Climate Class 9 Extra Questions Social Science Geography Chapter 4
Extra Questions for Class 9 Social Science Geography Chapter 4 Climate
Climate Class 9 Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type Questions
The sum total of weather conditions and variation over a large area for a long period of time is referred to as _______ .
The climate of India is described as the _______ .
On a winter night, the temperature at Drass in Jammu and Kashmir may be as low as _______ .
What are thunder storms called in West Bengal?
Thunder storms are called Baisakhi in West Bengal.
The Tropic of Cancer passes through the _______ .
Middle of the country
The pressure and wind system of any area depend on the _______ .
Latitude and altitude of the place
Name the two branches of the monsoon.
- The Arabian Sea Branch,
- They Bay of Bengal Branch.
The climate of India is strongly influenced by _______ .
Where is equable type of climate found?
Equable type of climate is found close to the sea.
The monsoon is known for its _______ .
What do you mean by mango showers?
Mango showers are the pre-monsoon showers that takes place on the coast of Kerala and Karnataka. Since they help in the early ripening of mangoes, they are called mango showers.
The state of normal rainfall increasing suddenly and continuing constantly for several days is known as _______ .
An apparent force caused by the earth’s rotation is called
Why do coastal areas experience less contrast in temperature conditions?
Due to the moderating effect of the seas.
Wind generally blow from the area of _______ .
High Pressure to Low Pressure
In which hills Mawsynram is located?
In Khasi Hills
What do you known about India’s climate?
India’s climate is tropical as well as sub-tropical.
What is the full form of ITCZ?
Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone.
Fast flowing and a narrow belt of high attitude winds are called _______ .
In which latitudes of tropical areas is monsoon experienced?
20°N and 20°S
In winter, the western cyclonic disturbances originate from which sea?
Which states experience loo in summers?
Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Haryana, etc.
Why hills are cooler during summer season?
It is because as one goes from the surface of the earth to higher altitudes, the atmosphere becomes less dense and temperature decreases. That is why hills are cooler in summer.
What does ENSO mean?
ENSO is the combination of El Nino and Southern Oscillations. The changes in pressure conditions are connected to the El Nino. Hence, the phenomenon is referred to as ENSO.
Why do winters in India experience dry season?
It is because during this season northeast trade winds prevail over the country. That is why India experience dry season in winter. They blow from land to sea in most parts of the country.
What is a ‘loo’?
The strong, gusty, hot, dry winds blowing during the day over the north and northwestern India during summers are known as ‘loo’. The ‘loo’ is a striking feature of the hot weather season from April to June. Loo usually occurs during the afternoon but sometimes it even continues until late in the evening.
What do you mean by Coriolis force?
An apparent force caused by the earth’s rotation. The Coriolis force is responsible for deflecting winds towards the right in the northern hemisphere and towards the left in the southern hemisphere. This is also known as Ferrel’s Law.
What do you mean by dust-storms?
They are very common during the month of May in Northern India. These storms brings temporary relief as they, lower the temperature and may bring bright light rain and cool breeze
Climate Class 9 Extra Questions Short Answer Type Questions
What does the word “monsoon” imply?
The word, monsoon is derived from the Arabic word, Mausim. It means season. Hence, the word, monsoon implies the seasonal reversal in the wind direction during a year. It conveys the rhythm of seasons and changes in direction of winds and in the distribution pattern of rainfall and temperature with the change of seasons. The monsoon winds move six months from sea to land and another six months from land to sea.
What are three important factors which influence the mechanism of Indian weather?
Following are the three main factors which influence the mechanism of Indian weather :
- Surface distribution of pressure and winds.
- Upper air circulation of Jet stream.
- Inflow of western disturbances in winter and tropical depressions in summer. They create variation in the local weather conditions.
“India’s climate has characteristics of tropical as well as sub-tropical climates” Discuss.
The Tropic of Cancer passes through the middle of the country from the Rann of Kuchchh in the west to Mizoram in the east. Amost half of the country, lying south of the Tropic of Cancer, belongs to the tropical area. A1 the remaining area, north, of the Tropic, lies in the sub-tropics. Therefore, India’s climate has characteristics of tropical as well as subtropical climates.
How does the westerly jet stream help in bringing the western disturbances to the Indian subcontinent during the winter?
The western disturbances originate near the Mediterranean sea in the winter. They move eastwards. The westerly jet stream prevails over the northern plains of India in winter. Hence, these disturbances come under the influence of the westerly jet stream— which brings them to the Indian subcontinent. They cause widespread rainfall in this region. This winter rainfall is very useful and effective for rabi-crops.
State three dominant characteristics of the Indian monsoon.
