Physical Education Class 12 Important Questions Chapter 7 Test and Measurement in Sports

# Physical Education Class 12 Important Questions Chapter 7 Test and Measurement in Sports

Physical Education Class 12 Important Questions Chapter 7 Test and Measurement in Sports

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Question 1.
What is a test in sports?
Test in sports means content knowledge, fitness levels, motor skills as well as attitudes and feelings required for the particular sport.

Question 2.
What is the meaning of the term ‘measurement’ in sports?
Measurement is a specific score given by an expert every time on applying a test. Each score tells about the use of a test once. Every time a test is used, it must have its score called measurement.

Question 3.
What is Slaughter-Lohman Children Skinfold test?
Slaughter – Lohman Children Skinfold is a standard test used to measure the body fat in children under the age group 6-17 years. In this test, the skin in the triceps and calf region is measured and then the measurement is inserted into a formula to know the level of body fat.

Question 4.
Name the tests which we use for cardiovascular fitness.
The tests which we use for cardiovascular fitness are the Harvard Step Test and Rockport Test.

Question 5.
Calculate the Physical Fitness Index for a 12-year-old boy having completed Harvard Step Test for a duration of 3 min and a pulse rate of 54 beats for 1 to 1.5 min, 50 beats for 2 to 2.5 min and 46 beats for 3 to 3.5 min.
Physical Fitness Index
\begin{aligned} &=\frac{\text { Duration of exercise in seconds } \times 100}{2 \times \text { Sum of pulse counts in recovery }} \\ &=180 \times 100 / 2 \times(54+50+46)=60 \end{aligned}

Question 6.
Calculate the Physical Fitness Index using a short formula for a 12-year-old boy having completed the Harvard Step Test for a duration of 3 minutes and a pulse rate of 54 beats for 1 to 1.5 minutes. (CBSE Model Question Paper 2015)
Physical Fitness Index (short formula)
= (100 x test duration in seconds) divided by (55 × pulse count between 1 and 1.5 minutes)
= 100 × 180/5.5 × 54= 60.6

Question 7.
Which motor quality does a senior citizen lack who finds difficulty in tying the shoelaces while sitting on a chair? (CBSE Model Question Paper 2015)
The senior citizen lacks lower body flexibility.

Question 8.
Your grandmother feels she has reduced her upper body flexibility and therefore she wants to test herself. Which test would you suggest to her? (All Indio 2017; CBSE Delhi 2015)
I would suggest to my grandmother to take the Back Scratch Test for upper body flexibility under the Rikli and Jones Senior Citizen Fitness Tests.

Question 9.
Which test would you suggest for your grandmother to test lower body flexibility? (All Indio 2015)
I would suggest the Chair Sit and Reach Test for my grandmother to test lower body flexibility.

Question 10.
How can the body fat percentage be computed?
The body fat percentage can be computed through finding out the Body Mass Index (BMI) which is a measure of body fat calculated on the basis of height and weight.

3 Marks Questions

Question 11.
List the six items of ‘AAHPER’ motor fitness test.
The six items of ‘AAHPER’ motor fitness test are

• Pull-ups (for boys)/Flexed arm hang (for girls)
• Flexed leg sit-ups
• Shuttle run
• Standing long jump
• 50-yard dash
• 600-yard run-walk

Question 12.
What is General Motor Fitness? How can it be measured?
General motor fitness is an athlete’s general ability to perform different motor skills without getting too much fatigued. There are three tests to measure general motor fitness

1. Standing Broad Jump This test measures the explosive leg power. If the athlete is fit and has explosive strength then he can use leg power to jump forward. By this test, the fitness of lower limbs is measured.
2. Zig-Zag Run This test measures the agility of the athletes as they are required to run through the zig-zag path created by placing cones. Athletes are not supposed to touch or knock the cones while running.
3. Medicine Ball Put This test measures the arm and shoulder girdle explosive strength. The athletes are required to throw the medicine ball with specific weight as far as possible. For boys it is 5 kg, for girls it is 1 kg.

