Physical Education Class 12 Important Questions Chapter 4 Physical Education and Sports for CWSN – Children with Special Needs: Divyangs
1 Mark Questions
Disability is defined as a condition or function judged to be significantly impaired relative to the usual standard of an individual or group.
How disability is different from a disorder?
Disability, whether it is physical or mental, is of permanent nature, but disorder can be temporary or permanent.
Why the word ‘differently abled’ is used in place of disabled nowadays?
Differently abled is used in place of disabled nowadays to give a more positive message and to avoid any kind of discrimination in the society.
Give some examples of cognitive disability.
Some examples of cognitive disability are children suffering from dyslexia, speech disorders, problems in solving mathematical calculations, short attention span, short memory and learning difficulties.
What is ADHD?
ADHD stands’ for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. This brings behavioural changes and is normally seen is school going kids. Here the attention span is very short, kids are hyperactive and face trouble in focussing on a task.
What do you understand by disability etiquettes?
Disability etiquettes is a set of guidelines to deal with people facing physical or mental disabilities.
Write two ways to communicate with people suffering from cognitive impairments.
- Use a calm voice and be comfortable:
- Treat the person as an individual with talents and abilities
What do you understand by physical activity?
Physical activity means the movement of the body and use of energy Walking, running, dancing, swimming, yoga, and gardening are few examples of physical activity.
Write any one advantage of physical activity.
Physical activity enhances the metabolism of brain in the children. It leads to cognitive improvement in children with special needs allowing them to acquire new skills, learn new things and focus on specific goals.
Explain the strategy of positive behaviour in brief.
The strategy of positive behaviour relates to showing a positive attitude and having healthy interactions with children with special needs. The teachers should prevent negative behaviours and encourage these children to participate in classroom activities.
What do, you understand by disorder?
A disorder is a blip in the usual functioning of a person. It disturbs the mental or physical health of a person.
3 Marks Questions
Explain the nature and causes of physical disability.
Physical disability is physical in nature since it relates to physical functioning of the body parts including sense organiser:
The causes of physical disability are as follows
- Illnesses like cancer, heart attack or diabetes cause the majority of long-term disabilities.
- Back pain, injuries and arthritis are also significant causes.
- Lifestyle choices and personal behaviour that lead to obesity are also becoming major contributing factors.
- The musculoskeletal disorder also causes disabilities. Examples include spine/joint disorders, fibromytis etc.
How does the Sensory Processing Disorder interfere with a child’s normal everyday functioning?
The Sensory Processing Disorder is a condition in which the brain has trouble in receiving and responding to information that comes in through senses. Children suffering from SPD are either under-reactive or over-reactive. They also lack motor skills, have short span of attention and delayed communication skills.
Due to these symptoms, children with SPD are not able to concentrate on studies or other activities. So the lack of sensory coordination with the brain in an appropriate manner interferes with the children’s normal everyday functioning.
How environmental factors cause various types of disorders?
Environmental factors are the external factors present where a child is living. Poor nutrition is a major environmental factor because the child does not get adequate food or nutrition and it leads to deficiencies. Exposure to toxins such as lead, insecticides, hydrocarbons creates many hormonal imbalances in the body. Similarly, parental neglect and sexual abuse at young age are other factors present in and around the child that create mental imbalances. In this way, environmental factors cause various types of disorders.
Explain three causes that are behind intellectual disability.
The three causes behind intellectual disability are as follows
- Genetic Conditions These include conditions like Downs syndrome and fragile X syndrome. These occur due to genetic mutations or heredity factors.
- Problems during Pregnancy and Childbirth Intellectual disability can be caused if the foetus is not well-developed during pregnancy. If an infant does not get sufficient oxygen during childbirth or is premature, then the chances are more of this disability.
- Illness or Injury Illness like meningitis, whooping cough, measles, infections in the brain or head injuries can be the causes of intellectual disability.
Explain any five disability etiquettes towards people with hearing loss?
There are various disability etiquettes to be shown towards people with hearing loss. These are as follows
- Get.the person’s attention with a wave of the hand, or a tap on the shoulder.
- Speak clearly and slowly, but without exaggerating your lip movements or shouting.
- Use sign language if you and the person are both familiar with it.
- When an interpreter accompanies a person, direct your remarks to the person rather than to the interpreter.
- Look directly at the person and speak f expressively.
Explain the strategy of inclusive classrooms. Why is it gaining popularity?
Inclusive classrooms means including the children with special needs within the normal classrooms where other children study. It requires some changes in existing curriculum so that children with special needs get education along with other children. This concept is gaining popularity because it helps in changing the outlook of society. If all the children, get education in the same environment then they will understand, interact and cooperate with other. In this way, children with special needs get well accepted in society.
Write the full form of ADHD and SPD. Elaborate on the causes that lead to the two disorders.
The full form of ADHD-is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder arid SPD is Sensory Processing Disorder.
The causes leading to the two disorders are as follows ADHD Causes
- Genes and Heredity ADHD can run in family due to certain genes and genetic mutations.
- Brain Injury and Epilepsy Children who have had traumatic brain injuries or who have epilepsy can often have ADHD symptoms.
- Children affected with SPD are said to have been understimulated during critical periods of development.
- Genetic or heredity factors such as having a history of autism or SPD in the family.