The Indian monsoon is characterised by the following three dominant features :
- Seasonal reversal of direction in wind system : The monsoon winds blow from land to sea in winter and from sea to land in summer.
- Seasonal heavy rainfall and drought are common features of the Indian monsoon.
- In spite of local variations in climatic conditions, it unites the whole country in a single climatic thread of monsoon.
What do you mean by Southern Oscillation?
Normally when the tropical eastern south Pacific Ocean experiences high pressure, the tropical eastern Indian Ocean experiences low pressure. But in certain years, there is a reversal in the pressure conditions and the eastern Pacific has lower pressure in comparison to the eastern Indian Ocean. This periodic change in pressure conditions is known as the Southern Oscillation.
A feature connected with the SO is the El Nino phenomenon in which a warm ocean current that flows past the Peruvian Coast, in place of the cold Peruvian current, every 2 to 5 years. The changes in pressure conditions are connected to the El Nino. Hence, the phenomenon is referred to as ENSO (El Nino Southern Oscillations).
Write a short note on the trade winds.
The winds blowing from the subtropical high-pressure belt to the equatorial low pressure belt are termed as Trade Winds’.
They blow southwards, get deflected to the right due to the Coriolis force, and move towards the equatorial low-pressure area. Generally, these winds carry little moisture as they originate and blow over land.
Therefore, they bring little or no rain. The trade winds are the most permanent and regular of all planetary winds. They blow with great force in a constant direction.
What do you know about rainfall distribution in India?
Rainfall distribution is unequal in our country. Parts of western coast and northeastern India receive over about 400 cm of rainfall annually. However, it is less than 60 cm in western Rajasthan and adjoining parts of Gujarat, Haryana and Punjab. Rainfall is equally low in the interior of the Deccan plateau, and east of the Sahyadris.
A third area of low precipitation is around Leh in Jammu and Kashmir. The rest of the country receives moderate rainfall. Snowfall is restricted to the Himalayan region.
Why do the Western Ghats receive more rainfall than the Eastern Ghats?
In terms of relief, the Western Ghats are much higher in comparison to the Eastern Ghats. The Western Ghats are continuous stretches of high mountains.
Therefore, when the moisture-laden Arabian Sea branch of Southwest Monsoon first strikes the Western Ghats, it brings heavy rainfall along the windward side of the Western Ghats. In Eastern Ghats, rain, bearing winds of Southwest Monsoon do not face such orographic barrier and hence-receive much lower amount of rainfall.
The coastal areas of India do not register any significant change in temperature even during the winter and summer. Why?
The coastal areas of India do not register any significant seasonal changes in temperature due to the following reasons :
(a) The influence of surrounding sea keep them with equable temperature conditions such as the mean monthly temperature of Thiruvananthapuram and Mumbai fluctuates very slightly.
(b) As we know the sea watesrs are reservoirs of the warmth and they get heated and cooled down slowly due to conventional processes of heating and cooling and, hence, they remain warmer in winter and cooler in summer, keeping the coastal areas equable in temperature.
(c) The warm ocean currents, too, keep the coastal areas with almost equable temperature throughout the year.
Write a short note on withdrawal or retreat of monsoon.
Withdrawal or the retreat of the monsoon is a more gradual process. The withdrawal . of the monsoon begins in northwestern states of India by early September. By mid-October, it withdraws completely from the northern half of the peninsula. The withdrawal from the southern half of the peninsula is rapid. By early December, the monsoon has withdrawn from the rest of the country.
The islands receive the very first monsoon showers, progressively from south to north, from the last week of April to the first week of May. The withdrawal takes place progressively from north to south from the first week of December to the first week of January. By this time the rest of the country is already under the influence of the winter monsoon.
The western part of Rajasthan remains almost dry during southwest monsoon season. Give three reasons in support of this statement.
The western part of Rajasthan remains almost dry during south-west monsoon Season because:
- These monsoon winds flow from east, dropping much of its moisture along the path. When they reach Rajasthan, they are almost dry.
- There is no mountain high enough to check the flow of the Arabian Sea branch of monsoon winds. The Aravalli Mountains are not very high.
- The direction of the Aravalli Mountains is parallel to the direction of Arabian Sea
winds. Hence, these winds cross over Rajasthan without giving rainfall.
- The heat of the west Rajasthan desert does not allow the condensation of moisture to take place and hence, no rain is occurs. (Any three)
Explain In brief :
- Burst of the Monsoon
- Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ)
- Burst of the Monsoon : The duration of the monsoon is between 100-120 days from early June to mid-September. Around the time of its arrival, the normal rainfall increases suddenly and continues constantly for several days. This is known as the ‘burst’ of the monsoon and can be distinguished from the pre-monsoon showers.