Question 13.
Explain the Rockport Test. (All India 2017)
The Rockport Test tells us about the aerobic fitness of an individual. In this test, the time taken to finish the walk, exercising heart rate, body mass, age and gender are noted. These parameters are inserted in an equation to predict aerobic fitness.
The Rockport Test is performed on a 400-metre standard track. After walking for one mile, the heart rate is measured at the wrist for 15 seconds immediately after completion. The actual heart rate is determined by multiplying that number by 4. The time taken to complete the 1 mile is converted to the nearest hundredth of a minute. ‘

Question 14.
Give the names of the tests designed by Rikli and Jones for senior citizen fitness and state what each test is used to test.
The tests designed by Rikli and Jones for senior citizen fitness are

• Chair Stand Test for lower body strength.
• Arm Curl Test for upper body strength and endurance.
• Chair Sit and Reach Test for lower body flexibility.
• Back Scratch Test for upper body flexibility.
• Eight Foot Up and Go Test for coordination and agility.
• Six’Minute Walk Test for aerobic fitness and endurance.

Question 15.
What is the usefulness of the Back Scratch Test for senior citizens?
The usefulness of the Back Scratch Test for senior citizens is to assess the upper body ‘ flexibility, particularly, the shoulders. The . shoulder stretch is a simple flexibility test to determine if the hands can be brought together behind the back particularly the shoulders. This test is part of the fitness programme as an alternative to the back saver sit and reach test.

Question 16.
Describe in detail ‘Eight Foot Up and Go Test’ for agility.
OR
Explain the procedure for Eight Foot Up and Go Test. (All Indio 2016)
The Eight Foot Up and Go Test is a coordination and agility test for the elderly. The purpose of this test is to measure speed, agility and balance while moving: The procedure is

1. Place the chair next to a wall for safety and the marker 8 feet in front of the chair. Clear the path between the chair and the marker.
2. The subject should start fully seated, hands resting on the knees and feet flat on the ground.
3. On the. command -go’, the stopwatch is started and the subject stands and walks (no running is allowed) as quickly as possible as to and around the cone, returning to the chair to Sit down
4. The score is the better time of two trials to the nearest l/10th sec.

Question 17.
Describe the purpose and procedure of the Six Minute Walk Test for aerobic endurance.
Purpose This test measures aerobic fitness and endurance of senior citizens. Procedure The walking course is laid out in a 50 yard (45.72 m) rectangular area (dimension 45 x 5yards) with cones placed at regular intervals to indicate distance walked. The aim of this test is to walk as quickly as possible for six minutes to cover as much ground as possible. Subjects are to set their own pace (a preliminary trial is useful to practise pacing) and are allowed to stop for a rest if they desire.

5 Marks Questions

Question 18.
Describe the Kraus Weber Test in detail.
OR
Explain the procedure for conducting the Kraus Weber Test for measuring minimum muscular strength. (Delhi 2015)
The Kraus Weber Test is a test of minimum muscular fitness of the various muscles of the body. The test consists of six items which indicate the level of muscular strength and flexibility of key muscle groups. Usually, the scoring of each item is graded either on pass/fail basis or a range of scoring from zero to ten. A subject’s grade of zero means that the subject has failed in a particular test item; score ranges from one to ten are for subjects who pass these test items.

The six tests are

• Test 1 tests the strength of the abdominal and psoas muscles.
• Test 2 tests the strength of the abdominal muscles.
• Test 3 tests the strength of the psoas muscles.
• Test 4 tests the strength of the upper back.
• Test 5 tests the strength of the lower back.
• Test 6 tests the strength of the back and hamstring muscles.

Question 19.
Explain the AAHPER physical fitness test.
The AAHPER (American Alliance for Health, Physical Education and Recreation) youth fitness test was formed in 1965 in United States, but was revised in 1976. Later, dance was also added and it was known as AAHPERD.
The students are advised to warm up before they participate in the test. All the students must be medically fit.

