Geography Class 12 Important Questions Chapter 3 Population Composition

# Geography Class 12 Important Questions Chapter 3 Population Composition

## 1 Mark Questions

Questions 1. Why is the age structure considered an important indicator of population composition? Given one reason. (HOTS; Delhi 2016)

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Answer: Age structure is an important indicator of population composition because it tells about the proportion of population i.e. the percentage of the young and ageing population. This helps in planning for the future.

Questions 2. Why is the sex ratio in some European countries recorded favourable to females? Given one reason. Delhi 2016

Answer: In some European countries, females recorded a favourable sex ratio because women enjoy better socio-economic status.

Questions 3. Name the country where the sex ratio is most unfavourable to women in the world. All Indio 2016

Answer: A country, where the sex ratio is most unfavourable to women, is UAE as there are 468 females per 1000 males.

Questions 4. What is the average sex ratio in the world? All India 2016

Answer: The average sex ratio in the world is 990 females per 1000 males.

Questions 5. Give the meaning of ‘Age structure’. (All Indio 2014,2013)

Answer: The age structure of the population refers to the number of people of different age groups residing in a country.

Questions 6. How is sex ratio calculated in different countries of the world? Delhi 2013

Answer: In some countries the sex ratio is calculated by using a formula:

$$\frac { Male\quad Population }{ Female\quad Population } \times 1000$$

Or the number of males per thousand females.

In India, the sex ratio is calculated by using a formula:

$$\frac { Female\quad Population }{ male\quad Population } \times 1000$$

Or the number of females per thousand males.

Also Check: CBSE Class 12 Date Sheet 2024 Out

Questions 7. Give the meaning of Age-sex structure of a population. (All India 2013)

Answer: The age-sex structure of a population refers to the number of females and males in different age groups.

Questions 8. Define the term ‘sex ratio’. (Delhi 2012)

Answer: The ratio between the number of women and men in the population is called the sex ratio.

Questions 9. Name the country having the highest sex ratio in the world. (All Indio 2012, Delhi 2010)

Answer: The country has the highest sex ratio in the world is Latvia.

Questions 10. Which country has the lowest sex ratio in the world? (Delhi 2011,2008)

Answer: A country having lowest sex ratio in the world is the United Arab Emirates.

Questions 11. Which ag” group of population indicates the largest working population? (All India 2008)

Answer: The age group of population indicating the working population is 15 to 59 years.

## 3 Marks Questions

Questions 12. Divide the population of the world into two groups on the basis of residence. How do they differ from each other? Explain any two points of difference. (Delhi 2011)

Answer: Depending upon the place of residence, the population of a country is divided into two groups:

1. Rural population Characteristics of Rural Population

(a) People living in villages are known as the rural population. The main occupation of rural people is primary activities i.e. hunting, fishing, mining, agriculture, agricultural labour, etc.

(b) Majority of the world’s population reside in rural areas but the density of population is low.

2. Urban population Characteristics of Urban Population

(a) People living in towns and cities are known as an urban population. Urban people are engaged in secondary or tertiary occupations i.e. manufacturing, public and private services, transport and communication fields, etc.

(b) Urban areas have a very high density of population as more job opportunities lead to the in-migration of people.

Questions 13. What do you understand by the occupational structure? Name the specific economic activities or occupational categories as identified by the United Nations? (Delhi 2011)

Answer: Occupational structure refers to the proportional distribution of people under specific economic activities. These activities are as follows:

• Agriculture, forestry, hunting and fishing
• Mining and quarrying
• Manufacturing industry
• Construction
• Electricity
• Unclassified occupations
• Commerce
• Transportation and Communication

There is another group which is not engaged in any economic activity and is also not the part of the active population i.e. children below the working age, old people, housewives and students. There is another classification of occupational structure which is divided into following four major groups:

• Primary activities such as hunting and agriculture.
• Secondary activities such as manufacturing.
• Tertiary activities such as service sector i.e. transport, communication, etc.
• Quaternary activities such as intellectual tasks i.e. research and development activities.

Questions 14. Why is sex ratio unfavourable to women in the world? Explain any three reasons. (HOTS; All Indio 2011)

Answer: The sex ratio is important information about the status of women in a country in a region where gender discrimination is rampant. The sex ratio is bound to be unfavourable to women.

