LAQ CBSE – Social Sciences
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The Making of Global World
Q.1. What was the importance of Silk Routes?
How did Silk Routes link the world? Explain with three suitable examples. [CBSE 2008 (D)]
Explain any three characteristics of Silk Routes. [CBSE Comp. (D) 2008, Sept. 2010, 2012]
Enumerate the importance of Silk Routes. [CBSE Sept. 2010]
Ans. (i) The Silk Roads are an excellent illustration of flourishing pre-modern commercial and cultural connections between different parts of the globe.
(ii) Chinese businessmen exploited the silk route to export silk to other countries.
(iii) Traders exploited these channels to transport commodities from one country to another.
(iv) Trade and cultural exchange have always been inextricably linked. Early Christian missionaries, as well as early Muslim preachers a few decades later, very probably travelled through this path to Asia.
(v) Religions were also transmitted via these routes. Buddhism developed in eastern India and spread throughout the world via crossroads on the silk routes.
Q.2. Explain the impacts of scrapping of the Corn Law. [CBSE Sept, 2010, 2014]
What was the result of the abolishing of Corn Laws? [CBSE Sept, 2010, 2012]
Ans.(i) Corn Laws are repealed, allowing for unfettered commerce of food grains.
(ii) Following the repeal of the Corn Laws, food could be imported into Britain at a lower cost than it could be produced domestically.
(iii) Farmers in the United Kingdom were unable to compete with imports. Thousands of men and women were laid off, and vast swaths of land were left uncultivated. They flocked to the cities or relocated to other countries.
(iv) A mismatch between demand and supply of food grains occurs as a result of falling prices and rising income.
(v) Russia is one of the world’s most populous countries. Foodgrains from the United States, Australia, and other eastern European countries began to be sent to the United Kingdom, putting British producers further behind.
Q.3. ‘By 1890, a global agricultural economy had taken shape.’ Explain by giving example.
Describe any three changes in the global agricultural economy after 1890. [CBSE 2014]
Ans. (i) Food and other goods: Food and other goods began to arrive from far-flung locations. It wasn’t grown by a peasant tilling his own land anymore, but by an agricultural worker, probably newly arrived, who was now working on a huge farm that had formerly been a forest.
(ii) Infrastructure: Food and other items were delivered by railways and ships, both of which were progressively manned by low-wage labourers from southern Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Caribbean Islands in recent decades.
(iii) Raw materials: Indian farmers supplied British industries with raw cotton and other farm products. Between 1820 and 1914, global trade increased by 25 to 40 times.
(iv) Corn Law Repeal: The repeal of the Corn Laws provided the groundwork for free trade. Food can now be freely imported and exported into the United Kingdom.
(v) Commercialization of agriculture in colonies: Imperial powers took a variety of steps to commercialise agriculture in their possessions. As an example. To convert the semi-desert waste areas in West Punjab into fertile agricultural land, the British administration developed a network of irrigation canals.
Q.4. “The example of indentured labour migration from India and other parts of the world illustrates the two-sided nature of the 19th century” world.” Explain by giving examples.
Why 19th century indentured has been described as a ‘new system of slavery?’ Explain. [CBSE Sept. 2010, 2012, 2014]
Ans. (i) It was a world of greater misery and quicker economic growth, with higher income for some and poverty for others, technological advancements in some sectors and new kinds of exploitation in others.
Indentured labourers were engaged in India under contracts that guaranteed them a return trip to India after five years of service on their employer’s plantation.
(ii) The majority of indentured labourers migrated in the hope of a better future, but they were taken advantage of by both the recruitment agent and the employer.
- They had to pay the recruiting agency a commission.
- Workers were given misleading information about their eventual location, modes of transportation, kind of job, and living and working circumstances by the agents.
- Agents have even kidnapped less willing migrants in the past.
Q.5. ‘The indentured workers had discovered their own ways of surviving.” Explain. [CBSE 2013]
How did the indentured labourers maintain their cultural identity in another part of the world? [CBSE 2013]
Ans. (i) Many enslaved labourers sought refuge in the jungles.
(ii) They began to hold festivities such as Hosay, in which both Hindus and Muslims who had moved from India took part.
(iii) Many of the refugees became involved in Rastafarianism, a religious movement that originated in Jamaica’s black slums.
(iv) They began to develop their own forms of entertainment, such as Chutney Music. Beer is used in Chutney Music, which was originated by Indo- Caribbean people. The music is influenced by Indian film tunes.
(v) They created a new culture that was a hybrid of the new and the indentured labourers’ traditional cultures.
Q.6. Explain the impact of the First World War on Britain.
How did the First World War change the economic life of the people in Britain? Explain. [CBSE 2008 (D)]
Describe in brief the world economic conditions of the post First World War period. [CBSE 2010 (D), Sept. 2012, 2013]
Ans. (i) The British economy was crippled by the heavy expenditure on World War I, making postwar economic recovery difficult.
