NCERT Class 9 civics Chapter 5 (Extra Questions Social Science)
Working of Institutions Class 9 Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type Questions
The President of India is the highest formal authority in the _______ .
Prime Minister is the one who actually exercises all governmental powers and he is the head of the _______ .
Who exercises more powers in money matters?
The Lok Sabha
On August 13, 1990, the Government of India issued an office memorandum for 27% reservation for socially and educationally Backward classes in _______ .
Civil posts or services under Government of India
An institution where disputes between citizens and the government of India are finally settled, is _______ .
The Supreme Court
In India, a national assembly of elected representatives is called _______ .
An assembly of elected representatives at the state level is called _______ .
Legislative Assembly or Legislature
The President of India is a part of the Parliament, although he/she is not a _______ .
Member of either House
Our constitution gives the Rajya Sabha some special powers over :
In a democratic country like India there are two types of executives. They are _______ .
Political Executive and Permanent Executive
Name a government formed by an alliance of two or more political parties, usually when no single party enjoys majority support of the members in a legislature.
What is the full form of SEBC?
Socially and Economically Backward classes.
Who appoints the judges of the Supreme Court?
The President on the advice of the Prime Minister and in consultation with the chief Justice of the Supreme Court.
Who was the head of the Mandal Commission?
Who is the most important institution in the country?
The Prime Minister is the most important institution in the country.
What is the Parliament?
Parliament is the Supreme law—making body of India.
Name the two houses of the Parliament.
The two houses are—Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha.
Who is the Supreme Cammander of the defence forces of India?
The President is the Supreme Commander of the defence force of India.
What is meant by ‘Office Memorandum’?
A communication issued by an appropriate authority stating the policy or decision of the government.
What is the role of the President of India?
The President is the Executive head of the state and is the highest formal authority in the country.
What do you know about Mandal Commission?
Mandal Commission was asked to determine the criteria to identify the socially and educationally backward classes in India and recommend steps to be taken for their advancement.
Who have the power to interpret the Constitution of the country?
The Supreme Court and the High Court have power to interpret the constitution of the country.
Why does the political executive have more powers than the permanent executive?
It is because political executive consists of the direct representatives of the people.
Who were against Mandal Commission’s Recommendations?
Some of the people felt that this commission’s recommendations were quite unfair as it would deny equality of opportunity to those who did not belong to backward communities. They would be denied jobs even though they could be more qualified.
What do you understand by an executive?
At different levels of any government, we find functionaries who take day-to-day decisions but do not exercise supreme power on behalf of the people. All those functionaries are collectively known as the executive.
What do you mean by judiciary?
All the Courts at different levels in a country put together are called the judiciary.
What do you understand by public interest litigation?
Anyone can approach the courts if public interest is hurt by the actions of government. This is called public interest litigation.
Who are Cabinet Ministers?
Cabinet Ministers are usually top-level leaders of the ruling party or parties who are in-charge of the major ministries.
What do you understand by the term ‘Political Executive’?
The one that is elected by the people for a specific period, is called political executive.
What do you mean by ‘Permanent Executive’?
Permanent Executive members are appointed on a long-term basis. This category is also called civil services.
What is judicial review?
The Supreme Court and the High Courts can declare invalid any law or action of the legislature, if they find such a law or action is against the constitution. They can determine the Constitutional validity of any legislation or action of the executive in the country, when it is challenged before them. This is known as judicial review.
Working of Institutions Class 9 Extra Questions Short Answer Type Questions
The government issued an Order on 13 August, 1990. What was that Order?
On 13 August, 1990, the Government of India issued an Order. This Order announced a major policy decision. It said that 27 per cent of the vacancies in civil posts and services under the Government of India are reserved for the Socially and Educationally Backward Classes (SEBC). SEBC is another name for all those people who belong to castes that are considered backward by the government. The benefit of job reservation was till then available only to Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.
Why do we need Political Institutions?
Governing a country involves various activities. To attend to all these activities, several arrangements are made in all modern democracies. Such arrangements are called institutions. A democracy works well when institutions perform functions assigned to them. The Constitution of any country lays down basic rules on the powers and functions of each institution. All the major decisions are taken by these institutions. Institutions formulate various policies and programmes. Institutions are required to solve the disputes between the citizens and the government.
How are the delays and complications introduced by the institutions useful in a democracy?
