1 Mark Questions
Examine the twin environmental problems that have emerged in the ‘Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area’. (All India 2017)
Environmental problems that have emerged in the ‘Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area’ are:
- Soil salinity
What is ‘sectoral planning’? (Delhi 2013)
In sectoral planning approach, the development of various sectors such as agriculture, irrigation, manufacturing, power, construction, transport, communication, social infrastructure and services take into consideration to which various sets of schemes or programmes are formalised and implemented.
How has the Gaddi tribal community of Bharmour region maintained a distinct identity? (All India 2013)
The Gaddi tribal community of Bharmour region maintained a distinct identity as they practised transhumance and conversed through Ghadiali dialect.
What is the main objective to implement the Fourth Five Year Plan for the people in drought-prone areas? (Delhi 2009)
The main objectives to implement the Fourth five-year plan for the people in drought-prone areas are to provide employment and create productive assets.
In which Five Year Plan of India were Hill Area Development Programmes initiated? (All India 2009)
Hill Area Development Programmes were initiated in the Fifth five-year plan of India.
3 Marks Questions
Explain the main aims of Bharmour Tribal Area Development plan. (Delhi 2014)
The main aims and priorities of this project are as follows:
- Improving the quality of life of the Gaddis.
- Narrowing the gap in the level of development between Bharmour and other districts of Himachal Pradesh.
- The highest priority was on the development of transport and communications, agriculture and allied activities as well as social and community services.
How has the introduction of Indira Gandhi canal irrigation in the drylands of Rajasthan influenced the environmental conditions of the region positively? Explain in any three points. (HOTS; All India 2012)
The positive impacts of Indira Gandhi canal irrigation on the environmental conditions of the dryland area of Rajasthan are as follow:
- CAD programmes (Command Area Development) i.e. afforestation and pastures programs developed the desertic area into Greenland.
- An increase in agriculture, livestock productivity and intensity of cropping also have been recorded.
- Commercial crops i.e. wheat, rice,
cotton, groundnut replaced the drought-resistant crops like gram, bajra and jowar.
Write in brief about the physical setting of Bharmour region. (Delhi 2008)
Bharmour region lies (between 32° 1T N and 32°41′ N latitudes and 76°22′ E and 76°53‘ E longitudes. It is spread over an area of about 1818 sq km. This region is the homeland of the Gaddi tribal community and surrounded by lofty mountains on all sides.
It has Pir Panjal in the North and Dhaula Dhar in the South. In the east, the extension of Dhaula converges with Pir Panjal near Rohtang Pass. The river Ravi and its tributaries, the Budhil and Bundchen, carve out deep gorges here and divide the region into the four Physiographic divisions such as:
- Tundah areas
Bharmour experiences freezing weather conditions and snowfall in winter. Its mean monthly temperature in January remains 4°C and on July 26°C.
5 Marks Questions
Development is a multi-dimensional concept and signifies the positive, irreversible transformation of the economy, society and environment. Support the statement with suitable arguments from India. (HOTS; Delhi 2010)
Development is a dynamic concept that used to describe the state of particular societies and the process of changes experienced by them. In early human history, the main criteria of determination of a society’s state were the interaction processes between human societies and their biophysical environment.
Societies helped in the development of various levels of technology and institutions upon which human environment processes depend. These have helped in increasing the pace of human-environment interaction, therefore the momentum generated and festinated technological progress and transformation and creation of the institution.
After the period of World war II, development and economic growth considered as one concept. But due to unequal distribution, a faster rate of growth in poverty is experienced by even the developed nations having high economic growth. Then redistribution with growth and equity broaden the term development in 1970.
Now the concept of development not only restricted to the economic sphere alone but also incorporates balance and equality among people in term of welfare and quality of life of people health, education and other facilities, equal opportunity to all and ensuring political and civil rights.
Hence, the concept of development has become multi-dimensional and stands for the positive, irreversible transformation of the economy, society and environment.
“Hill Area Development Programmes in India were drawn keeping in view their topographical ecological, social and economic conditions”. Support this statement with a suitable explanation. (HOTS; All India 2010)
Yes it is true, that Hill Area Development Programmes in India were drawn keeping in view their topographical, ecological, social and economic conditions because the main objectives of these programmes were on to the development of:
- Plantation agriculture
- Animal Husbandry
- Small scale and village industry.
By this, exploitation of local resources may become possible.
The programme was recommended by the National Committee on the Development of Backward Area (1981), which set a criterion that the hill areas having a height above 600 m and not covered under tribal sub-plan be treated as backward hill areas. The programme covers all the hilly districts of Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Mikir Hill and North hills of Assam, Darjiling district of West Bengal and Nilgiri district of Tamil Nadu. It was started in the Fifth Five Year Plan.
Explain any five measures necessary for the promotion of sustainable development in ‘Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area’. (All India 2009)
Describe any five measures needed for the promotion of sustainable development in the ‘Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area’. (Delhi 2008)
Measures for promotion of sustainability in ‘Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area’ are as follows:
- Rigorous implementation of water management policy is the first and foremost requirement of this project.