This test has the following six items

• Pull-ups (for boys) / Flexed arm hang (for girls) to measure arm and shoulder strength.
• Flexed leg sit-ups to measure abdominal strength and endurance.
• Shuttle runs to measure speed and agility.
• 50-yard dash to measure speed.
• 600-yard run-walk to measure endurance.

Question 20.
Explain the measurement of cardiovascular fitness Harvard Step Test.
OR
What is the Harvard Step Test? Mention the equipment required to perform it and explain its procedure. (Delhi 2016)
The Harvard Step Test is a test that measures cardiovascular fitness. The equipment required to perform the test are bench 20 inches high, stopwatch and metronome. The procedure is that the performer steps up and down 30 times a minute on the bench. Each time the subject should step all the way up on the bench with the body erect. The stepping exercise continues for exactly 5 minutes unless the performer is forced to stop sooner due to exhaustion.

As soon as he stops exercising, the performer sits on a chair quietly while pulse rates are counted at 1 to I ‘A, 2 to 2 ‘/i and 3 to VA minutes after the exercise. The Physical Fitness Index (PFI) is computed using the formula

Question 21.
How the cardiovascular fitness is measured with the help of ‘Harvard Step Test’? Write in detail about its administrative procedure. (All Indio 2016)
OR
Explain in brief ‘The Harvard Step Test.’ (All India 2015)
‘Harvard Step Test’ is a test to measure cardiovascular fitness with the help of a 20 inch high bench, a stopwatch and a metronome.
The administrative procedure of this test is given below The performer steps up and down 30 times a minute on the bench. Each time the subject should step all the way up on the bench with the body erect.

The stepping process is performed in four parts in the following sequence

• One foot is placed on bench.
• The other foot is placed on bench.
• One foot is placed on the floor.
• The other foot is placed on the floor.

The performer may lead with either foot and can change as long as the four parts of the test are maintained. The stepping exercise continues for exactly 5 minutes, unless the performer is forced to stop sooner because of exhaustion. As soon as he stops exercising, the performer sits on a chair
quietly while pulse rates are counted 1 to $$1 \frac{1}{2}, 2$$ to $$2 \frac{1}{2}$$, and 3 to $$3 \frac{1}{2}$$ minutes after the exercise.
A Physical Fitness Index (PFI) is computed, utilising the following formula

Question 22.
Describe the procedure for administering the Rikli and Jones Senior Citizen Fitness Test. (CBSE 2014)
The-Rikli and Jones Senior Citizen Fitness Test for assessing the functional fitness of older adults describes easy to understand and effective tests to measure aerobic fitness; strength and flexibility using minimal and inexpensive equipment.
These test items involve common activities such as getting up from a chair, walking, lifting, binding and stretching.
The tests were developed to be safe and enjoyable for older adults while still meeting scientific standards for reliability and validity.

The tests are

• Chair Stand Test – testing lower body strength
• Arm Curl Test – testing upper body strength
• Chair Sit and Reach Test – testing lower body flexibility test
• Back Scratch Test – testing upper body flexibility test
• Eight Foot Up and Go Test – testing agility test
• Six-minute Walk Test – aerobic fitness and endurance

Question 23.
Explain the Arm Curl Test for upper body strength for senior citizens.
The Arm Curl Test is a test of upper body strength. The purpose of this test is to measure upper body strength and endurance. The subject has to do as many arm curls as possible in 30 sec. This test is conducted on the dominant arm side (or stronger side).
Its procedure is

1. The subject sits on the chair holding the weight (8 pounds for men / 5 pounds for women) in the hand using a suitcase grip (palm facing towards the body) with the arrriin a vertically down position beside the chair.
2. The upper arm is held close to the body so that only the lower arm is moving.
3. The subject curls the arm up through a full range of motion, gradually turning the palm up (flexion with supination)
4. Then the arm is lowered through the full range of motion, gradually return to the starting position. The arm must be fully bent and then fully straightened at the elbow.
5. Repeat this action as.many times as possible within 30 sec.
6. The score is the total number of controlled arm curls performed in 30 sec.