(ii) While Britain was concerned with war, Japan and India were developing their industries. As a result, Britain now had to compete with these countries, particularly Japan.
(iii) To pay for war expenses. The United States had generously loaned money to Britain (US). At the end of the war, this meant. The United Kingdom was enslaved by massive external obligations.
(iv) The conflict had resulted in a significant increase in demand, output, prices, and employment. When the wartime boom ended, production fell, employment fell, and unemployment rose.
(v) During the conflict, the inhabitants of British colonies were obliged to oppose them due to economic hardship. For example. The Non-Cooperation movement was launched in India.
Q.7. What was the impact of the Great Depression on USA? Explain. [CBSE 2013]
Ans. (i) As prices fell and the danger of a slump loomed, US banks cut domestic lending and called back loans.
Farms were unable to sell their produce due to a lack of demand.
(iii) Due to a drop in income, many American households were unable to service their debts and were forced to sell their homes, vehicles, and other consumer goods.
(iv) industrial production saw a 35% failure rate.
(v) The number of unemployed people began to rise, reaching 17 million in 1933. People trekked vast miles in search of any work they could find as unemployment rose. The financial system in the United States eventually failed.
Q.8. Explain the consequences of the Second World War.
Describe in brief the destruction caused during the Second World War. [CBSE 2010 (O), Sept. 2012]
Ans. (i) Death and Destruction: More than GO million people, or about 3% of the world’s population, are said to have died as a result of the tear, either directly or indirectly. Millions, if not billions, were also injured. Many major cities were razed to the ground.
(ii) Agriculture is harmed. Agriculture, trade, and commerce all suffered significant losses during World War II. Terrible battles conducted in various countries rendered vast swaths of land barren. Thousands of industries were destroyed, causing significant damage to industrial production. Many industries were forced to close due to a lack of raw materials.
(iii) An increase in the Soviet Union’s population The Soviet Union’s Power and Prestige: The Second World War strengthened the Soviet Union’s power and prestige. Russian influence began to grow in the international arena, and many countries were drawn to communism.
(iv) The United States of America becomes a Superpower: The United States of America became the world’s dominant power after World War II. Without a question, the United States contributed significantly to the Allies’ victory. No European country was as powerful or affluent after the war as the United States of America (USA).
(v) New Economic System: The postwar international economic system’s primary goal was to maintain economic stability and full employment in the industrialised nations. The Bretton Woods conference established the International Monetary fund IMP to deal with external surpluses and deficits in its member nations. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development ( popularly known as the World Bank) was set up to finance post-war reconstruction.
Q.9. ‘Economists and politicians drew two key lessons from inter-war economic experiences.’ Explain. [CBSE Sept 2012]
Ans. (i) Full employment: A mass-production-based industrial civilization cannot exist without mass consumption. However, in order to secure widespread consumption, a substantial and constant income was required. If the job was insecure, income could not be stable. As a result, reliable income necessitated a full-time job.
(ii) Government intervention: Prior to WWII, most economists assumed that capitalist economies and markets were self-sustaining. There is no need for government action, in other words. However, the interwar period demonstrated that markets alone were incapable of ensuring full employment.
As a result, the government would have to intervene to reduce price, output, and employment variations. The only way to assure economic stability was for the government to intervene.
Q.10. What is meant by the Bretton Woods Agreement? Explain. [CBSE Sept. 2010. 2011]
Ans. The Bretton Woods Conference was held in July 1944 at Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, United States. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) were founded as part of this system.
The following were the major provisions of this agreement: (i) formation of the IMF and IBRD (also called the World Bank).
(ii) To develop monetary cooperation among member countries.
(iii) The system of adjustable peg foreign exchange rates was used, which meant that the exchange rates were fixed but may be changed if necessary.
For trade-related and other current-account transactions, currencies had to be convertible. Governments, on the other hand, had the authority to limit capital flows.
(iv) The IMF’s capital was required to be subscribed to by all member countries.
Q.11. What were the impacts of the Bretton Woods system? Explain.
Ans. (i) The Bretton Woods system ushered in an era of extraordinary trade and economic growth for Western industrial countries and Japan.
(ii) It gave a major boost to international trade, which increased at an annual rate of over 8% between 1950 and 1970, and incomes by nearly 5%.
(iii) The grow-h was similarly fairly consistent, with few significant changes.
(iv) The system also kept unemployment low, with most industrial countries averaging less than 5%.
(v) During these decades, technology and business spread around the world. Developing countries were racing to catch up to advanced industrial nations. As a result, they spent a significant amount of money importing contemporary industrial plans and equipment.