- Adoption of plantation crops such as citrus fruits, instead of water-intensive crops.
- In order to reduce the conveyance loss of water, few important programmes shall be taken into account such as the CAD (Command Area Development) programmes i.e.
- the lining of watercourses.
- land development and levelling.
- Warabandi system (means equal distribution of canal water in the command area of the outlet).
- The areas should be reclaimed that got affected by waterlogging and soil salinity.
- Promoting eco-development in the fragile environment especially in stage II command area through afforestation, shelter belt, plantation and pasture development activities.
- To promote social sustainability by providing financial and institutional support for land cultivation to the land allottees of poor background.
- Other sectors of the economy in addition to agriculture, animal husbandry and allied activities should be encouraged for attaining economic sustainability.
Describe five main points of the integrated tribal development project implemented in Bharmour region. (All India 2008)
Following steps are taken for the attainment of tribal sub-plan strategy:
- Improving the quality of life of the Gaddis and narrowing the gap in the level of development between Bharmour and other districts of Himachal Pradesh.
- The highest priority was on the development of transport and communications, agriculture and attired activities as well as social and community services.
- Improvement in the basic infrastructure of health care facilities, potable water supply, schools, transport and communication, training, marketing, credit and electricity supply, e.g. villages located along the river Ravi in Holi and Khani areas are main beneficiaries of infrastructural development.
- Employment generation through agricultural allied activities like horticulture, animal husbandry and cottage industry.
- The Gaddis had traditionally subsistence agriculture cum-pastoral economy, later on, during the last three decades of the twentieth century, pulses and other cash crops became one of the main crops of this region.
Give a brief account of the two stages of the Indira Gandhi Canal Project. (All India 2008)
Two stages of the Indira Gandhi Canal Project are as follows:
Stage I of Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area
This Command area covers Ganganagar, Hanumangarh and Northern part of Bikaner districts. Its culturable command area is 5.53 lakh hectares along with gentle undulating topography. An irrigation system was introduced in this stage in the early 1960s.
State II of Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area
This stage II covers 14.10 lakh hectares culturable land of Bikaner, Jaisalmer, Barmer, Jodhpur, Nagaur and Chum districts. Hot desert with shifting sand dunes and temperature soaring to 50° C in summers are the main characteristics of the region.
How would you define ecological, social and economic sustainabilities? Explain in brief. (All Indio 2008)
Ecological, social and economic sustainabilities are as follows:
It means using our natural resources wisely in the short term so that these resources are available in the long term.
The ability of a community to develop processes and structures which not only meet the needs of its current members but also support the ability of future generations to maintain a healthy community.
The use of various strategies for employing existing resources optimally, so that a responsible and beneficial balance can be achieved over the longer term.
Suppose you have given the power to modify the planning process. How would you use this power wisely and what would be your plan? Explain with reason, (HOTS? AN India 2008)
If I had some power to modify the present planning process, I would have broadened the planning process by adding some important terms such as equity, sustainability and empowerment. These are described below:
It means making equal access to opportunities available to everybody. The opportunities available to people must be equal irrespective of their gender, race, income and caste.
It refers to continuity in the availability of opportunities. This means that each generation must have the same opportunities, therefore we must use our environmental, financial and human resources in such a way that our future generations are not deprived off these opportunities.
It refers to have the power to make choices. Such power comes from increasing freedom and capability. Good governance and people-oriented policies are required to empower people. The empowerment of social and economically disadvantaged groups are of special importance.
Explain in brief the meaning and purpose of Target Area Programme with suitable examples from India. (All India 2008)
The core focus of planning or process must be on economically backward areas. It is not obvious that resource-rich regions are wealthy from all spheres because there is a requirement of technology, investment and resources simultaneously, for better economic development. In spite of having one and a half decades experience of the planning process, there are still regional imbalances found in economic development which is lagging behind the economic sector. In order to combat both regional and social disparities, the planning commission introduced the target area and target group approach to planning.
Some of the examples of these are as follows:
Target Area Programme
- Command Area Development Programme.
- Drought Prone Area Development Programme.
- Desert Development Programme.
- Hill Area Development Programme.
Target Group Programmes
- The Small Farmers Development Agency (SFDA).
- Marginal Farmers Development Agency (MFDA).
As part of target area planning in the Eighth five-year plan, special programmes were designed to develop infrastructure in hill areas. North Eastern states tribal areas and backward areas integrated tribal development project of Bharmour region in Himachal Pradesh, Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area Project in Rajasthan are some examples of such programmes.
Value Based Questions
“Hill Area Development Programmes in India were drawn keeping in view their topographical, ecological, social and economic conditions.” Give the values which lead to the development of the hill area.
Following values lead to the development of hill area:
- Sustainable development
- Social progress
“Development is a multi-dimensional corrupt and signifies the pasties, irreversible transformation of the economy, society and environment.” Which value lead to development?
Values which lead to development are:
- Human development
- Social development