Question 24.
Describe the measurement of flexibility using the Chair Sit and Reach Test.
OR
Explain the procedure of Chair Sit acrid Reach Test for senior citizens. ‘
The Chair Sit and Reach Test is part of the senior fitness test protocol and is designed to test the functional fitness of seniors.
Purpose This test measures lower body flexibility.
Equipment Required Ruler, a chair with straight back or folding chief \seat 17 inch/44 cm high).
Procedure The subject sits bn the chair placed against a wall for safety.

One foot must remain flat pn the floor. The other leg is extended forward with .the knee s traight, heel touching the floor, with ankle bent at 90°. Place one hand on top of’the other with tips of the middle fingers even, exhale and reach forward towards the toes by bending at the hip. Keep the back straight and head up.

Avoid bouncing or quick movements and never stretch to the point of pain. Keep the knee straight and hold the reach for 2 sec. The distance to be measured is between the finger tips and the toes. If the fingertips touch the toes then the score is zero. If they do not touch, measure the distance between the fingers and the toes (a negative score); if they overlap, measure by how much (a positive score). Perform two trials and record the better score. .

Question 25.
What are the six test items of the Kraus Weber muscular strength test?
The six test items of the Kraus Weber muscular strength test are given below

1. Abdominals Plus Psoas (hip flexing) Muscles The subject lies supine with hands behind the neck. The feet are held by the examiner. On command, the subject rolls up into a sitting position. This is a test of the strength of abdominal and psoas muscles. If the subject performs one sit-up then passes otherwise score remains zero.
2. Abdominals Minus Psoas The subject lies supine, hands behind neck and knees bent. On command, the subject tries to roll up into a sitting position. This is a further test of abdominal muscles without psoas. Scoring is like test 1.
3. Psoas or P The subject lies supine with hands behind the neck and legs extended. On command, the feet are lifted 25 cms (10 inches) above the ground and maintained for ten seconds. This is a test for the strength of psoas and lower abdominal muscles. Scoring depends on the number of seconds the exact position is held.
4. Upper Back or UB The subject lies prone with a pillow under the abdomen but far enough down to give a see-saw effect. He holds his hands behind the neck. The examiner holds down the feet and asks the subject to raise up his chest, head and shoulders and maintain the position for ten seconds. This test is for the strength of the upper back muscles. Scoring is like test 3.
5. Lower Back or LB The subject lies prone over the pillow and places his hands in front and rests his head on them. The examiner holds the chest down and asks the subject to lift his legs up without bending the knees and maintain the position for ten seconds. This is a test for the strength of the lower back muscles. Scoring is like test 3.
6. Back and Hamstring or BH The subject stands erect with his hands at sides and feet together. On command, he leans down slowly to touch the floor with his fingertips. The knees are kept straight and the leaning down position is maintained for ten seconds. No bouncing is allowed to touch. This tests the length of back and hamstring muscles and is a test of flexibility. Scoring is like the above tests.

Value Based Questions

Question 26.
While taking medicine by Rony’s grandfather, a pill was dropped which slipped under the bed. The old man was not able to bend down. Seeing this, Rony quickly picked up the pill from under the bed and also poured a glass of water to his grandpa to swallow the pill.
(i) What values are shown by Rony?
(it) Which test can be suggested to measure the fitness of grandpa?
(iii) Who prepared the physical fitness tests for elderly people?
(i) The values shown by Rony are helpful, kindness, care and respect for the elderly.
(ii)The test that can be suggested is Chair Sit and Reach Test as it measures lower body flexibility.
(iii) The tests for the elderly were prepared by Rikli and Jones. That is why these tests are called Rikli and Jones Senior Citizen Fitness Test.