5 Marks Questions
Explain ASD, ODD and OCD. Give two .causes of each.
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a type of mental disorder which then changes the behaviours. It is a developmental disorder that affects normal brain functioning. People with ASD have repetitive behaviour patterns like flicking a light switch repeatedly, flipping objects etc.
Causes of ASD
- It can be the result of heredity factors, genetic differences and genetic mutations.
- It can also come through abnormal mechanisms of brain development and other neurobiological factors.
Oppositional Defiant Disorder is a behaviour disorder that usually takes place in early teens. ODD is characterised by irritable mood, anger, revenge, arguments, disobeying, talking back and mood swings. Teenagers going through ODD face a lot of behavioural problems.
Causes of ODD
- Genetics A child’s natural disposition or temperament and possible neurobiological differences in the way nerves and the brain function may cause ODD. ,
- Environment Problems with parenting that may involve lack of supervision, inconsistent or harsh discipline, or abuse or neglect also causes ODD.
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder is a type of mental disorder that takes place in people in middle ages. People with OCD do repetitive behaviours, perform routine tasks repeatedly or have certain thoughts routinely. For example, excessive hand washing, counting of things repeatedly, checking if a door is locked many times etc.
Causes of OCD
- Familial Disorder The disorder may run in the family, therefore close relatives of people with OCD are likely to develop it.
- Behavioural Causes The behavioural theory suggests that people with OCD associate certain objects or situations with fear and learn to avoid those things or learn to perform rituals in order to help reduce the fear or the stress related to that situation.
Elaborate the disabilities etiquettes of person with speech difficulties and language impairment?
The disabilities etiquettes of person with speech difficulties are mentioned as below
- Give attention to the person who has difficulty in speaking.
- Keep manner to encourage rather than correcting.
- Give extra time for the conversation and be patient.
- If you have difficulty in understanding, don’t pretend that you do. Repeat as much as you do understand.
The disabilities etiquettes of person with language impairment are mentioned as below
- Use a calm voice and be comfortable. Use simple and short sentences.
- Do not argue with the person.
- Treat each person as an individual with talents and abilities deserving of respect and dignity.
Explain the advantages of physical activities for children with special needs.
There are various advantages of physical activities for children with special needs.
These are mentioned below
- It strengthens the heart muscle thereby improving cardiovascular efficiency, lung efficiency and exercise endurance. This helps in controlling repetitive behaviours among disabled children.
- Besides improving fitness, physical activity develops social relationships with other children, teammates and teachers. This brings positive changes in the social behaviour of these children.
- It helps to improve energy level in the body. Regular physical activity often makes children more energetic, allows them to become active.
- It regulates blood pressure, cholesterol level and diabetes. Physical activity reduces stress level.
- It helps to control weight. The children with disabilities are not physically active or may have deficit of calories, which takes fat away and lowers weight but regular exercises help in regulating weight.
- Physical activities help in improving muscle strength, coordination and flexibility among disabled children.
Explain five strategies to make physical activities accessible for children with special needs.
The five strategies to make physical activities accessible for children with special needs are as follows
- Inclusive Classrooms It means development of education laws in such a way that children with special needs get education within the normal classrooms along with other children so that they are well accepted in society.
- Assistive Technology It refers to creating devices, tools or equipment that help children with special needs to participate in learning activities like bigger balls, balls with bells, balls attached to strings to bring it back to the students etc.
- Adaptive Physical Education Depending on students’ disability, a separate, adaptive class or modifications within a game, changing the rules of the game or sport to some extent can help the students in a big way.
- Creating Specific Environment Students with special needs can be provided with specific play area with special requirements as needed by them. Loud music, glaring lights often cannot be tolerated by these children so a lot of natural lighting should be there.
- Positive Behaviour In physical education classes, teachers should show positive behaviour and healthy interactions and prevent negative behaviours. The method is to “Prevent, Teach, Reinforce”. This means class material taught through positive interactions, lesson reinforced by referring back to behavioural expectations and evaluating progress.
Value Based Questions
A teacher in a preschool noticed that a child is not singing along with other children. She is not responding even when her name is called. Then the teacher asked the child to
stand next to her and repeat the rhyme along with her, while she prompted her. With effort the child was able to sing like other children of her age.
(i) What do you think the child is suffering from?
(ii) What values are’ shown by the teacher?
(iii) What type of school/classroom is it?
(i) The child is suffering from anykind of disorder that is mental in nature such as SPD (Sensory Processing Disorder),
(ii) The values shown by the teacher are compassion who thinks for all. the students, kindness, observant, thoughtfulness and caring attitude for the students.
(iii) The type of school/ classroom is-inclusive because the children with special needs study along. with the other children and are not sent to separate schools.
School programmes need to recognise the essential are of physical activity in the education of children with special needs. In order to develop lifelong habits of good fitness and to provide them with many opportunities for socialisation. Schools need to understand that physical education is not a secondary subject but it is just as important as other skills.
(i) Why is physical education important for children with disabilities?
(ii) Write two steps to create awareness for the need of physical education.
(i) Physical education is important for children with disabilities because it helps in improving physical fitness, develops social relationships, brings cognitive development and helps these children in acquiring new skills.
(ii) To Create awareness for the need of physical education, children and parents should be told about its benefits. New courses related.to teaching physical education to children with special needs can be started.
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