- Inter Tropical Convergence Zone : The Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ,) is a broad trough of low pressure in equatorial latitudes. This is where the northeast and the southeast trade winds converge. This convergence zone lies parallel to the equator but moves north or south with the apparent movement of the sun.
Distinguish between southwest monsoon and northeast monsoon.
|Southwest Monsoon||Northeast Monsoon|
|(i) The summer period is marked by the southwest monsoons.||(i) The winter period is marked by northeast monsoon.|
|(ii) The southwest monsoon blow in a southwest direction to the mainland of India from June to September.||(ii) The northwest monsoon blow in a north easterly direction across India from mid-November to February|
|(iii) It blows in India into two branches namely the Arabian Sea branch and Bay of Bengal branch.||(iii) It does not possess any branches.|
|(iv) The southwest monsoon are warm winds.||(iv) These are cold winds.|
Describe with examples how distance from the sea influences the climate of a place.
The sea exerts a moderating influence on climate. As the distance from the sea increases, its moderating influence decreases and the people experience extreme weather conditions. This condition is known as continentality i.e., it is marked as very hot during summers and very cold during winters. For example, Delhi is located in the interior of the country, at a distance from the sea, experiences an extreme type of climate.
Mumbai receives more rainfall in rainy season. Why?
Mumbai receives more rainfall in rainy season from Arabian Sea branch from June to September. Mumbai is located on the western coast which comes in the way of Arabian Sea branch. It is located on the windward side of the Western Ghats which receives very heavy rainfall, which is more than 250 cm.
What is October Heat?
The months of October-November form a period of transition from hot rainy season to dry winter conditions. The retreat of the monsoon is marked by clear skies and rise in temperature. While day temperatures are high, nights are cool and pleasant. The land is still moist. Owing to the conditions of high temperature and humidity, the weather becomes rather oppressive during the day. This is commonly known as ‘October heat’.
What do you mean by El Nino?
This is the name given to the periodic development of a warm ocean current along the coast of Peru as a temporary replacement of the cold Peruvian current.
‘El Nino’ is a Spanish word meaning ‘the child’, and refers to the baby Christ, as this current start flowing during Christmas. The presence of the El Nino leads to an increase in sea-surface temperature and weakening of the trade winds in the region.
What are three features of Advancing Monsoon?
The three features of Advancing Monsoon are :
- By early June, the low-pressure condition over the northern plains intensifies. It attracts the trade winds of the southern hemisphere.
- These south-east trade winds originate over the warm subtropical areas of the southern oceans. They cross the equator and blow in a south-westerly direction entering the Indian peninsula as the south-west monsoon.
- As these winds blow over warm oceans, they bring abundant moisture to the subcontinent. These winds are strong and blow at an average velocity of 30 km per hour.
Climate Class 9 Extra Questions Long Answer Type Questions
What are the major controls of the climate? Explain them.
The six major controls of the climate are latitude, altitude, pressure and wind system, distance from the sea, ocean currents and relief features.
- Due to the shape of the earth, the amount of solar energy received varies according to latitude. As a result, air temperature generally decreases from the equator towards the poles, as one goes from the surface of the earth to higher altitudes.
- On going from the earth’s surface to higher altitudes, the atmosphere becomes less dense and temperature decreases. The hills are, therefore, cooler during summers.
- The pressure and wind system of any area depends on the latitude and altitude of the place. Thus, it influences the temperature and rainfall pattern. The sea exerts a moderating influence on climate.
- As the distance from the sea increases, its moderating influence decreases and the people experience extreme weather conditions. This condition is known as continentality (i.e., very hot during summers and very cold during winters).
- Ocean currents along with onshore winds affect the climate of the coastal areas. For example, any coastal area with warm or cold currents flowing past it, will be warmed or cooled if the winds are onshore.
- Relief too plays a major role in determining the climate of the place. High mountains act as barriers for cold or hot winds; they may also cause precipitation it they are high enough and lie in the path of rain-bearing winds. The leeward side of mountains remains relatively dry. (Any four points)
Give a brief account of the hot weather season in India.
The period between March to May is the hot weather season or summer in India.
The characteristic features of the hot weather season are as follows :
- Due to the apparent northward movement of the sun, the global heat belt shifts northwards.
- The influence of the shifting of the heat belt can be seen clearly from temperature recordings taken during March-May at different latitudes. In March, the highest temperature is about 38° Celsius, recorded on the Deccan plateau.
- In April, temperatures in Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat are around 42°C. In May, temperature of 45°C is common in northwestern parts of the country. In temperature remain lower due to the Peninsular India, has moderating to influence of the oceans.