Question 27.
After failing in the pull-up activity, the sports teacher advised Arun not to loose hope as five other tests were remaining. He also advised Arun and other students to do proper warm up before their participation.
(i) Which test is being talked about in this question? Name its parts.
(ii) What values are shown by the sports teacher?
(i) The test is AAHPER (American Alliance for Health, Physical Education and Recreation).
Its parts are as follows

• Pull-ups (for boys) / Flexed arms hang (for girls)
• Flexed leg sit-ups
• Shuttle run
• Standing long jump
• 50-yard dash

(ii) 600-yard run-walk.
(iii) The values shown by the sports teacher are commitment and excellence. The teacher shows care, dedication and also motivates the students.

1 Mark Questions
Question.1. What is a test in sports?
Answer. In scientific terms, test means an instrument to be used for measuring anything. It may be running, walking etc. (for fitness testing)

Question.2. What is the meaning of the term ‘measurement’ in sports?
Answer. Measurement is a specific score given by an expert every time on applying a test. Each score tells about the use of a test once. Every time a test is used, it must have its score called measurement.

Question.3. Write the formula for calculating cardiovascular fitness in Rockport test.
Answer. The formula for calculating cardiovascular fitness is

Question.4. We generally use Harvard step test for cardiovascular fitness. In this test how do we calculate the physical efficiency index (PEI)?
Answer. In the Harvard step test for cardiovascular fitness, the physical efficiency index

Question.5. Name the tests which we use for cardiovascular fitness?
Answer. The tests which we use for cardiovascular fitness are Harvard step test and Rockport one mile test.

Question.6. Which motor quality does a senior citizen lack who finds difficulty in tying the shoe laces while sitting on a chair?
Answer. The senior citizen lacks lower body flexibility.

Question.7. Calculate the Physical Fitness Index for a 12 year old boy having completed Harvard step test for a duration of 3 min and a pulse rate of 54 beats for 1 to 1.5 min, 50 beats for 2 to 2.5 min and 46 beats for 3 to 3.5 min.

3 Marks Questions
Question.8. List the six items of ‘AAHPER’ motor fitness test.
Answer. The six items of ‘AAHPER’ motor fitness test are

1. Pull-Ups for boys/Flexed arm hang for girls
2. Flexed leg sit ups
3. Shuttle run
4. Standing long jump
5. 50 yard dash
6. 600 yard run-walk

Question.9. What parts of the body do each of the Kraus Weber tests of fitness test?
Answer. The Kraus Weber test consists of following six tests

• Test 1 tests the strength of the abdominal and psoas muscles.
• Test 2 tests the strength of the abdominal muscles.
• Test 3 tests the strength of the psoas muscles.
• Test 4 tests the strength of the upper back.
• Test 5 tests the strength of the lower back.
• Test 6 tests the strength of the back and hamstring muscles.

Question.10. Give the names of the tests design by Rikli and Jones for senior citizen fitness and state what each test is used to test.
Answer. The tests design by Rikli and Jones for senior citizen fitness are

1. Chair stand test for lower body strength.
2. Arm curl test for upper body strength and endurance.
3. Chair sit and reach test for lower body flexibility.
4. Back scratch test for upper body flexibility.
5. Eight foot up and go test for coordination and agility.
6. Six minute walk test for aerobic fitness and endurance.

Question.11. Describe the purpose and procedure of six minute walk test for aerobic endurance.
Answer. Purpose This test measures aerobic fitness and endurance of senior citizens.
Procedure The walking course is laid out in a 50 yard (45.72 mt.) rectangular area (dimension 45×5 yards) with cones placed at regular intervals to indicate distance walked. The aim of this test is to walk as quickly as possible for six minutes to cover as much ground as possible. Subjects are to set their own pace (a preliminary trial is useful to practice pacing) and are able to stop for a rest if they desire.

Question.12. Which test will you conduct for lower body strength of senior citizens and what is its procedure?
Answer. We will conduct the Chair Stand Test for lower body strength of senior citizens. Its procedure is ,

1. Place the chair against a wall or otherwise stabilise it for safety. The subject sits in the middle of the seat with his feet shoulder width apart, flat on the floor. The arms are to be crossed at the wrists and held close to the chest.
2. From the sitting position, the subject stands completely up, then completely back down and this is repeated for 30 sec. Count the total number of complete chair stands (up and down equals one stand).