Q.12. ‘In the. 19th century, all over the world more than 150 million people migrated from one country to another.’ Explain the factors responsible for this migration.
Ans. (i) Corn Laws Abolition and Free Trade: The repeal of the Corn Laws provided the groundwork for free trade. Food can now be freely imported and exported into the United Kingdom.
(ii) New Economic Activities: The development of railways and new ports was aided by the free trace. People had to settle the lands in order to cultivate them. This entailed the construction of dwellings and towns. All of the construction activities necessitated the use of labour. Migration resulted from the demand for labour in locations where it was in limited supply.
(iii) Technology’s Contribution: Railways, steamships, and lighter waggons all assisted people in moving from one country to another.
(iv) Imperialism: The wave of imperialism swept the globe, causing people to migrate from one country to another.
Q.13. Explain the role of technology in shaping the world economy of the 19th century. [CBSE 2010 (D)]
What was the impact of technology on food availability? Explain with the help of examples. [CBSE Sept. 2010, 2011, 2014]
What was the role of technology in transforming the 19th-century world? Explain with an example. [CBSE Sept. 2010]
Ans. (i) Global economic transformation: Technology played a significant role in all of these events. Railways, steamships, the telegraph, and other major inventions were necessary for the transformation of the nineteenth-century globe.
(ii) Connecting the markets: New transportation investments and enhancements, such as speedier railways. Food was moved more cheaply and rapidly from distant farms to final markets thanks to lighter carts and larger ships.
(iii) Meat trade impact: Until the 1870s, moat from America was carried to Europe as live animals, which were butchered in Europe. However, living animals took up a lot of space on the ship. Many people perished or were ill while on the ship. If you’ve lost weight or become unable to eat, it’s because you’ve become unfit to eat. As a result, meat costs were extremely exorbitant, much beyond the means of the European poor. Demand and manufacturing were minimal due to the high price. However, the development of refrigerated ships allowed the meat to be transported from one location to another.
(iii) Imperialism and social peace: The refrigerated ships reduced shipping costs and meat prices in Europe. In Europe, the impoverished could now eat a more diverse diet. Better living standards aided social harmony within the country and imperialism’s backing overseas.
(v) Colonialism: Technology plays a critical role in connecting global markets, promoting colonialism’s spirit.
Q.14. Define the term ‘Trade Surplus’. How was the income received from a trade surplus with India used by Britain? [CBSE 2010, 2012, 2011]
Ans. (i) ‘Trade Surplus’ occurs when the value of exports exceeds the value of imports.
(ii) The surplus was used to offset Britain’s trade imbalances with other countries, i.e. those from which Britain imported more than it sold.
(iii) A multilateral settlement system works like this: it allows one country’s deficit with another country to be offset by a third country’s surplus.
(iv) By assisting the United Kingdom in balancing its budget imbalances. India was a major player in the late-nineteenth-century global economy.
(v) The United Kingdom’s trade surplus in India also aided in the payment of ‘home charges,’ which comprised private remittances home by British officials and traders, interest payments on India’s foreign debt, and pensions for British officials in India.
Q.15 What do you know about the Great Depression? Explain the major factors responsible for the Great Depression. [CBSE 2008 (F), Sept. 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013]
Ans. Most parts of the world saw catastrophic declines in output, employment, income, and trade during this time. The Great Depression began in the United States of America in 1929 and spread around the world. The Great Depression began in the United States of America (USA) in 1929 and spread around the world. As a result, it is referred to as the Greet Depression.
Causes of Economic Depression :
(i) War-related conditions: Due to the increasing demand for army-related commodities during the First World War, there was a massive industrial expansion. Following the war, the industries had a similar expansion. However, the economic crisis was sparked by a dramatic drop in demand for military and war products.
(ii) Agricultural overproduction: Overproduction in agriculture was another key cause of the downturn. Falling farm prices exacerbated the problem. Farmers strove to expand production and bring a larger volume of food to market to retain their overall income when prices fell and agricultural income fell. This exacerbated the market’s surplus, driving prices further down. Due to a shortage of buyers, farm produce deteriorated.
(iii) Loan scarcity: In the mid-1920s, many countries relied on US loans to fund their investments. While it was often very easy to raise loans in the United States during the boom, foreign lenders in the United States panicked at the first indication of crisis.
(iv) Multiple effects: The exit of lenders from the market had a number of consequences. It resulted in the downfall of numerous large European banks, as well as the depreciation of currencies such as the British pound and sterling.
It exacerbated the drop in agricultural and raw material prices in Latin America and abroad. The United States’ attempt to defend its economy during the Great Depression by increasing import tariffs also delivered serious damage to global trade.
Q.16. How did Henry Ford revolutionise mass production in the US? Explain. [CBSE 2012]
Ans. (i) Henry Ford used a Chicago slaughterhouse assembly line for his new automobile plant in Detroit.