- The summer months experience rising temperature and falling air pressure in the northern part of the country. Towards the end of May, an elongated low-pressure area develops in the region extending from the Thar Desert in the northwest to Patna and Chotanagpur plateau in the east and southeast. Circulation of air begins to set in around this trough.
- Strong, gusty, hot, dry winds, locally called ‘loo’, blow during the day over the north and northwestern India. They may continue until late in the evening.
- Dust storms are common during the month of May in Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, Eastern Rajasthan and Western Uttar Pradesh. Sometimes, they bring light rain and pleasant cool breeze that provide temporary relief from the heat.
- High temperature during the day causes violent, localised thunderstorms by the evening. These thunderstorms are associated with violent winds, torrential downpours, often accompanied by hail. These storms are known as ‘Kaal Baisakhi’ or calamity of the month of Baisakh in West Bengal. (Any flue)
What are the variations in precipitation in India?
(a) There are variations not only in the form and types of precipitation but also in its amount and the seasonal distribution.
(b) The rest of the country receives moderate rainfall. Snowfall is restricted to the Himalayan region.
(c) The annual precipitation varies from over 400 cm in Meghalaya to less than 10 cm in Ladakh and western Rajasthan.
(d) Owing to the nature of monsoons, the annual rainfall is highly variable from year to year. Variability is high in the regions of low rainfall, such as parts of Rajasthan, Gujarat and the leeward side of the Western Ghats.
(e) Most parts of the country receive rainfall from June to September but some parts like the Tamil Nadu coast gets most of its rains during October and November.
Describe the effect of western cyclonic disturbances on the Indian climate?
The western cyclonic disturbances are weather phenomena of the winter months brought in by the westerly flow from the Mediterranean region.
They affect the climate of India in the following ways :
- By causing cyclonic rainfall in the month of winter, which is otherwise dry, the region of western cyclonic disturbances influence the weather of the north and north-western India.
- These low-pressure systems originate over the Mediterranean Sea and Western Asia and move into India, alongwith easterly flow.
- They cause the much-needed winter rains over the plains and snowfall in the mountains.
- Although the total amount of winter rainfall, locally known as ‘Mahawat’ is small, it is very useful for rabi crops. These winds are called western cyclonic disturbances since they came from the western part of India.
Write about the Arabian Sea branch of the monsoon.
The monsoon arrives at the southern tip of the Indian peninsula generally by the first week of June. Subsequently, it proceeds into two – the Arabian Sea branch and the Bay of Bengal branch. The Arabian Sea branch reaches Mumbai about ten days later on approximately the 10th of June. This is a fairly rapid advance. The onshore moisture-laden winds strike the Western Ghats and provide heavy rainfall on its windward side. As a result, Mumbai in the windward side receives much more rainfall than Pune which is located on the leeward side of the Western Ghats.
By mid-June, the Arabian Sea branch of the monsoon arrives over Saurashtra-Kuchchh and the central part of the country. In the western and northwestern parts of the country, the highlands, the Aravalis, lie parallel to the direction of the incoming Arabian Sea branch of monsoon. Hence, these areas do not receive much rainfall because the rain-bearing winds do not strike any barrier.
By the first week of July, Western Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana and eastern Rajasthan experience the monsoons.
The Arabian Sea branch of monsoon merges with the Bay of Bengal branch over the north-western part of the Ganga plains. Delhi receives its rain from either of the two branches.
Write a brief account of the conditions and characteristics of the retreating monsoons.
The months of October-November mark a period of transition from hot rainy season to cold dry winter conditions. With the apparent movement of the sun southwards, the low-pressure monsoon trough over the Northern Plains weakens and is gradually replaced by a high-pressure system. The low-pressure conditions shift to the Bay of Bengal.
The retreat of the monsoon is marked by clear skies and rise in temperature. While day temperatures are high, nights are cool and pleasant. The land is still moist.
As a result, the southwest monsoon winds weaken and start withdrawing gradually from India. By the beginning of October, it withdraws from the Northern Plains. This period is known as the Retreating Monsoon
The Retreating Monsoon season is marked by clear skies and rise in temperature. While days are warm, nights are cool and pleasant. High rate of evaporation from the land that is still moist results in high humidity and oppressive weather conditions during the day. This phenomenon is known as ‘October heat’.
The low-pressure conditions, cgyer northwestern India, get transferred to the Bay of Bengal by early November. This shift is associated with the occurrence of cyclonic depressions, which originate over the Andaman Sea.
The deltas region of the Godavari, the Krishna and the Kaveri are frequently struck by cyclones, which cause great damage to life and property. Sometimes, these cyclones arrive at the coasts of Odisha, West Bengal and Bangladesh. The bulk of the rainfall of the Coromandel Coast is derived from depressions and cyclones.