Question.13. Describe in detail ‘Eight foot up and go test for agility’.
Answer. The eight foot up and go test is a coordination and agility test for the elderly. The purpose of this test is to measure speed, agility and balance while moving. The procedure is,

1. Place the chair next to a wall (for safety) and the marker 8 feet in front of the chair. Clear the ( path between the chair and the marker.
2. The subject should start fully seated, hands resting on the knees and feet flat on the ground.
3. On the command ‘Go’, the timing is started and the subject stands and walks (no running is allowed) as quickly as possible as to and around the cone, returning to the chair to sit down.
4. The score is the better time of two trials to the nearest 1/10th of a sec.

Question.14. Explain the Arm Curl Test for upper body strength for senior citizens.
Answer. The Arm Curl Test is a test of upper body strength. The purpose of this test is to measure upper body strength and endurance. The subject has to do as many arms curls as possible in 30 sec. This test is conducted on the dominant arm side (or stronger side). Its procedure is

1. The subject sits on the chair holding the weight (8 pounds for men / 5 pounds for women) in the hand using a suitcase grip (palm facing towards the body) with the arm in a vertically down position beside the chair.
2. The upper arm is placed against the body so that only the lower arm is moving (the tester may assist to hold the upper arm steady).
3. The subject curls the arm up through a full range of motion, gradually turning the palm up (flexion with supination).
4. Then the arm is lowered through the full range of motion, gradually return to the starting position. The arm must be fully bent and then fully straightened at the elbow.
5. Repeat this action as many times as possible within 30 sec.
6. The score is the total number of controlled arm curls performed in 30 sec.

Question.15. What is the usefulness of back scratch test for senior citizens?
Answer. The usefulness of the back scratch test for senior citizens is to assess the upper body flexibility, particularly the shoulder. This is important in performing various items of daily routine like combing one’s hair, putting on garments requiring to be worn from over the head, reaching for a seat belt etc.

Question.16. Explain the procedure of the Chair sit and Reach Test for senior citizens.
Answer. The procedure for the Chair Sit and Reach Test is

1. The subject sits on the edge of the chair (placed against a wall for safety). One foot must remain flat on the floor. The other leg is extended forward with the knee straight, heel touching the floor, with ankle bent at 90°.
2. Place one hand on top of the other with tips of the middle fingers even, exhale and reach forward towards the toes by bending at the hip. Keep the back straight and head up.
3. Avoid bouncing or quick movements and never stretch to the point of pain. Keep the knee straight and hold the reach for 2 sec.
4. The distance to be measured is between the finger tips and the toes. If the finger tips touch the toes, the score is zero. If they do not touch, measure the distance between the fingers and the toes (a negative score); if they overlap, measure by how much (a positive score).
5. Perform two trials and record the better score to the nearest 1/2 inch or 1 cm as the distance reached, either as a negative or positive score. Record which leg was used for measurement.

Question.17. Regular physical activities cannot stop the clock of ageing; but definitely it can slow the process. Justify.
Answer. Regular exercise can delay the ageing process, as, by regular exercise, all the body functions are working properly and blood supply to all the organs improves the efficiency of an individual. Regular exercise also makes muscles strong. Regular exercise delays the ageing process by

1. Increasing the heart rate and stroke volume.
2. Increasing the cardiac output.
3. Increase in the size of lungs and the heart.

5 Marks Questions
Question.18. Describe the Kraus Weber Test in detail.
Answer. The Kraus Weber Test is a test of minimum muscular fitness of the various muscles of the body. The test consists of six items which indicate the level of muscular strength and flexibility of key muscle groups.
Usually the scoring of each item is graded either on pass/ fail basis orarange of scoring from zero to ten. A subject’s grade of zero means that the subject has failed in’a particular test item; score ranges from one to ten are for subjects who pass these test items. The six tests are

• Test 1 tests the strength of the abdominal and psoas muscles.
• Test 2 tests the strength of the abdominal muscles.
• Test 3 tests the strength of the psoas muscles.
• Test 4 tests the strength of the upper back.
• Test 5 tests the strength of the lower back.
• Test 6 tests the strength of the back and hamstring muscles.