Reason for unfavourable sex ratio for women are as follows:

1. Sex ratio is always unfavourable to women in those countries where gender discrimination is rampant.
2. In such countries or areas, the practice of female foeticide, female infanticide and domestic violence against women are common practices.
3. The main reason for such practices is that women suffer from lower socio-economic status in general and societies are male-dominating in particular.

## 5 Marks Questions

Questions 15. What is the sex ratio? Explain the world pattern of sex ratio with suitable examples. (All India 2015)

Answer: The ratio between the number of women and men in the population is called the sex ratio.

The world pattern of sex ratio is described as under:

1. On average, the world population reflects a sex ratio of 990 females per 1000 males. Highest sex ratio is recorded in Latvia i.e. 1187 females per 1000 males while the lowest is recorded in UAE i.e. 468 females per 1000 males.
2. The pattern of sex ratio does not exhibit variation in the developed region of the world. It is favourable for females in 139 countries and unfavourable in the remaining 72 countries.
3. Many Asian countries have low sex ratios like China, India, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan and Afghanistan that points to low socio-economic status and lower sex ratio of women.
4. Many European countries have a high sex ratio where females outnumber males. This deficit is attributed to a better status of women and excessively male-dominated out-migration to different parts of the world in the past.

Questions 16. What is the sex ratio? Why is sex ratio unfavourable to women in some countries of the world? Explain any four reasons. (All Indio 2010)

Answer: For sex ratio, The ratio between the number of women and men in the population is called the sex ratio.

The world pattern of sex ratio is described as under:

1. On a rage, the world population reflects a sex ratio of 990 females per 1000 males. Highest sex ratio is recorded in Latvia i.e. 1187 females per 1000 males while the lowest is recorded in UAE i.e. 468 females per 1000 males.
2. The pattern of sex ratio does not exhibit variation in the developed region of the world. It is favourable for females in 139 countries and unfavourable in the remaining 72 countries.
3. Many Asian countries have low sex ratio like China, India, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan and Afghanistan that points to low socio-economic status and lower sex ratio of women.
4. Many European countries have a high sex ratio where females outnumber males. This deficit is attributed to better status of women and excessively male dom male-dominated action to different parts of the world in the past.

Sex ratio is unfavourable to women in some countries due to the following reasons:

1. Gender discrimination In many countries of the world, there is widespread gender discrimination. Males are given more preference than females and enjoy greater rights and privileges.
2. Female foeticide Due to gender discrimination, females are not preferred. This results in evil practices like female foeticide, females infanticide, etc which causes unfavourable sex ratio.
3. Low socio-economic status Females have to face social discriminations due to which they are not economically independent or are paid less as compared to males. This lowers their status in society.
4. Domestic violence Low social status also leads to domestic violence like mental and physical tortures. This also leads to unfavourable sex ratio in many countries.

Questions 17. Describe the rural and urban population composition of the world with examples. (Delhi 2009)

Answer: The division of rural and urban population is based on the occupational structure, socio-economic level and level of development. The figure below presents the rural-urban composition of the population:

• The population composition of rural and urban areas of developed and developing countries are different.
• In developed countries like Canada, Finland, New Zealand and other West European countries females outnumber males in urban areas. Females settle in urban areas to avail the vast job opportunities and as farming is highly mechanised, it remains largely a male occupation in rural areas.
• In developing countries like Pakistan, Nepal and other Asian countries, urban areas remain male dominated due to predoa dominance of male migration. Also, female participation in agriculture is fairly high in these countries. Shortage of jobs, housing and lack of security in cities discourage women to migrate from rural to urban areas.

## Value Based Questions

Questions 18. “Population ageing is the process by which the share of the older population becomes proportionally larger. This is a new phenomenon of the 20th century.

In most of the developed countries of the world, the population in higher age groups has increased due to increased life expectancy. With a reduction in birth rates, the proportion of children in the population has declined.”

(i) What leads to population ageing?

(ii) Which value is required while taking care of the ageing population?

(i) Increased life expectancy leads to population ageing.

(ii) Values which are required to take care of the ageing population are:

• Nursing spirit
• Dedication
• Sacrifice

Questions 19. “Proportion of literate population of a country is an indicator of its socio-economic development as it reveals the standard of living, the social status of females, availability of educational facilities and policies of a government. Level of economic development is

both a cause and consequence of literacy”.

(i) What a literate population indicate?

(ii) Which value you have learnt from the given statement?