Institutions involve rules and regulations. This can bind the hands of leaders. Institutions involve meetings, committees and routines. This often leads to delays and complications. Therefore, dealing with institutions can be frustrating. One might feel that it is much better to have one person take all the decisions without any rules, procedures and meetings. But, that is not the spirit of democracy. Some of the delays and complications introduced by institutions are very useful. They provide an opportunity for a wider set of people to be consulted in any decision. Institutions make it difficult to have a good decision taken very quickly. But, they also make it equally difficult to rush through a bad decision. That is why, democratic governments insist on institutions.
Why do the political executives have more power than the permanent executives?
It is due to the following reasons :
- The reason is very simple. In a democracy, the will of the people is supreme. The minister is elected by the people and thus empowered to exercise the will of the people on their behalf. He/She is finally answerable to the people for all the consequences of his/her decision. That is why, the minister takes all the final decisions.
- The minister decides the overall framework and objectives in which decisions on policy should be made. The minister is not, and is not expected to be, an expert in the matters of his/her ministry. The minister takes the advice of experts on all technical matters. But, very often, experts hold different opinions or place more than one option before him/her.
- Depending on what the overall objective is, the minister decides. Actually, this happens in any large organisation. Those who understand the overall picture, take the most important extra decisions, not the experts. The experts can tell the route, but someone with a larger view decides the destination. In a democracy, elected ministers perform this role.
What are three categories of ministers which constitute the council of Ministers?
Council of Ministers is the official name for the body that includes all the Ministers. It usually has 60 to 80 Ministers of different ranks.
- Cabinet Ministers are usually top-level leaders of the ruling party or parties who are in-charge of the major ministries. Usually, the Cabinet Ministers meet to take decisions in the name of the Council of Ministers. Cabinet is, thus, the inner ring of the Council of Ministers. It comprises about 20 Ministers.
- Ministers of State with independent charge are usually in-charge of smaller Ministries. They participate in the Cabinet meetings only when they are specially invited.
- Ministers of State are attached to and required to assist Cabinet Ministers. Since it is not practical for all Ministers to meet regularly and discuss everything, the decisions are taken in Cabinet meetings. That is why, parliamentary democracy in most countries is often known as the Cabinet form of government. The Cabinet works as a team. The Ministers may have different views and opinions, but everyone has to own up to every decision of the Cabinet.
Why is an independent and powerful judiciary considered essential for democracies?
We consider an independent and powerful judiciary necessary for democracies because of the following reasons :
- Settling disputes at national level.
- To judge the actions of the government.
- To give fair judgment that everyone will trust (in) To accept appeal of people.
Therefore, an independent and powerful judiciary is considered essential for democracies.
What does the independence of the judiciary mean?
Independence of the judiciary means that it is not under the control of the legislature or the executive. The judges do not act on the direction of the government or according to the wishes of the party in power. That is why, all modern democracies have courts that are independent of the legislature and the executive. The Indian Judiciary is one of the powerful in the world in the sense that it can declare law invalid if it is against the Constitution. The powers and the independence of the Indian judiciary allow it to act as the guardian of the Fundamental Rights.
How can you say that our judiciary is the guardian of the fundamental rights?
Our judiciary is the guardian of the fundamental rights :
- The citizens have a right to approach the courts to seek remedy in case of any violation of their rights. In recent years, the Courts have given several judgements and directives to protect public interest and human rights.
- Anyone can approach the courts if public interest is hurt by the actions of government. This is called public interest litigation.
- The courts intervene to prevent the misuse of the government’s power to make decisions.
- They check malpractices on the part of public officials. That is why, the judiciary enjoys a high level of confidence among the people. (Any three)
Who appoints the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers?
The Prime Minister is appointed by the President. But, he cannot appoint anyone he/ she likes. He/she appoints the leader of the majority party or the coalition of the parties that commands a majority in the Lok Sabha, as Prime Minister. In case, no single party or alliance gets a majority, the President appoints the person most likely to secure a majority support.
After the appointment of the Prime Minister, the President appoints other Ministers on the advice of the Prime Minister. The Ministers are usually from the party or the coalition that has the majority in the Lok Sabha. The Prime Minister is free to choose Ministers, as long as they are members of Parliament.
Who are the major functionaries in India?
The major functionaries in India are :
- President is the head of the state and is the highest formal authority in the country.
- Prime Minister is the head of the government and actually exercises all governmental powers. He takes most of the decisions in the cabinet meetings.
