In this article, we shall study concepts related to Basic Chemistry for class 11 students, like matter, moles, elements, molecules, and chemical properties of matter.
Chemistry is the science of molecules and their transformations associated with the study of matter, the changes matter undergoes, and its composition. It also describes the relationship between changes in energy and changes in composition. Principles of chemistry are applicable in diverse areas, such as weather patterns, production in chemical industries, functioning of the brain and operation of a computer, manufacturing fertilizers, acids, alkalis, salts, polymers, dyes, drugs, detergents, soaps, alloys, metals, etc.
Chemistry is important in meeting human needs for food, health care products, and many more. Here are the chemistry basics for beginners to easily understand the concepts in class 11 that evolve around the subject.
The syllabus consists of nine chapters that Infinity Learn demonstrates according to the CBSE standards:
- Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry
- Structure of Atom
- Classification of Elements & Periodicity in Properties
- Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure
- Chemical Thermodynamics
- Redox Reactions
- Basic Organic Chemistry
Understand how the basic concepts help students of class 11 across all the chapters and master them for higher scores.
Chapter 1: Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry
The unit deals with the general introduction explaining the importance and scope of chemistry. Students also get to know about:
- Nature of matter,
- Atomic and molecular masses,
- Laws of chemical combination
The basics of chemistry in this chapter include:
- Uncertainty in measurement
- Mole concept, molar mass & percentage composition
- Chemical reactions
- Empirical and molecular formula
- Stoichiometry and calculations
Chapter 2: Structure of Atom
The chapter explains:
- Discovery of electron, proton, and neutron
- Atomic models
- Isotopes and isobars
- Bohr’s model of the hydrogen atom
- Concept of orbitals and filling of electrons
- Electronic configuration of atoms
Chapter 3: Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties
The significance of classification with a brief history of the development of the periodic table is clearly a basic of chemistry that students cannot miss.
Also, the chapter includes modern periodic law along with s, p, d, f subshells, and the present form of periodic table along with periodic trends in properties of elements that include:
- Atomic radii
- Ionic radii
- Inert gas radii
- Ionization enthalpy
- Electron gain enthalpy
- Electronegativity and
Chapter 4: Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure
The unit covers the basics around:
- Valence electrons
- Lewis structure
- Polarity of bonds
- VSEPR theory
- Molecular orbital theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules
- Hydrogen bonding
- Bond parameters and
Also, browse the blog on the importance of Chemistry in everyday life.
Chapter 5: Chemical Thermodynamics
The concepts of systems and types of systems and applications are explained through this unit.
The basic concept in the chapter includes the first law of thermodynamics, cover.
- Internal energy and enthalpy
- Heat capacity and specific heat
- Measurement of ΔU and ΔH
- Hess’s law of constant heat summation
- Enthalpy of bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition, ionization, solution, and dilution.
Also, in class 11, students understand the second law of thermodynamics (brief introduction) and the Third law of thermodynamics (brief introduction) in this chapter. Gibb’s energy & equilibrium and spontaneity concepts are explained.
Chapter 6: Equilibrium
A wide range of topics, including equilibrium in physical and chemical processes, and the dynamic nature of equilibrium, are concentrated in this chapter.
The other significant concepts of chemistry are:
- Law of mass action
- Ionization of acids and bases
- Degree of ionization,
- Acid-base equilibria
- Buffer solutions
- Henderson equation
- Solubility equilibria of soluble salts.
Chapter 7: Redox Reaction
Here in this chapter, let’s understand the basics of inorganic chemistry, as the concepts are more important.
The concepts include:
- Oxidation and reduction
- Redox reactions for electrons
- Oxidation number
- Balancing redox reactions and
- Applications of redox reactions
Chapter 8: Organic Chemistry – Basic Principles and Techniques
The chapter covers an introduction, methods of purification, qualitative and quantitative analysis, and classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds.
Students also learn about electronic displacements in a covalent bond as a basic concept that includes electromeric effect, inductive effect, resonance, and hyperconjugation.
Also, a covalent bond’s Homolytic and heterolytic fission is explained as a concept covering free radicals, carbanions, carbocations, electrophiles and nucleophiles, and types of organic reactions.
Chapter 9: Hydrocarbons
The final unit is associated with hydrocarbons’ classification and comes under organic chemistry basics. There are 2 different types of hydrocarbons classified as Aliphatic and Aromatic hydrocarbons.
These are sub-divided into 3 categories and cover the concepts mentioned below:
- Alkanes – Nomenclature, isomerism, conformation (ethane only), physical properties, chemical reactions including free radical mechanism of halogenation, combustion, and pyrolysis.
- Alkenes – Nomenclature, double bond structure (ethene), geometrical isomerism, physical properties, preparation methods, chemical reactions: addition of hydrogen, halogen, water, hydrogen halides (Markownikov’s addition and peroxide effect), ozonolysis, oxidation, mechanism of electrophilic addition.
- Alkynes – Nomenclature, the structure of triple bond (ethyne), physical properties, methods of preparation, chemical reactions: acidic character of alkynes, addition reaction of – hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen halides, and water.
The second type of hydrocarbons is explained around the below concepts:
IUPAC nomenclature, benzene: resonance, aromaticity, chemical properties: mechanism of electrophilic substitution. Nitration, sulphonation, halogenation, Friedel Craft’s alkylation, and acylation, directive influence of the functional group in monosubstituted benzene. Carcinogenicity and toxicity.