation.
8. Globalisation has been criticised on political, economic and cultural grounds i.e. politically it weakens the state by reducing its sovereignty. Economically it has made the rich richer and the poor poorer creating disparities. Culturally there has been harmed traditions and lost age old values and ways. The World Social Forum (WSF) has also opposed neo-liberal globalisation.
9. In India, Globalisation has led to setting up of foreign companies as India realised the need for relating the Indian economy with the world by responding to 1991 financial crisis.
10. Globalisation process includes the thrust to liberalisation or privatisation. Liberalisation proclaims freedom of trade and investment, controls allocation of resources in domestic economy, rapid technological progress whereas privatisation allows private sector and other foreign companies to produce goods and services.
11. Resistance to globalisation in India has come from different quarters i.e. left wing protests to economic liberalisation, trade unions of industrial workforce organised protest against multinationals, the patents, resistance from political right i.e. objecting to various cultural influences of foreign T.V. channels, celebration of Valentine’s Day and Westernisation of dress of girls students in schools and colleges.
9. Environmental movements are the movements of groups which are environmentally conscious to challenge environmental degradation at national or international level aiming at raising new ideas and long term vision i.e. in Mexico, Chille, Brazil, Malaysia, Indonesia, India faced enormous pressure.
10. Environmental movements are categorised as forest movements, movements against mining and mineral industry for creating Water Pollution and Anti Dam Movement.
11. ‘Resources Geopolitics’ is all about who gets what, when, where and how. The practices of neo-colonialism spread on a large scale and throughout a cold war, industrialised countries adopted methods to ensure a steady flow of resources by deployment of military forces near exploitation sites and sea-lanes of communications, the stock pilling of strategic resources and efforts to prop up friendly governments.
12. The global economy relied on oil as a portable and essential fuel. The history of petroleum is the history of war and struggle. Water is another important resource relevant to global politics. Regional variations and increasing scaring of freshwater may also lead to conflicts in the world to play politics.
13. Indigenous people bring the issues of environment, resources and politics together. Indigenous people live with their social, economic, cultural customs in particular areas who speak of their struggle, agenda, and rights to have equal status i.e. Island states in Oceanic region, Central and South America, Africa, India and South East Asia.
14. The issues related to rights of indigenous communities have been neglected in domestic and international politics for long. The World Council of Indigenous People was formed in 1975 which became first of 11 indigenous NGOs to receive consultative status in the UN.
WORDS THAT MATTER
- Globalisation: It signifies integration of an economy with the economies of other countries under the process of free flow of trade and capital.
- World Social Forum: A global platform to bring together a wide coalition of human rights activists, environmentalists and women activists.
- Privatisation: It allows private sector companies to produce goods and services in a country.
- Liberalisation: It signifies relaxation of government rules and regulations relating to activities in sendee and industrial sector.
- Cultural hetrogenisation: It signifies cultural differences and distinctive nature of cultures to be generated by globalisation.
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