- Parliament consists of the President and two Houses, the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha. The Prime Minister must have the support of a majority of Lok Sabha members.
What is the importance of civil servants in running the government?
The civil servant is usually more educated and has more expert knowledge of the subject. The advisors working in the Finance Ministry know more about economics them the Finance Minister. Sometimes, the ministers may know very little about the technical matters that come under their ministry. This could easily happen in ministries like Defence, Industry, Health, Science and Technology, Mining, etc.
How is the President of India elected?
- The President is not elected directly by the people. The elected Members of Parliament (MPs) and the elected Members of the Legislative Assemblies (MLAs) elect him/her.
- A candidate standing for President’s post must get a majority of votes to win the election. This ensures that the President can be seen to represent the entire nation.
- The President can never claim the kind of direct popular mandate that the Prime Minister can. This ensures that he/she remains only a nominal executive.
What is the procedure for the removal of the judges?
The procedure for the removed of a judge is called an impeachment. An impeachment motion is passed separately by two-thirds members of the two Houses of the Parliament. Thus, the judges who are appointed by the President cannot be removed by the President alone. Both the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha must pass a resolution by two-thirds majority to remove a judge.
What makes the President ip India a nominal executive?
While the Prime Minister is the head of the government, the President is the head of the State. In our political system, the head of the State exercises only nominal powers. The president in India is only a nominal executive because :
- The President supervises the overall functioning of all the political institutions in the country so that they operate in harmony to achieve the objectives of the state.
- All the major decisions are taken by the Council of Ministers headed by the Prime Minister and the role of the President is only to accept it and sign it.
What was Mandal Commission? Why was it appointed? What were the major recommendations of this Commission?
- The Government of India had appointed the Second Backward Classes Commission in 1979. It was headed by B.R Mandal. Hence, it was popularly called as the Mandal Commission.
- It was asked to determine the criteria to identify the socially and economically backward classes in India and recommend steps to be taken for their advancement.
- The commission gave its report in 1980 and made many recommendations. One of these was that 27 per cent of government jobs be reserved for the socially and economically backward classes.
How does the President exercise his discretion?
When a party or coalition of parties secures a clear majority in the elections, the President, has to appoint the leader of the majority party or the coalition that enjoys majority support in the Lok Sabha.
When no party or coalition gets a majority in the Lok Sabha, the President exercises her discretion. The President appoints a leader who in her opinion can muster majority support in the Lok Sabha. In such a case, the President can ask the newly appointed Prime Minister to prove majority support in the Lok Sabha within a specified time.
Explain the process of appointment of a judge of the Supreme Court and the High Courts.
The process of appointment of a judge of the Supreme Court and the High Courts is as follows :
- The judges of the Supreme Court and the High Courts are appointed by the President on the advice of the Prime Minister and in consultation with the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. But, once appointed, they are free to pass judgment.
- In practice, the senior judges of the Supreme Court select the new judges of the Supreme Court and the High Courts. The senior most judge of the Supreme Court is usually appointed by the Chief Justice.
Describe some of the activities involved in governing a country.
Governing a country involves various activities. For example, the government is responsible for ensuring security to the citizens and providing facilities for education and health to all. It collects taxes and spends the money raised on administration, defence and development programmes. It formulates and implements several welfare schemes. Some persons have to take decisions on how to go about these activities. The others have to implement these decisions. It is also important that these activities keep taking place even if the persons in key positions change.
Working of Institutions Class 9 Extra Questions Long Answer Type Questions
Why do we need Parliament?
What are the various ways by which parliament exercises authority.
In India, a national assembly of elected representatives is called Parliament. It exercises political authority on behalf of the people.
- Parliament is the final authority for making laws in a country. This task of law-making or legislation is so crucial that these assemblies are called legislatures. Parliaments all over the world can make new laws, change existing laws, or abolish existing laws and make new ones in their place.
- Parliaments all over the world exercise some control over those who run the government. In some countries like India, this control is direct and full. Those who run the government, can take decisions only so long as they enjoy support of the Parliament.
- Parliaments control all the money that governments have. In most countries, the public money can only be spent when the Parliament sanctions it.
- Parliament is the highest forum of discussion and debate on public issues and national policy in any country. Parliament can seek information about any matter.
What are the powers and functions of the President of India?
The powers and functions of the President of India are given below :
- All governmental activities take place in the name of the President. All laws and major policy decisions of the government are issued in his/her name.