(ii) The assembly line made automobile production more efficient and less expensive. It required people to perform a particular activity automatically and repeatedly.
(iii) This improved their efficiency in particular work as well as their production pace.
(iv) No worker could stop or slow down the conveyer belt if they stood in front of it.
(v) At first, many workers left because they couldn’t handle the stress of the job.
(vi) Henry Ford quadrupled their salary, and in response, he increased the conveyor belt’s speed and outlawed trade unions.
Q.17. Explain the impact of the Great Depression on the Indian economy. [CBSE Sept. 2010, 2014]
Explain the impact of the Great Depression on Indian farmers in the early twentieth century. [CBSE 2009 (F), Sept. 2012]
(i) Trade Effects: The slump had an immediate impact on Indian trade. Between 1928 and 1934, India’s exports and imports practically halved. India’s pricing plummeted when foreign prices plummeted. Wheat prices in India plummeted by almost 50% between 1928 and 1934.
Impact on farmers: The price drop had a significant impact on the poor farmers. Despite the fact that agricultural prices plummeted, the colonial authority refused to provide farmers with any tax relief. The peasants who produced for the global market took the worst of the blow.
(iii) Impact on Urban India: For urban India, the depression was less severe. Those with fixed incomes, such as town-dwelling landowners who received rentals and middle-class paid employees, suddenly fared better as a result of lowering prices. Everything is inexpensive.
(iv) High Industrial Investment: Under the pressure of nationalist opinion, the government extended tariff protection to industries, which increased industrial investment.
(v) Political Implications: Gandhiji’s Civil Disobedience movement was sparked by the Great Depression.
Q.18. G-77 can be seen as a reaction to the activities of the Bretton Woods Twins. Explain the statement with five arguments. [CBSE 2013]
Ans. (i) The Bretton Woods Twins – erstwhile colonial powers dominated the IMF and World Bank. As a result, most emerging countries missed out on the rapid development witnessed by Western economies in the 1950s and 1960s. As a result, they formed a croup — the G-77 Group — to demand a new international economic system.
(ii) Former colonial powers used the IMF and the World Bank to exploit natural resources for developing countries.
(iii) The G-77 was formed by developing countries in order to achieve meaningful control over their natural resources.
(iv) They desired more development aid as well as more equitable raw material costs.
(v) They also want a greater market for their manufactured goods in richer countries’ markets.
Q.19. What were the factors which were responsible for the end of the Bretton Woods system?
(i) US Currency Decline: After the 1960s, the United States was no longer the world’s main economic force, as it had been for more than two decades. As the world’s primary currency, the US dollar no longer commands faith. The value of the tyre dollar could not be maintained in reference to gold.
(ii) New abilities: By the mid-1960s, the EEC and Japan had established themselves as independent world economic powers. With total reserves exceeding those of the United States, greater growth and trade rates, and per capita income nearing that of the United States. The chasm between Europe and Japan and the United States was closing.
(iv) Unemployment: The industrial world was also affected by unemployment, which began to rise in the mid-1970s and stayed high until the early 1990s. MNCs began shifting production operations to low-wage Asian countries in the late 1970s.
(v) Rise of China and the Soviet Union: Since its revolution in 1949, China has been cut off from the postwar world economy. However, the collapse of the Soviet Union and the Soviet* model communism in Eastern Europe, as well as new economic policies in China, brought many countries back into the global economy.
(vi) China’s low-cost structure: The Chinese economy has emerged as a new superpower as a result of its low-cost structure. In countries like China, wages were relatively low. Thus they became attractive destinations for investment by foreign MNCs competing to capture the world markets.
Q.20. What were the main sources of attraction for Europeans to come to Africa in the late nineteenth century? How did they exploit their resources? [CBSE 2010 (F)]
Ans: (i) Europeans were drawn to Africa because of its immense territory and natural resources.
(ii) Europeans arrived in Africa with the intention of establishing plantations and mines to produce crops and minerals for sale. (iii) Inheritance laws were amended to force peasants off their property: only one member of a family could inherit the land, forcing the others into the labour market.
(iv) Different African regions were split among Europeans.
Q.21. Explain any four measures adopted by America for postwar (First World War) recovery. [CBSE Sept. 2010]
Ans. (i) The United States pushed toward mass production, which reduced production costs.
(ii) As a result of lower production costs, employers began paying workers higher wages.
(iii) The housing sector benefited from a surge in demand for common household goods.
(iv) In the United States, the housing and consumer boom of the 1920s laid the foundation for prosperity. Large investments in housing and household goods appeared to set in motion a cycle of increased employment and earnings, rising consumer demand, more investment, and even more employment and incomes.
(v) In 1923, the United States restarted capital exports to the rest of the globe, becoming the world’s largest lender.