Solution:Dutch established control over Java.
The colonial government introduced new forest laws according to which two-thirds of the forests were reserved. Shifting agriculture, hunting and collection of forest produce were banned. As a result, most people in forest villages were displaced without notice or compensation. Similarly, when the Dutch gained control of the forests in Java, they enacted forest laws restricting villagers' access to the forests. Villagers were punished if they were found grazing cattle, transporting wood without a permit, or travelling on a forest road with horse-drawn carriages or cattle.