Question.19. Explain AAHPER physical fitness test.
Answer. The AAHPER (American Alliance for Health, Physical Education and Recreation) youth fitness test was formed in 1965 in United States, but was revised in 1976. This test was administered on school students of 17 years of age.
The students are advised to warm up before they participate in the test. All the students must be medically fit. This test has the following six items

1. Pull ups (for boys) / Flexed arm hang (for girls) to measure arm and shoulder strength.
2. Flexed leg sit ups to measure abdominal strength and endurance.
3. Shuttle run to measure speed and agility.
5. 50 yard dash to measure speed.
6. 600 yard run-walk to measure endurance.

Question.20. Explain the measurement of cardiovascular fitness Harvard step test.
Answer. The procedure is that the performer steps up and down 30 times a minute on the bench. Each time the subject should step all the way up on the bench with the body erect. The stepping exercise continues for exactly 5 min, unless the performer is forced to stop sooner due to exhaustion.
As soon as he stops exercising, the performer sits on a chair quietly while pulse rates are counted at 1 to
1 1/2, 2 to 2 1/2 and 3 to 3 1/2 min after the exercise. The Physical Efficiency Index (PEI) is computed using the formula :

Question.21.Describe the measurement of flexibility using the Chair sit and reach test.
Answer.The Chair sit and reach test is part, of the senior fitness test protocol, and is designed to test the functional fitness of seniors

• Purpose This test measures lower body flexibility.
• Equipment Required Ruler, straight back or folding chair (seat 17 inch/ 44 cm high).
• Procedure The subject sits on the edge of the chair placed against a wall for safety.

One foot must remain flat on the floor. The other leg is extended forward with the knee straight, heel touching the floor, with ankle bent at 90°. Place one hand on top of the other with tips of the middle fingers even, exhale and reach forward towards the toes by bending at the hip. Keep the back straight and head up.
Avoid bouncing or quick movements and never stretch to the point of pain. Keep the knee straight and hold the reach for 2 sec. The distance to be measured is between the finger tips and the toes. If the finger tips touch the toes then the score is zero. If they do not touch, measure the distance between the fingers and the toes (a negative score); if they overlap, measure by how much (a positive score). Perform two trials and record the better score.

Question.22. Write about the measurement of cardiovascular fitness Rock port test.
Answer. The Rock port one mile walk test tells us about the aerobic fitness of an individual. In this test, the time taken to finish the walk, exercising heart rate, body mass, age and gender are noted. These parameters are inserted in an equation to predict aerobic fitness.
The Rock port one mile walk test is performed on a 400 m standard track. After walking for one mile, the heart rate is measured at the wrist for 15 sec immediately after completion. The actual heart rate is determined by multiplying this number by 4. The time taken to complete the 1 mile is converted to the nearest hundredth minute. The calculation of VO2 is done with the help of the equation:

Question.23. Describe the procedure for administering the Rikli and Jones Senior Citizen Fitness Test.
Answer. The Rikli and Jones Senior Citizen Fitness Test for assessing the functional fitness of older adults describes easy to understand and effective tests to measure aerobic fitness, strength and flexibility using minimal and inexpensive equipment. The individual fitness test items involve common activities such as getting up from a chair, walking, lifting, bending and stretching. The tests were developed to be safe and enjoyable for older adults while still meeting scientific standards for reliability and validity. The tests are

1. Chair Stand Test – testing lower body strength
2. Arm Curl Test – testing upper body strength
3. Chair sit and Reach Test – lower body flexibility test
4. Back Scratch Test – upper body flexibility test
5. 8 Foot Up and Go Test – agility test
6. Walk Test (6 min) or Step in Place Test (2 min) – The Walk Test is used to assess aerobic fitness; however, if the person uses orthopedic devices when walking or has difficulty balancing, they do the Step in Place Test.

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