- All major appointments are made in the name of the President. These include the appointment of the Chief Justice of India, the Judges of the Supreme Court and the High Courts of the states, the Governors of the states, the Election Commissioners, ambassadors to other countries, etc.
- All international treaties and agreements are made in the name of the President.
- The President is the supreme commander of the defence forces of India.
- A bill passed by the Parliament becomes a law only after the President gives assent to it. If the President wants, He/she can delay this for sometime and send the bill back to the Parliament for reconsideration. But, if the Parliament passes the bill again, he/she must sign it.
What are the functions of the Supreme Court?
The functions of the Supreme Court are :
- It can take up any dispute between the citizens of the country. :
- It can take up any dispute between the citizens and government.
- It can take up any dispute between two or more state governments.
- It can take up any dispute between the governments at the Union and state level,
- It can determine the Constitutional validity of any legislation or action of the executive in the country, when it is challenged before them. This is known as the judicial review.
- The Supreme Court and the High Courts have the power to interpret the Constitution of the country. They can declare invalid any law of the legislature or the actions of the executive, whether at the Union level or at the state level, if they find such a law or action is against the Constitution. (Any five)
What are the functions and powers of the Prime Minister?
The Constitution does not say very much about the powers of the Prime Minister or the Ministers or their relationship with each other. But, as the head of the government, the Prime Minister has wide-ranging powers.
- He/she chairs Cabinet meetings. He/she coordinates the work of different Departments.
- His/her decisions are final in case of any disagreements arise between Departments.
- He/she exercises general supervision of different ministries. All the ministers work under his/her leadership.
- The Prime Minister distributes and redistributes work to the Ministers. He/she also has the power to dismiss Ministers. When the Prime Minister quits, the entire ministry quits.
- The Prime Minister controls the Cabinet and Parliament through the party.
What was the ‘Indira Sawhney and others Vs Union of India case’ and how was it settled?
Some persons and associations opposed to the order regarding the reservation of jobs for backward classes and filed a number of cases in the courts. They appealed to the courts to declare the order invalid and stop its implementation. The Supreme Court of India bunched all these cases together. This case was known as the ‘Indira Sawhney and others Vs Union of India case’.
Eleven judges of the Supreme Court heard arguments of both sides. By a majority, the Supreme Court judges in 1992 declared that this order of the Government of India was valid. At the same time, the Supreme Court asked the government to modify its original order. It said that well-to-do persons among the backward classes should be excluded from getting the benefit of reservation.
Accordingly, the Department of Personnel and Training issued another Office Memorandum on 8 September, 1993. The dispute thus came to an end and this policy has been followed since them.
How can you say that the Mandal Commission became a major issue in 1980 in India?
The Mandal Commission was the most hotly debated issue in the country in 1980 in India. Newspapers and magazines were full of different views and opinions on this issue. It led to widespread protests and counter protests, some of which were violent. People reacted strongly because this decision affected thousands of job opportunities. Some felt that existence of inequalities among people of different castes in India necessitated job reservations. They felt that this would give a fair opportunity to those communities who, so far, had not adequately been represented in government employment. While, others felt that this was unfair as it would deny equality of opportunity to those who did not belong to backward communities. Some felt that this would perpetuate caste feelings among people and hamper national unity.
What are the various ways by which parliament exercises authority. How is the Lok Sabha more powerful than the Rajya Sabha?
Describe the ways in which Lok Sabha is more powerful than Rajya Sabha.
Our Constitution does give the Rajya Sabha some special powers over the states. But, on most matters, the Lok Sabha exercises supreme power.
- Any ordinary law needs to be passed by both the Houses. But, if there is a difference between the two Houses, the final decision is taken in a joint session in which members of both the Houses sit together. Because of the larger number of members, the view of the Lok Sabha is likely to prevail in such a meeting.
- The Lok Sabha exercises more powers in money matters. Once the Lok Sabha passes the budget of the government or any other money-related law, the Rajya Sabha cannot reject it. The Rajya Sabha can only delay it by 14 days or suggest changes in it. The Lok Sabha may or may not accept these changes.
- Most importantly, the Lok Sabha controls the Council of Ministers. Only a person who enjoys the support of the majority of the members in the Lok Sabha is appointed as the Prime Minister. If the majority of the Lok Sabha members say they have ‘no confidence’ in the Council of Ministers, all ministers including the Prime Minister, have to quit. The Rajya Sabha does not have this power.